Municipal Development Counselling (MUDEC) Group .:: MUDEC GROUP ::.
  • Our Mission

    • Reducing poverty in our municipalities through encouraging gender equality and increasing citizen (End User) participation in democratic and governance processes.

Addendum National Gender Policy of Cameroon

               MUnicipal DEvelopment Counselling Group

(MUDEC – Group)

Authorization SW/GP/29/02/2346

Enhancing development through responsive governance

Box 340 Buea   Tel: (237) 677 64 94 30 / 694 34 43 52

     Email: mudecgroup@yahoo.com/mudecgroup@gmail.com         www.mudecgroup.org

Date: 15th September 2014.

 

To whom it may Concern

Within the Framework of the Composition and Functioning of Gender Committees at the level of Local Councils in Cameroon, the Institutional Framework on page 64 of the National Gender Policy calls for the Divisional Officer to be the presiding official.

Based on field realities in our local context, MUDEC Group (a Buea based Local Capacity Builder) which has sufficient expertise in gender issues and currently facilitating the implantation of Gender Committees in Local Councils within the South West Region, proposes that the highest elected female within the council should coordinate the activities of the Gender Committee at the council level.

This will ensure effective representation of the aspirations of women and youth during an elected mandate of five (05) years within each municipality. It will further enable beneficiaries of council services to link up directly with local decision makers.

The elected female official should make periodic reports to the Divisional Officer in each sub-division in order to assure better coordination and realization of the felt needs of women, youth and other underprivileged persons in each municipality.

This document is submitted in favour of the smooth functioning of Gender Committees in Local Councils.

Sincerely submitted,

Mr. Charlie Mbonteh,

Team Leader, MUDEC Group – Buea.

“Empower people such that they can hold their leaders more accountable and responsive”

 

 


Human Rights of Women

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MUDEC Group & Collaborate on Gender Mainstreaming since 2010

MUDEC Group & Collaborate on Gender Mainstreaming since 2010.
In 2005, MUDEC Group was contracted by the Local Government Training Centre (CEFAM) to conduct a Gender Audit of Local Councils, Supervisory Authorities and Partners in Cameroon. The main objective was to highlight the functioning of local councils within the context of decentralization, identify gender gaps and propose recommendations to close these gaps. Based on the validated findings at CEFAM campus in 2006, an action plan was elaborated which amongst others called for the search of development partners whose agenda also focuses on gender mainstreaming. Within this framework and since October 2010, MUDEC Group which is a Local Capacity Builder (local Support Organization) and a Service Provider with a niche in participatory processes in development has been collaborating with the European Union (EU) on various aspects of gender mainstreaming within the ongoing decentralization process in local councils within the South West Region in Cameroon.
Specifically, MUDEC secured assistance from the EU Civil Society Restructuring Program (PASOC) for implementation of the Project to Institutionalize Gender Responsive Budgeting (GRB) in six (06) pilot councils within the South West Region. These councils included Buea (Fako Division), Kumba I (Meme Division), Ekondo Titi (Ndian Division), Menji (Lebialem Division), Nguti (Kupe Mwanenguba Division) and Tinto (Manyu Division). Key activities included the organization of Popular Gender Audits (advocacy and lobbying) that resulted in the adoption of Municipal Deliberations bearing on GRB in 2011.
As a follow-up, MUDEC secured further assistance from the EU sponsored Civil Society Strengthening Program (PASC) in 2013 after a participatory project was jointly elaborated by female elected officials (decision makers) and beneficiary groups of council services to add value and up-the-stakes of gender mainstreaming in local councils. The project to Institutionalize Financing for Gender Equality (F4GE) in councils of South West Region was implemented from December 2013 to May 2015 with key activities included to conduct a study on the rate of implementation of Municipal Deliberations, document the findings and propose strategies for addressing identified gaps.
 Objectives of the study:
i) To ascertain the degree of implementation of Municipal Decisions bearing on GRB in pilot councils.
ii) To determine the challenges encountered by councils in engendering their budgets.
iii) To propose solutions to identified gaps.
 The Scope (6 councils) : Persons reached included Mayors, Female Deputy Mayors, Committee Chairpersons, and Councilors, Secretaries General, Female Municipal Treasurers, Female Development and Finance Agents, Finance Officers, Beneficiaries of Council Services, Council collaborators including MINPROFF, MINEPAT, MINAS, MINADER… etc.
 Findings :
a) What Council Authorities say that they do in terms of GRB is not what is practiced (process and consultations).
b) Councils do not have Gender Disaggregated Data on planning, implantation, monitoring & evaluation of council activities. Basic gender information is limited to Women Day, Labour Day, Youth Holiday Employment, Scholarships to Youths.
c) Council staff do not master the skills to engender the budget (see Mayors’ Action Plans, & munities of issues raised during committee deliberations)
d) Key collaborators / partners (MINPROFF, MINEPAT, MINAS, and PNDP) do not insist on Gender Disaggregation for council activities. They either lack the knowledge or the will. They might even be gender blind.
e) Beneficiaries of council activities are either unaware or nonchalant on the need to track the gender composition of council activities.
 Major concerns from the field:
 Challenges to access information from Councils and Supervisory Authorities.
 Train Non State Actors (women, youth, and persons with disabilities) on how to make use of the recently created Administrative Courts to seek redress to gender gaps.
 The need for a minimum qualification for being a Councillor / Mayor.
 Proposed Suggestions :
1) Create & Support Functional Women Foundations for Inclusive Governance (WOFIG) in all municipalities in the region. These foundations will sustain the sensitization of the population and maintain regular advocacy for GRB in councils.
2) Hold regular consultations (may be quarterly) between the Council Executive, SG, MT, and executives of WOFIG. The objectives will centre on planning, review and evaluation of GRB.
3) Create & maintain a data base on Council Funding for Gender Equality.
4) Develop a Draft Gender Policy for Local Councils & submit to competent organizations such as UN Women, MINPROFF, for deliberations and ultimate submission to the House of Senate for adoption.
Based on the findings, MUDEC Group and Partners engaged activities designed to implement proposed suggestions 1 and 3 above. Precisely, MUDEC Group facilitated the formation and functioning of Gender Platforms in councils of the region. These platforms included Gender Committees as mandated in the National Gender Policy of Cameroon and Women Foundations for Inclusive Governance (WOFIG). The former platform comprises all female councilors and strategically placed male councilors who have since been coached on reviewing the council budget with a gender lens before it is presented on the floor for deliberation and adoption. The latter platform comprises grass root women of all socio cultural and professional backgrounds who have been coached on advocacy and lobbying for the inclusion of their felt needs into the annual council budget deliberations. Several councils have expressed the desire for inclusion into the program while MUDEC solicits further collaboration from other partners active in practical gender mainstreaming.

MUDEC raises the Bar on the GRB Agenda in Councils.
MUDEC and UN Women agree to move the GRB Agenda form Theory in Workshops to Advocacy & Lobbying in the field. Between March 2013 and February 2014, the UN Women in New York collaborated with MUDEC Group to effectively put the gender equation on the decision making tables of local councils in the South West Region of Cameroon. The project supported was light enough to fly but heavy enough for impact. T-shirts, fliers and placards carrying various messages on the felt needs of women and youth were produced and disseminated , ICT and social media tools were engaged bringing together University and High School students through GRB Yahoo groups and text message contacts. Thousands of women and youths participated in Popular Public Manifestations designed to heighten awareness on the need to use the council budget as a gender planning and project realization tool. (please see final report on F4GE on publications on this site).

MUDEC & Kombo Itindi Council (KIC) Further Collaboration.
Mudec and the KIC have been working since the early days of decentralization..
 The Communal Development Plan (CDP), the Midterm Expenditure Framework (MITEF) and the Annual Investment Plans (AIP) are products of this long standing partnership which have also nurtured building the capacities of Community Based Organizations (CBO), Faith Based Organizations (FBO), Socio-professional women and youth groups, persons living with special needs.
 Solicitation & Provision of Felt Humanitarian Goods to Widows, widowers, street children especially girls, children of HIV/AIDS / Tuberculosis..
 The KIC and MUDEC are on a convention to seek way and means of securing assistance for the needy within the municipality..


Report on Financing Gender Equality (F4GE)

PASC is a European Union Program jointly Co-Financed with the Government of
Cameroon.
ANNEX VI
FINAL NARRATIVE REPORT
1. Description___________________________________

1.1. Name of beneficiary of 2rant contract: Municipal Development Counselling (MUDEC) Group, Buea. South West Region.
1.2. Name and title of the Contact person: Charlie Mbonteh, Team Leader
1.3. Name of partner in the Action: Youth Alliance for Democracy & Development (YADD).
1.4. Title of the Action: Track II Project to Institutionalize Gender Responsive Budgeting in Councils of the South West Region.
1.5. Contract number: (237) 677 64 94 30 / 694 34 43 52.
1.6. Start date and end date of the action: 17th December 2013 to 17th May 2015.
1.7. Target country (ies) or reeion(s): South West Region, Cameroon.
1.8. Final beneficiaries &/or tarset srouns1 (if different) (including numbers of women The final beneficiaries for this action constitute grass root populations including women, men, boys, girls, young & single mothers, widows, widowers, the elderly, and persons living with disabilities, members of socio-cultural and professional groups. On the other hand, the target groups for this action constitute local decision makers including elected officials such as Mayors, Councilors and Parliamentarians as well as appointed officials including Heads of Government Technical Services (GTS) within the region. In total, the action directly reached more than 1.500 persons (90% females). A further breakdown reveal that 85% of persons directly reached were final beneficiaries while about 15% of persons directly reached constitute target groups for this action. Indirectly, more than ten thousand (10.000) persons have been reached through radio announcements, newspaper articles, television & video coverage and announcements in Churches and socio cultural and professional meetings. Word of mouth between grass root populations has also contributed in widening the reach of project activities.
1.9 Country (ies) in which the activities take place (if different from 1.7): The Same
“Target groups” are the groups/entities who will be directly positively affected by the project at the Project
Purpose level, and “final beneficiaries” are those who will benefit from the project in the long term at the
level of the society or sector at large.
and men):
January 2012
2. Assessment of implementation of Action activities – -__________________________
2.1. Executive summary of the Action:
Please give a global overview of the Action’s implementation for the whole
duration of the project. This project represented an up scaled version of a previous project supported by the EU sponsored PASOC between 2010 and 2011. The overall objective of this project is to increase accountability in financing for gender equality in councils of the South West Region of Cameroon. Specifically, the project sought to improve the technical capacities of councils to integrate output budgeting; strengthen the capacities of women groups to monitor and enforce output based budgeting in councils and lastly to develop a data base on council financing for gender equality. In order to attain its objectives, several key activities were organized during project implementation. Firstly, a Gender Responsive Budgeting (GRB) study was conducted in six (06) pilot councils that had adopted Municipal Deliberations bearing on GRB in their municipalities within the framework of the PASOC funding. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the degree of implementation of GRB in these pilot councils as well as identify the gaps and challenges encountered by councils in the discharge of the GRB initiative. The findings of the study were restituted and validated by project target groups and target beneficiaries in all six pilot councils. Based on the recommendations of the study, three (03) Gender Public Squares (GPS) were organized in Bangem (Kupe Mwanenguba Division), Limbe (Fako Division) and Kumba (Meme Division). There were thirty (30) participants invited to each GPS with the main objective to share the findings of the GRB study and to put in place some of the recommendations. A major result from the organization of the GPS was the creation of fourteen (14) Gender Platforms including seven (07) Women Foundations for Inclusive Governance (WOFIG) and seven (07) Gender Committees. In each participating council for the GPS, a WOFIG and a Gender committee was created. Members of each gender platform include elected officials (target groups for this action) as well as grass root populations (target beneficiaries for this action). This is a novelty in that decision makers as well as beneficiaries share a common platform on which to design strategies that benefit gender mainstreaming. Another result from the organization of the three GPS was the adoption of lobbying strategies to advocate for Municipal Deliberations bearing on GRB in the participating councils. Elected Officials in all participating councils have taken a commitment to adopt Municipal Deliberations bearing on GRB. During the recently held Administrative Accounts Sessions (April & May 2015), Bangem, Kumba n, and Kumba III Councils have adopted the deliberation while the sessions for Limbe I, n, and HI Councils are being awaited probably in June 2015. It is of interest to note here that MUDEC group and partner (YADD) also organized a GRB result sharing activity with students of the Departments of Women & Gender Studies, Anthropology, Sociology and Accounting of the University of Buea. This activity was not sponsored by PASC but was engaged with the objective to sensitize potential council staff on the necessity for GRB in councils. More than five hundred (500) students and staff were reached during this one day expose.
January 2012 Page 2 of 11 * During project implementation, more than two hundred (200) copies of the National Gender Policy in Cameroon were disseminated after a careful review of its institutional framework in which the Divisional Officer is the Chairperson of the Local Gender Committee. Female councillors and their partners proposed and adopted an addendum in which the female Deputy Mayor should chair the committee and gave regular briefings to the Divisional Officer in each Sub-division. All project activities were given wide visibility in local newspapers and other media houses. A sign board was planted in Bangem as added value for proximity visibility. MUDEC and YADD have also contributed press releases with pictures to PASC and REACHOUT (South West Relay Organization) to benefit newsletters produced by both organizations. MUDEC will also upload project activities on our website upon the completion of operations. In the area of institutional functioning, MUDEC benefited from PASC proximity auditors who tremendously added value to our financial reporting. In this light, MUDEC successfully and timely engaged all project activities and related expenditures.
2.2. Activities and Results: Please list all the activities in line with annex 1 of the contract since the last interim report if any or during the reporting period.
Activity 1:
Organized a Gender Public Square (GPS) in Limbe with 30 participants (29 females) on
3rd March 2015. Participants included all female councillors and the Secretaries General in Limbe I, II, and III Councils, representatives of key sectors such as MINPROFF (including Women Forum), MINAS and MINEPAT. The activity was moderated by VISHGECAM Trainers with close monitoring from MUDEC and YADD. The consultant presented findings from the GRB study that was conducted in six (06) pilot councils as well as highlighted the recommendations which constituted the basis for the organization of the GPS in Limbe. The Member of Parliament for the Fako East Constituency (Hon. Gladys Etombi) was present and took very active interest during the entire activity. Participants listened to several presentations such as the findings from the GRB Study and recommendations, the council budget process and strategies for integrating GRB in Councils.
Result 1: Creation of functional Gender Platforms called LIMBE Women Foundation for Inclusive Governance (LIMBEWOFIG) in Limbe I, n, and III Councils with competent focal persons. LIMBEWOFIG members include female councillors, representatives of sociocultural as well as professional groups in each municipality. The main objective of LIMBEWOFIG is to sensitize grass root populations on the functioning of their local councils with focus on engendering all activities executed by the council. LIMBEWOFIG membership is open and will continue to grow based on the level of sensitization carried out by the executive members.
Result 2: Creation of Gender Committees in Limbe I, H, and in Councils. This result is in line with the dictates of the National Gender Policy of Cameroon 2011 to 2020 which was elaborated by officials of MINPROFF in consultation with international partners in Cameroon. The main task of the Gender Committee is to ensure that proposed budgetary allocations by the council are gender sensitive. The institutional framework for the National Gender Policy calls for the Divisional Officer to Chair Local Gender Committees, however to
January 2012 Page 3 of 11 ensure the smooth functioning, participants adopted an addendum which will enable the female Deputy Mayor to chair meetings and offer regular briefings to the Divisional Officer. Hon. Gladys Etombi (M.P. for Fako East Constituency) promised to highlight this addendum during subsequent discussions with her colleagues.
Result 3: Creation of a Gender Steering Group in Limbe, whose members comprise representatives of the Gender Committees of each council in Limbe. The main task of this steering group is to articulate the aspirations of the gender committees at the city level where the decision making authorities are beyond the level of the Mayor. The Steering Group in Limbe is headed by Mrs. Eyere Takor who is a councillor (Chairperson of the Social Committee of Limbe I Council) and a seasoned educationist in Limbe. An action plan or roadmap for the steering group was elaborated and adopted by participants.
Result 4: The knowledge base of council authorities and women groups on GRB increased and the commitment to engender the council budget engaged. The key actors in the elaboration of the council budget are Mayors and Secretaries General. Their presence and commitment to closely collaborate with women groups through gender platforms will ensure that the GRB agenda is firmly maintained on the decision making table of council authorities.
Result 5: Action Plans for Gender Committees and Gender Steering Groups elaborated and adopted. Ensuring a follow-up of this action plan will assure effective gender actions within each municipality.
Result 6: Increased Synergy between the Councils of Limbe and the Member of Parliament for Fako East Constituency. This is the first time that these two structures have come together to discuss practical strategies for collaboration. Pro-activity on the part of female councillors will bring immense gains to their grass root populations.
Result 7: Elaboration & Adoption of Municipal Deliberations bearing on GRB assured. The Deputy Mayors were resolved to advocate and lobby for the adoption of Municipal Deliberations in their councils. The Secretaries General promised to facilitate this initiative if instructed by their Mayors. Drafts for the elaboration of Municipal Deliberations as well as lobbying strategies were provided to all participants.
Activity 2:
Organized a Gender Public Square (GPS) in Kumba with 30 participants (24 females)
on 4th March 2015. Participants included all female councillors and the Secretaries General in Kumba I, n, and III Councils, representatives of key sectors such as WEC (MINPROFF), MINADER, MINAS and MINEPAT. The Kumba Local Transporters Union was also invited. The activity was moderated by VISHGECAM Trainers with close monitoring from MUDEC and YADD. The consultant presented findings from the GRB study that was conducted in six (06) pilot councils as well as highlighted the recommendations which constituted the basis for the organization of the GPS in Kumba. The Member of Parliament for the Kumba Urban Constituency was invited but could not attend. Participants listened to several presentations such as the findings from the GRB study and recommendations, the council budget process and strategies for integrating GRB in Councils.
Result 1: Creation of functional Gender Platforms called KUMBA Women Foundation for Inclusive Governance (KUMBAWOFIG) in Kumba I, II, and ID Councils with competent focal persons. KUMBAWOFIG members include female councillors, representatives of socio-cultural as well as professional groups in each municipality. The main objective of KUMBAWOFIG is to sensitize grass root populations on the functioning of their local councils with focus on engendering all activities executed by the council. KUMBAWOFIG membership is open to all development actors in Kumba and will continue to grow based on the level of sensitization carried out by the executive members.
January 2012
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Result 2: Creation of Gender Committees in Kumba I, n, and III Councils. This result is in line with the dictates of the National Gender Policy of Cameroon 2011 to 2020 which was elaborated by officials of MINPROFF in consultation with international partners in Cameroon. The main task of the Gender Committee is to ensure that proposed budgetary allocations by the council are gender sensitive. The institutional framework for the National Gender Policy calls for the Divisional Officer to Chair Local Gender Committees, however in order to ensure the smooth functioning, participants adopted an addendum which will enable the female Deputy Mayor to chair meetings and offer regular briefings to the Divisional Officer.
Result 3: Creation of a Gender Steering Group in Kumba, whose members comprise representatives of the Gender Committees of each council in Kumba including the Alternate Member of Parliament for Kumba Urban Constitutency (Mrs. Nnoko Lilian). The main task of this steering group is to articulate the aspirations of the gender committees at the city level where the decision making authorities are beyond the level of the Mayor. The Steering Group in Kumba is headed by Mrs. Bertha Tazi who is a councillor of Kumba III Council and the Vice Principal of GTHS, Kumba. An action plan or roadmap for the steering group was elaborated and adopted by participants.
Result 4: The knowledge base of council authorities and women groups on GRB increased and the commitment to engender the council budget engaged. The key actors in the elaboration of the council budget are Mayors and Secretaries General. The presence and commitment of Secretaries General including their close collaboration with women groups through gender platforms will ensure that the GRB agenda is firmly maintained on the decision making table of councils.
Result 5: Action Plans for Gender Committees and Gender Steering Groups elaborated and adopted. This action plan, if properly executed will assure effective gender actions within each municipality.
Result 6: Elaboration & Adoption of Municipal Deliberations bearing on GRB assured. The Deputy Mayors were resolved to advocate and lobby for the adoption of Municipal Deliberations in their councils. The Secretaries General promised to facilitate this initiative if instructed by their Mayors. Drafts for the elaboration of Municipal Deliberations as well as lobbying strategies were provided to all participants. Kumba II and III Councils recently adopted Municipal Deliberations bearing on GRB. The deliberation had been adopted in Kumba I Council in 2012.

Activity 3:
Reproduction and Dissemination of 200 copies of the National Gender Policy in
Cameroon to development actors, Local Authorities and Non State Actors in the South
West Region. More than 200 copies (hard) and several hundreds more (soft) copies of the National Gender Policy in Cameroon were disseminated within the region. Specifically, copies were given to Members of Parliament, Council Authorities, and female councillors, sector heads including MINEPAT, MINAS, MINADER, MINPROFF, and Women Empowerment Centres.
Result 1: Institutional framework made widely available thus improving knowledge on the composition and functioning of Gender Committees at the council level. Participants were coached during the GPS on the spirit of the policy document and practical strategies were developed to ensure smooth functioning of the committees.
January 2012
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Activity 4:
Project activities widely disseminated through newspapers, television, radio, signboards,
announcements through Churches, socio cultural and professional meetings, the internet
and website, Key project activities such as the organization of GPS in Limbe and Kumba were published in the Eden and Post Newspapers which are the prominent national newspapers in English. The GPS that was organized in Kumba was also videotaped and distributed to HiTV in Buea and KMTV in Kumba. The dissemination of the National Gender Policy was also published in the Eden Newspaper. Several press releases were dispatched to local radio stations in Buea, Limbe and Kumba. A sign board was planted in Bangem as added value for proximity visibility.
Result 1: Project activities widely communicated and highly visible to the general public in a sustained manner. 2.3 All planned activities were executed. 2.4 The overall project objective is to increase accountability in financing for gender equality. Specifically, the project sought to: a) Improve the technical capacities of local councils to integrate result indicators into planning and budgeting. b) Strengthen the capacities of women foundations to monitor and enforce Output Based Budgeting (OBB) in councils. c) Develop a data base on the amount of council financing for gender equality and the short fall in funding to address gender gaps and needs. During the organization of the Gender Public Squares (GPS) in Bangem, Limba and Kumba, council staffs were coached on gender mainstreaming. This improved their knowhow (skills) or technical capacities to integrate results indicators into their planning and budgeting. This is evident by the several tools and guidelines that were made available and analyzed in plenary as well as in groups. The testimonies of key staff who are implicated in planning and budgeting including Mayors and Secretaries General also indicate their appreciation of knowledge acquired thus assuring the realization of the project’s first specific objective listed above. Similarly, the GPS facilitated the creation of several gender platforms which were coached and provided with action plans designed as roadmaps for follow-up. The creation of these gender platforms with practical action plans offers beneficiaries of council services opportunities to work together and be proactive and engaging with council authorities. The capacities of women groups to enforce OBB in their councils have been tremendously strengthened through the implantation of gender platforms as well as through newly acquired knowledge on lobbying and advocacy. Through the dissemination of the National Gender Policy in Cameroon within the region, women group have been sensitized on the institutional framework for Gender Committees which reinforces its legality. This has contributed in strengthening the resolve of Gender Committee members who have promised to be engaging with council authorities. The last objective relates to the availability of information on financing for gender equality. Tools have been developed and disseminated. The Gender Platforms (through their action plans) will be proactive and engaging such that council staff will collect gender disaggregated data which will be analyzed, made public and shared among women groups and other development actors on periodic basis. A potential risk that we encountered during project execution was the possibility of project abandonment primarily due to prolonged late disbursement of funds from the Contracting Authority (PASC). The original project duration was ten (10) months from 17 December 2013
January 2012 Page 6 of 11 to 17th October 2014. This risk was neutralized by an agreement between PASC and MUDEC for an extension of the project to 17th May 2015. This enabled the successful completion of project activities despite the immense pressure of pre-financing by MUDEC. 2.5 What has been the outcome? a) Two (02) Gender Platforms with proactive members (Women Foundations for Inclusive Governance or WOFIG and Gender Committees) have been created and provided with practical action plans in Bangem, Kumba I, II, III, Limbe I, II, and III Councils. b) Gender Steering Groups have been established in Kumba and Limbe to ensure the affective coordination of project gains at the city level. c) Commitment of council authorities to increase financing for gender equality through the elaboration and adoption of Municipal Deliberations bearing on Gender Responsive Budgeting in Bangem, Kumba I, H, ID, Limbe I, n, and III Councils. d) Improved collaboration between the Member of Parliament, Government Technical Services (MINPROFF, MINADER, MINAS, MINEPAT), female councillors and representatives of women and youth groups and socio-professional groups. 2.6 Please list all materials produced during the course of the project. a) Newspaper coverage of project activities b) Video coverage of project activities c) Reports on the Study on Gender Responsive Budgeting in six (06) pilot councils in the South West Region. d) Reports on the Gender Public Squares (GPS) organized in Bangem, Limbe and Kumba. e) Two (02) Interim Narrative Reports. f) One (01) Final Narrative Report. g) Financial justifications for the entire project period. h) Signboard in Bandem. i) Banners used during Gender Public Squares (GPS). 2.7 N/A. 2.8 Describe if the action will continue after the support from the EU… Yes, the action will definitely continue after the support from the EU which certainly was a jump-starter. Since their election into the current mandate (2013 to 2018), female councillors have been longing for knowledge on concrete strategies to enable them lobby and advocate for council financing for gender equality. This project supported by EU (PASC) has offered just that opportunity through the creation of gender platforms with action plans, also the linkages with the Members of Parliament and the networks with key government sectors will ensure continuity of project gains. By taking commitments through the elaboration and adoption of Municipal Deliberations bearing on Gender Responsive Budgeting, the councils will continue to plan and budget for gender related activities. Gender Committees will remain vigilant, proactive and engaging with council authorities. The Micro Project Fund that is managed by Members of Parliament will also focus on gender related activities in municipalities. Joint planning and budgeting for gender equality programs will be enforced in these municipalities and probably emulated elsewhere. Finally, MUDEC and project partner (YADD) will continue to solicit collaboration from other organizations to replicate these project gains in other councils within the South West Region and beyond.
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2.9 Explain how the action has mainstreamed cross cutting issues such as gender /
HR. This project is a gender based venture. Through its design and implementation the action is gender focused. The action has supported the creation of gender platforms and empowered them with skills and tools to lobby, monitor and enforce gender mainstreaming in their councils. The action has facilitated the elaboration and adoption of Municipal Deliberations bearing on Gender Responsive Budgeting in Councils. This is a policy document (a commitment) and effective follow-up will definitely increase gender mainstreaming. Finally, the action has tremendously sensitized and awakened female and male councillors on the need to plan and budget for gender equality thus reducing poverty and enhancing gender mainstreaming.
2.10 How and by whom have the activities been monitored / evaluated
summarize., the results of the feedback received including from the beneficiaries. The Contracting Authority has made several monitoring visits through which several adjustments were made including the change of locations for the organization of Gender Public Squares (GPS). The Contracting Authority also made available proximity auditors who tremendously improved MUDEC and YADD capacities in financial reporting. The PASC relay organization also made monitoring visits. The beneficiaries have made several testimonies on the practical methodology of project execution reason why several follow-up meetings have been realized. The target group (local decision makers) have committed to the ideals of the project thus acknowledging the value added in their plan of work through project execution.
2.11 What has your organization / partner learned from the action and how
has this learning been utilized and disseminated? a) Joint planning between the target group (local decision makers) and final beneficiaries is more sustainable than each working separately. b) Gender Platforms at grass roots and policy levels will build synergy that could ensure effective mainstreaming of gender in local councils. c) Adoption of Gender Policies (possible quotas) will enhance commitment and action for gender equality. MUDEC Group is currently executing activities geared toward building the capacities of locally elected officials on their Roles and Responsibilities (R & R) within the South West Region. Within this framework, MUDEC has facilitated the creation of gender platforms in Tombel, Mbonge, Tiko, Ekondo Titi, Mundemba, Wabane, Tinto and Toko Councils. Women Foundations for Inclusive Governance (WOFIG) and Gender Committees have been constituted in these locations and we hope to implant same in all councils of the region in collaboration with the United Cities and Councils of Cameroon, South West Chapter.
January 2012 Page 8 of 11
3. Partners and other Co-operation
3.1. How do you assess the relationship between the formal partners of this Action
(i.e. those partners which have signed a partnership statement)? Please provide
specific information for each partner organisation: The project has two partners who conceived the project and are closely implicated in the execution. MUDEC and YADD meet regularly to deliberate on the way forward. MUDEC was the project holder who was highly involved in negotiations with local stakeholders as well as management of daily operations while YADD was highly engaged in sensitization, monitoring and reporting of project activities.
3.2. Is the partnership to continue? How… if not Why not? MUDEC and YADD have a long history of partnership. This relationship is ongoing and will continue as we are already designing follow-up actions to replicate these project gains in other municipalities.
3.3. How would you assess the relationship between your organisation and State
authorities in the Action countries? How has this relationship affected the
Action? Local Council Officials and Supervisory Authorities were adequately sensitized by project partners (MUDEC and YADD) in close collaboration with female councillors and other influential women in each of the participating councils. All Mayors and Secretaries General gave maximum support to project activities and many of them actively participated during plenary as well as group exercises. All female councillors are heavily implicated in the action especially as the objectives and ideals of the project are in line with their aspirations. Female councilors are either members or coordinators of Women Foundations for Inclusive Governance (WOFIG) or Gender Committees in their councils. The female Deputy Mayor in each council is the chairperson of the Gender Committee which also has the Finance Committee Chairperson of each council as a member. This strategic inclusion of key decision makers into these gender platforms has increased the possibilities for the realization of concrete and sustainable gender sensitive actions. Their abilities to lobby council authorities on gender responsive budgeting have increased. This is visibly through the commitment (within a short time) to elaborate Municipal deliberations bearing on Gender Responsive Budgeting in councils. The installation of the gender platforms by the Mayor represents a commitment for engagement which the project beneficiaries will certainly exploit.
3.4. Where applicable, describe your relationship with any other organisations
involved in implementing the Action:
• Final Beneficiaries and Target groups: Please see 3.3 above.
• Other third parties involved (including other donors, other government
agencies or local government units, NGOs, etc). There is a positive relationship between the project partners and council authorities. The involvement of key sectors including MINEPAT, MINAS, MINADER and MINPROFF from the inception of the project has improved the possibility for sustained inclusion of project gains into their planning and budgeting.
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3.5. Where applicable, outline any links and synergies you have developed with
other actions.
 Women Foundations for Inclusive Governance (WOFIG) in Limbe has incorporated the Member of Parliament for Fako East (Hon. Etombi Gladys) who as Special Adviser has indicated the availability of her office to the service of the gains of this project.
S Mayors of seven (07) councils including Limbe I, II, ID, Kumba I, II, III and Bangem have taken commitments to enhance inclusive governance within their municipalities beginning with the adoption of Municipal Deliberations bearing on GRB in their councils.
 MUDEC and YADD have deposited copies of the National gender Policy to the Regional Office of United Cities and Councils in Cameroon (UCCC / SW). We intend to engage the bureau to sign an MOU bearing on GRB in all councils of the region.
 In all MUDEC trainings of councillors on their Roles and Responsibilities (R & R), we include the creation of Women Foundations for Inclusive Governance (WOFIG) and the creation of Gender Committees in line with the National Gender Policy in Cameroon.
 We are working on collaborative agreements with several institutions of higher learning in Buea on Gender Responsive Budgeting (GRB) as a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).
 MUDEC is collaborating with CHAMEG-SBI (another PASC beneficiary) on linkages between the Public Investment Budget (PIB), the Communal Development Plan (CDP) and Gender Responsive Budgeting (GRB). Findings from this initiative will be widely disseminated.
 We have disseminated more than 200 copies of the National Gender Policy in Cameroon to several development actors in the region including MINPROFF, MINAS, MINADER and MINEPAT.
 We have disseminated copies of working documents produced during the course of this project to HiTV in Buea, Christian Broadcasting Radio (CBS) in Buea, Radio Banakanda in Buea, Ocean City Radio (OCR) in Kumba, Lakeside Radio in Kumba, EDEN Radio in Limbe and Ocean City Radio (OCR) in Limbe. These media houses will continuously sensitize local development actors on the gains of the project with focus on inclusive governance in the South West Region^
3.6. If your organisation has received previous EU grants in view of strengthening
the same target group, in how far has this Action been able to build
upon/complement the previous one(s)? (List all previous relevant EU grants). MUDEC Group benefited from PASOC in 2010 and 2011. The main result of the PASOC funded project was to adopt Municipal Deliberation bearing on GRB in 6 pilot councils of the South West Region of Cameroon. PASC has added value by facilitating the identification of the gaps and challenges faced by council authorities in engendering their budgets. PASC has also built the capacities of council authorities to collect, update and disseminate gender disaggregated data which will enable them to measure results and impact of their budgets. Another added value has been to improve the capacities of women groups to enforce gender budgeting in councils through the formation of functional WOFIG as well as Gender Committees. MUDEC & YADD intend to facilitate the creation of these platforms in all councils within the region. The debate on increasing
January 2012 Page 10 of 11 financing for gender equality in councils has intensified through the availability of gender financing information to several development actors (another PASC added value).
3.7. How do you evaluate co-operation with the services of the Contracting
Authority? PASC did not seem prepared to execute this project as there were several noticeable lapses from the signing ceremony in Mbalmayo in December 2013. There were several procedural challenges including arbitrary changes to project activities without consultation. The overwhelming use of only the French Language in all working documents for the smooth execution of the project was demoralizing despite the fact that the European Union is probably the most multi-lingual organization in the world. The PASC newsletter allocated little space for English articles which was worrisome and demotivational. There was limited information flow which also resulted in the non completion of the project in record time. Project completion took almost two (02) years from the submission of concept notes. The late introduction of proximity auditors tremendously improved on financial reporting. Further reflections on pertinent issues are necessary when selecting Contracting Authorities including bilingualism (Cameroon is a bilingual country), communication skills and regular consultations between all stakeholders in project execution.
4. Visibility___________________
How is the visibility of the EU contribution being ensured in the Action? ❖ All project correspondences including press releases carry EU/PASC Logos. ❖ All newspaper stories clearly identify EU/PASC as the Contracting Authority. ❖ All radio announcements and news items including television coverage make mention of EU/PASC as the funding partner. ❖ MUDEC website is currently carrying stories on the contribution of EU/PASC on Gender Responsive Budgeting (GRB). ❖ PASC Quarterly Bulletins have carried stories of collaboration with MUDEC Group. ❖ The target population is highly conscious of EU/PASC contribution in the effort to engender the budgets of local councils in the South West Region. ❖ Banners used during Gender Public Squares (GPS). ❖ Signboard in Bangem.
Name of the contact person for the Action: Charlie Mbonteh
Signature: 
Date Report Due: 15/Jun/2ol5

team leader
Location: Buea, South West Region, Cameroon.
Date report sent: 30th May 2015
January 2012 Page 11 of 11


Toko Development Plan

  

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Pages
Table of Contents ii.
List of Abbreviations iii
List of Tables v
List of  Figures and Maps v
List of Annexes vi.
1. 0.     INTRODUCTION vi
1.1.      Context and Justification vi
1.2.      Objectives of the CDP vii
1.3.      Structure of the CDP vii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY viii
2. 0.     METHODOLOGY 1
2.1.      Preparatory Process 1
2.2.     Collection and Analysis of Information 1
2.3.     Data Consolidation and Mapping 3
2.4.     Planning Workshop, Resource Mobilization & Programming 3
2.5.     Participatory Monitoring & Evaluation Mechanism 4
3.0.     SUMMARY  PRESENTATION OF THE COUNCIL 6
3.1.      Description of the Biophysical Environment 6
3.2.      History and People of the Council (origin of the people, population, ethnic groups, religions,main economic activities) 11
3.3.    Main Potentials and Resources of the Council 17
3.4.    Thematic Maps
4.0.  SUMMARY OF PARTICIPATORY DIAGNOSIS 18
4.1.Consolidation of Diagnosis Information (Excel Sheets) 18
4.2.            Main Problems identified per Sector 22
4.3.Needs identified per Sector 22
4.4.Table of Priority Projects per Village (Key Sectors) 31
5.0.     STRATEGIC PLANNING 35
5.1.     Vision & Objectives  of the Communal Development Plan (CDP) 35
5.2.    Logical Framework by Sector 36
5.3.    Land Use Plan 67
6.0.    OPERATIONAL PLANNING 68
6.1.    CDP Budget 68
6.2.    Mid Term (3 year) Expenditure Framework (MITEF) 69
6.3.    Annual Investment Plan (AIP) 74
6.3.1. Available Resources & Periodicity 74
6.3.2.  Annual Plan (2012) of Priority Projects 74
6.4.   Simplified Environmental Mangement Framework of the MITEF 79
6.4.1.  Main Potential Impacts (social & environmental) and Mitigating measures 79
6.4.2. Simplifed Socio – environmental Management Plan 82
6.5.    Contract Award Plan 84
7.0.   MONITORING & EVALUATION MECHANISM 87
7.1.  Composition & Functioning Follow up Committee 87
7.2.   Indicators for Monitoring & Evaluation System and (compared to  AIP & sectorial policies) 87
7.3.  Follow up Plans, Tools & Monitoring Frequency 88
7.4.  CDP Review & Mechanism for the next ( 2013) AIP 92
7.5.  Communication Plan of the CDP 92
8.0.   CONCLUSION 93
9.0.    ANNEXES
9.1. Prefectural Order Rendering Functional the CDP
9.2. Municipal Delideration Validating the CDP
9.3. Validated Support Administrative Documents
9.4. Attendance Sheets
9.5. Picture Gallery
9.6. Reports of Diagnosis (CID, USD, Consolidated Village by Village)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LISTS OF ABBREVATIONS

 

CDP                            Communal Development Plan

CEFAM                Centre de Formation de L’Administration Municipale (Local Government                         Training Center)

CSO                            Civil Society Organizations

CIG                            Common Initiative Group

FEICOM                    Fonds Special d’Equipement et d’Intervention Intercommunale (Special Council Support Fund for Local Authorities)

FS                               Feasibility Studies

FSLC                         First School Leaving Certificate

GCE                          General Certificate of Education

GESP                         Growth Employment Strategy Paper

GNS                            Government Nursery School

GHS                            Government High School

GPS                            Government Primary School

GSS                            Government Secondary School

GPS                            Global Positioning System

HIV/AIDS                Human Immuno Deficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

HPI                             Hiefer Project International, Cameroon

LBA                            Licence Buying Agent

LSO                           Local Support Organization

MDG                         Millenium Development Goals

MINFOF                    Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife

MITEF                       Mid Term Expenditure Framework (3 year Invesyment Plan)

MUDEC                     Municipal Development Counselling Group

NBDC                        National Book Development Council

NTFP                         Non Timber Forest Products

OSRI                          Organization for Sustainable Rural Infrastructure

PTA                            Parent Teacher Association

PNDP                        Programme Nationale Developpement Participatif (National Community Driven Development Program)

SDO                            Senior Divisional Officer

SG SOC                     SITHE GLOBAL (Palm Investment Company)

SWOT                      Strengths Weaknesses Opprtunities   Threats

SWSFH                      South West Special Fund for Health

TOC                           Toko Council

VDC                           Village Development Committee

VTC                           Village Traditional Council

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Different Ethnic Groups in the Municipality

11

Table 2: Population Densities by Age Groups

13

Table 3: Population Distribution by Gender

14

Table 4: Asset, Potential and Constriants

17

Table 5: Budget Analysis of TOC (2008-2010)

21

LIST OF FIGURES & MAPS

XXXX

Figure 1: Age Structure of the Population

11

Figure 2: Population Distribution by Gender

13

Figure 3: Map of South West showing TOC

15

Figure 4: Map of TOC

16

Figure 5: Organizational Chart of TOC

20

Figure 6: Landuse Map of TOC

67

 

 

1.0.    INTRODUCTION

1.1      Context and Justification

The Government of Cameroon in July 2004 enacted the Law on Decentralization as Applicable to Local Council which mandated councils to provide basic services in several domains including economic, social, health, education, and culture and sports development within their municipalities. The Government has since fostered the process through other instruments such as the Growth and Employment Strategy Paper, the MDGs, the MAPUTO & ACCRA Conventions which are geared at making the country an emergent economy by 2035. Councils have received funds transferred through the Public Investment Budget (PIB) in some key ministries such as Basic and Secondary Education, Public Health, Women Empowerment and Social Affairs to mention but a few.

The following decrees have also fostered the process:

  • Decree N° 2010/0242/PM of 26th February 2010 with regards to the promotion of agricultural production and rural development.
  • Decree N° 2010/0242/PM of 26th February 2010 with regards to the promotion of livestock and fish farming.
  • Decree N° 2010/0242/PM of 26th February 2010 with regards to the construction and maintenance of rural unclassified roads and with  regards to potable water supply in the zones not covered by the public network for the distribution of water conceded by the State.

Further to all these efforts, the National Community Driven Development Programme (PNDP) was commissioned to contribute meaningfully toward poverty alleviation using participatory strategies at the level of local councils. Within the framework for the execution of the PNDP, a cooperation agreement was signed between Toko Council, the PNDP and MUDEC Group (a Local Support Organization) in which the PNDP has offered technical and financial support to enable MUDEC Group accompany Toko Council toward the elaboration of its Communal Development Plan (CDP).

A major output of the planning process is the production of a council monograph which is a sector per sector consolidated report of the findings within each village.

 

 

 

1.2.            Objectives of the CDP:

 

The overall objective of the Communal Development Plan is to enable all development actors to participatorily identify, analyze and document their felt human, material and financial needs and to collectively ensure the follow up of all development initiatives within their municipality.

.

The specific objectives include to;

  • Sensitize all development stakeholders within the municipality to encourage participation and ownership of the planning process.
  • Conduct participatory diagnosis at the council level (CID), urban level (USD), and village level (consolidated village diagnosis).
  • Institute a Follow up Committee to monitor the implementation of micro projects.
  • Build partnership and resources (financial, material, human) between the council and its development stakeholders.
  • To encourage communal development planning as a process in participatory development and sustainability in poverty reduction, growth and employment creation.

 

1.3  Structure of the CDP :

This document is structured in nine (09) chapters as follows:

  • Introduction.
  • Executive Summary
  • Methodology.
  • Presentation of the Council.
  • Summary of Diagnosis Results.
  • Strategic Planning.
  • Operational Planning.
  • Monitoring and Evaluation Mechanism.
  • Conclusion

 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Government of Cameroon has instituted several instruments (GESP, 2004 Law on Decentralization, Inter Ministerial/ Sectorial Commissions, Transfer of Resources and Competencies) which collectively are designed to positively impact on the lives of the average Cameroonian at the level of local councils. Recently, the National Community Driven Development Programme (PNDP) was commissioned to actualize this goverment effort by facilitating the elaboration of Communal Development Plans (CDP) in the country. Toko council in Ndian Division of the South West Region signed a convention with the PNDP in which the latter supported the council in engaging the Local Support Organization (MUDEC Group) to accompany it in the realization of its CDP through participatory planning processes.

Beginning from 4th July to 13th December 2011, the methodology prescribed by the PNDP was strictly adhered to which has resulted in the production of the document.

A quick look at the key findings reveal that  inhabitants of Toko municipality are preoccupied with the near lack of infrastructure especially the absence of a road network linking the villages to the outside world, limited supply of portable water, limited access to electricity and communication. These situations have immensely contributed to the low agricultural production and commercial activities resulting in rural exodus of the population especially the youth.

Toko CDP takes into account the problems and needs of the population in more than thirty (30) sectors with an estimated cost of eight thousand three hundred and nine million six hnudered and forty thousand francs (8.309.640.000 FCFA). This CDP is expected to be realized within six (06) Annual Investment Plans beginning with that of 2012 which is part of this document.

The Monitoring and Evaluation Plan includes a follow up team comprising competent and available individuals and a set of tools designed to facilitate their work.

A communication plan has been included to enable widening the circulation of the contents of this CDP.

The main challenge for the TOC lies in its outlook. The council executive (whether or not it changes after the upcoming municpal elections) should continue to play the pivotal role of mobilizing and organizing all stakeholders through inclusive strategies such that the vision of the municipality will be slowly but steadily attained.

 

 

2.0.     METHODOLOGY

2.1.    Preparatory Process

The preparatory process for the elaboration of the CDP of Toko council area involved several stakeholders and activities. It started with a two week training of key LSO personnel in Ekona which was facilitated by officials of the PNDP. The training ended with the signing of the execution contract between the council, the LSO and the PNDP South West Regional Coordination Unit. The training was thereafter restituted to other MUDEC research assistants while several brainstorming and planning sessions were held with Toko council management.  Secondary data on the socio economic and environmental situation within the municipality was collected and trianguted at the subdivisional, divisional and regional levels of technical services. The council guided by its LSO elaborated a sensitization campaign involving a combination of radio and Church announcements, banners, fliers and the village criers targeting stakeholders including traditional authorities, social and cultural groups, women and youth group representatives, the local heads of technical services, socio professional groups and international organizations operating within the municipality. All sensitization material carried the planning process as well as messages designed to heighten participation of all stakeholders. This process ended with the holding of the official launching workshop on the 5th of August 2011. MUDEC presented an elaborate program of the data to be collected at the council, urban space and in all villages per sector. A Steering Committee was proposed by the mayor and installed by the traditional authorities and the PNDP representatives. Their clearly defined terms of reference were presented to the villagers by the LSO. An expected result was for stakeholders to return with concise memories of their roles and responsibilities in the data collection process. The workshop had 114 participants who represented all shades of opinion within the municipality.

 

2.2.                        Collection  and Analysis of Information

Primary data was collected and diagnosed at three different levels namely; the Council Institutional Diagnosis (CID), the Urban Space Diagnosis (USD) and the Sectorial Village by Village Diagnosis. During the CID, researchers started with literature review by reading through council documents relating to financial, material and personnel matters. Interviews and focus group discussions were also conducted to enable the team update and triangulate information gathered. At the internal level of the CID, council service heads such as the Mayor, councilors, Secretary General, Civil Status Registrar and the Finance Clerk represented sources of information while at the external level traditional and religious authorities, VDC members, technical service heads, contractors, beneficiaries of council services and development partners such as KORUP and SITHE GLOBAL were interviewed. Through this method, descriptive data was collected on the systems, structures, staff, management style, culture of the council as well as established the strengths and weaknesses of the council. Data related to the level of interaction between development partners and the council was collected. Data was collected using a variety of tools including semi structured interviews, direct observations, focus discussions and questionnaires. All information collected was triangulated with other sources at the council, divisional or regional levels.

The USD was conducted in Madie I which is the commercial center and in Toko which is the seat of the local administration. Both locations are sparsely populated and have little to show  in terms of infrastructure. The services of local facilitators and the use of village criers contributed to the high rate of participation in almost all forty nine villages. Data was collected and analyzed using a variety of tools including participatory mapping, socio economic and environmental surveys and meetings with socio professional group representatives. Participants also engaged in transect walks, simple ranking, producing venn diagrams, focus group discussions and problem analysis using problem and objective trees. Waypoints were collected using the Global Positioning System (GPS). Interactive discussions, direct observations and site visits were also utilized in certain areas in the municipality. The historical timeline assisted participants to identify previous development efforts and their partners within the urban spaces.

The participatory village by village and sector by sector diagnosis covered 49 villages in the municipality including; Toko, Bweme, Mobenge, Ikoti I, Ikoti II,  Bekita, Bokuba, Iboko, Meangwe I, Bonabeanga, Basari,  Nwamoki, Iyombo, Ikoi,  Dikome,  Iwasa,  Ngamoki I,  Moboka, Madie, Madie New Town, Madie III Boembe, Mapanja (Ngamoki II), Mofako, Dienge, Dipundu , Tombe, Banyo, Ndoi,  Itali,  Debonda Koroki, Debonda Mosina, Masaka,  Bombangi, Babiabanga, Ipongi, Bareka II, Lobe Batanga, Baromba,  Bareka I, Manya,  Lipenja, Ikenge, Esukotan, Iyoe, Illondo, Kilekile, Mayeka,Esoki and Lowe.

A total of twelve researchers with clearly defined terms of reference were constitied into three teams of four individuals. They spent an average of three days per village in order to actually collect and diagnose information as prescribed in the PNDP methodology.

The village by village and sector by sector data collection and diagnosis (Problem Identification and Analysis) were participatory in that all the different stakeholders and all shades of opinion were given equal opportunities to make valuable comtributions. During plenary exercises men, women and youth collectively identified the core problems per sector which were later prioritized, analyzed and reformulated using problem and objective trees for causes and effects.

Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) methods with gender considerations were utilized to assemble field realities. These included: meetings, semi structured interviews, focus group discussions, participative mappings, transect walks, simple ranking, venn diagrams, and problem analysis using problem and objective trees.   Interactive discussions, direct observations and site visits were also utilized in certain areas in the municipality. Waypoints were collected using the Global Positioning System (GPS). Information collected was triangulated with various sources at the council, sub divisional, divisional and regional levels.

2.3.      Data Consolidation & Mapping

 

The consolidated data (presented on excel sheets) was analyzed using software that enabled us to generate tables, graphs, pie charts and bar charts. The GIS software also assisted in the production of geo referenced maps.

 

2.4.   Planning, Resource Mobilization & Programming Workshop.

During this workshop several activities were carried out including:

Restitution of  the diagnosis report by sector and by village ;

Restitution of the Logical Framework sector by sector;

Programming  and  Prioritisation of investments for the MITEF (3 years) and the AIP (first year) ;

Evaluation of  the environmental strategy of the AIP

Putting in place the Follow up Committee with ciear terms of reference with an annual work plan.

Elaboration of a contract award plan for the first year.

2.5.      Implementation of Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation Mechanism

 

A Steering Committee was constituted and installed by the Mayor in the presence of the Divisional Delegate of MINEPAT who sat in for the PNDP. There were seven members (three females) who were chosen because they indicated their willingness to be actively involved in the data collection process.

Steering Committee members:

NO Name Position Profession
01 Mr. Mindako Osih Chairperson Council Staff
02 Mrs. Bali Mispa Secretary Teacher
03 Mr. Ottu Raymond Member Councilor
04 Mr. Beyoko Jonathan Moki Member Councilor
05 Mrs. Ndede Mercy Member Farmer
06 Mrs. Ngembane Veronica Member Farmer
07 Mr. Esungu Wilson Member Councilor

Source : CID Survey  Sept. 2011

Steering Committee functions:

  Review the daily slates and action plans submitted by the LSO.

  Follow up the activities of the LSO in the various villages.

  Assure a healthy working relationship between the council, villages and the LSO
Hold monthly meetings and submit report with recommendations to the Mayor.

Make valuable inputs during plenary and validation meetings

2.0.                           BRIEF PRESENTATION OF THE COUNCIL AREA

 

2.1.            Description  of the municipality

3.1.1. The South West Region:

The South West Province was created by decree no 72/349 of June 1972 with Buea as its administrative headquarters. The 1996 Constitution (Article 61) created the regional system in Cameroon thus the current appellation of South West Region. It covers a surface area of 24,910 km2 (representing about 5.2% of Cameroon). Climatic conditions can be primarily divided into maritime and mountain. There is a wide disparity in the population of 1,361,981 persons (SOWEDA, 2010) with varied occupations and resources. The population density is 55 inhabitants per km2. There are six (06) administrative divisions and 32 sub divisions which are simple extensions of the State and enjoy neither financial nor legal autonomy and are dependent on the central government for all decisions. The division (Ndian) and Toko council which is the subject of this report are located within the South West Region.

3.1.2. Ndian Division:

Ndian division is one of six administrative units that constitute the South West Region with its headquarters in Mundemba. Ndian has a surface area of 6,165km2 (25% of the region). The population (17% urban and 83% rural) in 2010 was 118,465 comprising 63,065 women and 55,399 men (SOWEDA projections) representing a population density of about 22 inhabitants per km2. This is largely due to the inaccessibility and the unfertile soils. The division is very low and indented point of contact with the sea. It has an amphibious area dominated by mangroves and creeks which make it difficult to penetrate and cannot be accessed by land. The use of creeks and canals as means of transport is not regular. Numerous sandbanks render access to sea difficult and limit movement only through small boats. There is no drinking water during the dry season coupled with the lack of drugs, food, schools and administrative offices make life difficult. There is a lot of marine erosion going on in the delta zone of the Ndian River. The dense tropical forest with numerous rivers is located in the Toko area which is sparsely populated due to the undulating terrain, lack of roads and the presence of numerous conservation organizations.

3.1.3. Toko Council:

The council was created within the framework of decree no. 77/203 of 19th June 1977 to setup councils and define their boundaries. A Presidential decree in April 1995 created Toko District which was later upgraded to a sub division by another decree in 2010. It is bordered to the north by Dikume Balue, to the south by Eyumojock, to the east by Konye and Nguti and to the west by Mundemba. The village study (Aug. 2011) put the total population at fourteen thousand and forty five (14.045) inhabitants of whom there are 3.815 men and 4,480 women and 5,625 are children. Council authorities however contest these figures given that a council village by village population analysis through Village Development Associations put the figure in 2011 at sixty six thousand (66.000) inhabitants. The municipality has a total surface area of 103,413 hectares (1,034.13 km2) representing a population density of fifteen to thirty (15 to 30) inhabitants per km2 (source: South West Master Plan, 2004). This low population density in Toko is due to the dense tropical forest most of which are reserved. These include KORUP Park which occupies a surface area of 49,105 hectares (491.05 km2) which are dedicated primarily to conservation, research and tourism; the RUMPI Hills covers a surface area of 5,445 hectares (54.45 km2) and the Christian Philanthropic Community Forest covers a surface area of 4,928 hectares (49.28 km2). An organization from the United States of America called SG SOC has recently settled (and put in place a oil palms nursery) in Lipenja and is requesting 13,303 hectares (133.03 km2) of land. If granted these organizations will have control of more than 70% of the entire surface area of Toko municipality while the communities that are comprised of the Ngolos, Batangas or Bakokos will be left with about 30% of land on which to engage in farming and hunting. The municipality is endowed with natural resources including stones, rocks, sand deposits, timber (iroko, asube, njabe, mahogany, ebony, sapelle, obeche, bobinga, duzie), NTFP (bush mango, bush onion, febe etc) and wildlife.

Since its creation in 1992, Toko council has been administered by five (05) District Heads, one Divisional Officer and three (03) Mayors.

   3.1.4. Description of the Biophysical Environment

3.1.4.1. Climate

Toko municipality has an equatorial climate where there are two distinct seasons: a long rainy season of about eight months and a relatively shorter dry season of about four months.  The annual amount of rainfall ranges from 3500mm to 5000mm.The rainfall pattern provides suitable conditions for the growth of both perennial and annual crops thus allowing for two cropping seasons a year. Rainfall is a major determinant on agricultural production in terms of the crops grown, the farming system and the sequence and timing of farming operations.

Daily temperatures are relatively moderate throughout the year and ranges from 20°C to 30°C. Humidity varies with the absolute value and the seasonal distribution of rainfall, being uniformly moderate throughout the wet season, and falling to lower levels during the dry season

3.1.4.2.Soils

The Toko municipality has rich clay loam and lateritic soil type which is very fertile for agricultural production.  This has greatly influenced the cultivation of both cash and food crops. Due to poor farming techniques in the area, the soil is gradually losing its fertility.

 

3.1.4.3.Relief 

The topography is undulating with hills and slopes ranging from between 200 to about 1000m.  Hence, movement from one village to the other within municipality which is done primarily on foot as result of the poor road network is very difficult.

 

 

 3.1.4.4. Hydrology

The Toko council area has so many streams, springs and waterfalls which have direct bearings with the river Meme which takes it rise from the Rumpi Hills as it drains the highlands of Madie, Dikome Balue and the coastal lowlands of Mbonge in the Meme Division before emptying into the Atlantic Ocean. The Combrany River which originates from within Toko municipality also empties itself into the Meme River.  Thse features can serve as potential touristic sites within the municipality when developed. Despite the seemingly abundant availability of water, only three villages have made meaningful effort at having portable water supply including Madie Ngolo, Madie New Town and Toko. The rest of the population depends entirely on springs, sreams and rainfall as sources of drinking water.

 

 3.1.4.5. Vegetation and Fauna.      

The vegetation is characterised by the evergreen tropical forest most of which contains tree species of immense economic value. The Korup Project, Rumpi Hills and Philantropic forest reserves of the area contains a rich variety of flora and fauna. Many non-timber forest products are also found, including kola nuts and bush pepper, njansang, bitter cola and a variety of medicinal plants.

The difference in topography, vegetation and climate gives rise to a variety of both food and cash crops which includes; banana, cocoyams, maize, cassava, plantains cocoa, and oil palm. Copcoa is the main cash crop within the municipality.

Some of the animal species includes; elephants, monkeys and porcupines.

3.2.             Historical Profile

 3.2.1.Ethnic Groups and inter-ethnic relations

The indegenes of Toko municipality comprises the Ngolo, Batanga, and Bakoko. There are other migrants from different parts of the Cameroon such as the Bayangi, Dongolo, Bakundu and Grasslanders who are inter married and coexist in the municipality.

 

Table 1: Different Ethnic Groups within the municipality

No. Villages Main Ethnic group Ethnic group 1 Ethnic group  2 Ethnic group   3 Ethnic group 4
1 Madie Ngolo Ngolo (Ekama) Grassfielders Batanga
2 Madie New Town Ngolo (Ekama) Batanga
3 Madie III Boembe Ngolo (Ekama) Batanga
4 Banyo Ngolo
5 Iyombo Ngolo
6 Bonabeanga Ngolo
7 Mofako Batanga
8 Bweme Ngolo Dongolo Oroko
9 Dienge Ngolo
10 Ngamoki I Ngolo (Ekama)
11 Illondo Ngolo
12 Kilekile Ngolo
13 Iwasa Ngolo
14 Mapanja (Ngamoki II) Ngolo (Ekama)
15 Ikoi Ngolo
16 Iyoe Batanga
17 Mobenge Ngolo Oroko
18 Ndoi Ngolo
19 Dikome Ngolo Ngolo
20 Tombe Ngolo
21 Moboka Ngolo
22 Meangwe I Ngolo
23 Toko Ngolo Batanga Bakoko Orocko
24 Manya Ngolo
25 Mayeke Batanga
26 Bareka I Batanga
27 Basari Ngolo
28 Dipundu Batanga
29 Nwamoki Ngolo
30 Itali Batanga
31 Debonda II Batanga
32 Debonda I Batanga
33 Masaka Batanga
34 Bombangi Batanga
35 Ipongi Batanga
36 Babiabanga Batanga
37 Lobe Batanga Batanga
38 Bareka II Batanga
39 Betika Ngolo
40 Bokuba Ngolo
41 Iboko Ngolo
42 Lipenja Batanga Grassfielders
43 Baromba Batanga
44 Ikoti II Ngolo
45 Esoki Batanga
46 Lowe Batanga
47 Ikoti Ngolo
48 Ikenge Bakoko
49 Esukotan Bakoko Ngolo Bayangi Bakundu Grassfielders

Source: Village Survey (Aug. / Sept.  2011)

 

3.2.5.                                                                                                 3.2.2. Religion

Christianity is the predominant religion within Toko municipality and there is freedom of worship.  The main Christian denominations in the area are the Presbyterians and Pentacostals.

The Presbyterian Church in Cameroon contributes to the development of the municipality by providing basic health facilities through the Presbyterian Health Center at Madie Ngolo.

 

3.2.6.                                                                                               3.2.3.Mobility of the population

The rate of movement into and out of Toko Municipality is very low. This is due to a large extent to the absence of employment opportunities in the council area and the inaccessibility of villages within the municipality as a result of the poor road network. There are civil servants who have been transferred to the different schools and health centers within Toko sub division and who are hardly around due to the harsh living realities.

The rate of rural exudus is high as people, especially the youth move from the municipality to other sub divisions and cities either in search of jobs, better education (attend universities or professional schools) or to do business.

3.2.7.                                                                                             3.2.4. Size and structure of the population

The total population size of Toko municipality in 2010 was estimated at seven thousand and thirty five (7.035) inhabitants of whom there are 3.515 men and 3.520 women. (Source: Bureau of Census & Population Studies). But from field survey, the population was estimated to be 14.045 inhabitants of whom   are men 3815, women 4480 and 5625 being children.  

The municipality has a total surface area of 103,413 hectares (1,034.13 km2) representing a population density of fifteen to thirty (15 to 30) inhabitants per km2 (source: South West Master Plan). This low population density in Toko is due to the dense tropical forest most of which are reserved by development organizations.

The table below shows the structure of the population within the municipality.

Table 2: Population Densities by age group

No. Age bracket Total population
1 0—6 years

395

2 6—14 years

2,327

3 15—19 years

2,913

4 20—34 years

7,323

5 35—59 years

536

6 60+ years

551

  Total

14.045

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 3: Population distribution by gender in the Municipality

No. Village Men Women Children Total
1 Madie Ngolo

100

100

500

700

2 Madie New Town

80

85

200

365

3 Madie III Boembe

60

63

150

273

4 Banyo

30

40

57

127

5 Iyombo

93

30

40

163

6 Bonabeanga

8

6

11

25

7 Mofako

150

300

400

850

8 Bweme

21

16

24

61

9 Dienge

262

200

150

612

10 Ngamoki I

207

293

110

610

11 Illondo

7

19

39

65

12 Kilekile

16

18

30

64

13 Iwasa

120

150

105

375

14 Nwamoki

29

55

30

114

15 Mapanja (Ngamoki II)

200

250

515

965

16 Ikoi

150

250

145

545

17 Iyoe

9

12

43

64

18 Mobenge

17

34

34

85

19 Ndoi

92

100

65

257

20 Dikome Ngolo

150

62

85

297

21 Tombe

11

10

17

38

22 Moboka

100

150

261

511

23 Meangwe I

150

159

291

600

24 Toko

250

261

300

811

25 Manya

1

0

0

1

26 Mayeka

5

4

1

10

27 Bareka I

120

200

120

440

28 Itali

60

90

70

220

29 Debonda II

170

210

120

500

30 Debonda I

50

95

65

210

31 Masaka

5

9

49

63

32 Bombangi

50

74

78

202

33 Ipongi

53

55

117

225

34 Babiabanga

45

50

105

200

35 Lobe Batanga

15

30

22

67

36 Bareka II

30

27

61

118

37 Betika

157

93

150

400

38 Bokuba

51

100

49

200

39 Iboko

100

105

45

250

40 Lipenja

100

117

283

500

41 Boromba

1

0

0

1

42 Ikoti II Batanga

210

190

300

700

43 Esoki

45

20

60

125

44 Lowe

1

1

5

7

45 Ikoti

22

40

18

80

46 Ikenge

80

100

170

350

47 Esukotan

150

200

160

510

48 Basari

15

15

20

50

49 Dipundu

12

12

15

39

Total Population

3815

4480

5625

14.045

                 Source: Village Survey (Aug. / Sept.  2011)

 

From the analysis of the findings, men constitute 27% of the total population while women and children constitute 32% and 41% respectively. Persons of primary school age (6-14 years) represent 17 % of the population while individuals between the ages 20-34 make up 54% of the population thus indicating that Toko municipality has a very youthful population. This indicator is in line with the national trends in population.

 

3.1.4.                                                                                               3.2.5.Actors of Local Development

No Name Activities/ Sectors
01 KORUP Conservation, Scientific Research, Forestry, Culture, Tourism, Environment
02 SITHE GLOBAL (SG SOC) Agriculture, Commerce, Employment, Public Works, Transport
03 Christain Philantrophic Conservation, Scientific Research, Forestry, Culture, Tourism, Environment
04 RUMPI Conservation, Scientific Research, Forestry, Culture, Tourism, Environment

Source: Village Survey (Aug. / Sept.  2011)

 

3.2.             Main Potentials and Resources of the Council

The main assets and potentials within the municipality include numerious waterfalls, forest reserves, streams, rivers and caves.

Sector Assets Potentials  Constraints
Tourism and Leisure Waterfalls -Tourist sites

-Generate  Hydro electricity

-Inaccessible  road network- Poorly constructed bridges

–  Landslides

Caves -Tourist sites  -Inaccessible road network- Poorly constructed bridges

–  Landslides

Forestry and wildlife Rumpi  Hills -Monkeys, Alligatos, porcupines-Medicinal plants, NTFPs

-Timber

-Illegal exploitation of timber species-Illegal poaching
Korup Forest -Monkeys, Alligatos, alligators, elephants, Medicinal plants, NTFPs-Timber -Illegal exploitation of timber species-Illegal poaching
Christain Pillantropic forest -Monkeys, Alligatos, alligators, elephants- Medicinal plants, NTFPs

-Timber

-Illegal exploitation of timber species-Illegal poaching
Water and Energy Streams , Rivers, Springs, waterfalls -Sand extraction,-Fresh Water Sources -Drought-Pollution
Commerce SG SOC -Plantation Agriculture.Emploment Oppotunities -Landslides-Village Land Disputes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4: Assest, Potentials and Constraints of the Biophysical Environment

 

3.3.            Socio Economic Infrastucture in the Municipality:

All villages within the municipality have a Palaver House (an Etane) which is used as a venue for conflict resolution and other social gatherings. Several of these structures are in very bad shape with no concrete floors, chairs, windows and doors. “Etanes” structures were identified in the following villages; Toko, Ikoti II, Bokuba, Iboko, Banobeanga, Basari, Nwamoki, Iyombo, Dikume, Iwasa, Ngamoki, Moboka, Madie I, II, III, Dienge, Bareka I, II, Lipenja, Ikenge, Esukotan, Kilekile, Esoki.

Meangwe I has a Catholic Church hall while Madie I has a Presbyterian Church hall.

 

4.0           SUMMARY OF DIAGNOSTIC RESULTS

4.1 . SWOT Analysis of Toko council

Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats
  • Youthful and Committed Staff
    • Irregular Payment of staff salaries
    • Limited Delegation of Authority
    • Poor collaboration among council executive
    • General laxity at work (Deputies Mayors & SG are not always on seat)
    • Low rate of implementation of Municipal Decisions
    • Limited Flow of Information at all levels
    • Poor Filing System (No archives)
    • No Standard Operating Manuals and Procedures on Council Functioning
Tropical Forests with potentials for Research, Conservation, by International and National partners (Korup National Park, Rumpi Forest, Christian Philanthropic Forest. Non resident heads of technical services
v  Legal Entity with identified boundariesv  Regular Deliberations by at least 85% of Councilors
  • Poor Tax Base
  • Limited Cooperation between the Council and the business community
  • Inadequate strategies for revenue collection
Availability of touristic potentials e.g. waterfalls, caves, Eco Tourism Risky & undulating terrain
  • Standard Operating Procedure for Revenue Collection
    • No Policy on the use of council assets
    • Obsolete office equipment
Available Land for Agro Industrial Production (SG SOC) oil palm exploitation Rural Exodus for the youth
  • Available equipment such Tipper and 4×4 Hilux
  • Available Council Chambers

Available Council Real Estate

  • Non collaboration with business community and other development actors within the municipality
  • No Open Day programs between the population and the council.
  • No Policy for Public Private Partnerships within the municipality
Available Funding partners e.g. FEICOM, PNDP Poor Tax Base
  • Cordial Relationship with Supervisory Authority
Potentials for hire (payment) by the community.
  • No Municipal Treasurer
  • No clearly elaborated Job Descriptions for staff
  • No system of staff evaluation
  • No Gender Policy 
  • Absence of Staff Meetings
  • Under Staffed with limited knowledge on Council Management
  • Limited training opportunities for council staffs
  • Untrained Councilors
  • Non Functional Council Standing Committees

Fig. 5: Organizational Chart of TOC

Source: Village Survey (Aug. / Sept.  2011)

v  Based on the above structure, one can easily observe that Toko Council is a very small institution which is not capable of rendering the huge workload that is required of local councils within the dispensation of decentralization. When compared with the standard organizational structure proposed by MINATD (the Supervisory Authority), it becomes evident that the council urgently needs to build its capacity in several areas in order for it to play its pivotal role of fostering development within the municipality.

Toko council has twenty five (25) councillors including three (03) women who represent all forty nine (49) villages that constitute the municipality. Their professional backgrounds include farmers, nurses, businesspersons, teachers, drivers and hunters.The Council has four permanent committees including one each for Finance, Development, Infrastructure and All Purpose.

The executive organ constitutes of the Mayor and the two deputies none is a woman.

The council has very few staff including the Secretary General who is responsible for the overall coordination of the council’s administrative and technical services. She is the main collaborator with the council executive as well as the other services within the municipality.

The finance clerk is in charge of all financial records of the council. He also assists in keeping all financial records; draw up budgets and administrative accounts of the council.

 The Civil Status Registrar establishes marriage, birth and death certificates

The auxiliary staffs constitute the messenger and domestic servants who serve in the Mayor’s residence.

The Sub Treasurer (ST) is acting in the place of the Municipal Treasurer (MT) since the financial portfolio of the council does not qualify it to have its own treasurer.

Budget analysis of the council for 2008, 2009 and 2010 are presented below (Table 5):                                                                                                                               

Fiscal Period

Budget Amount

Overhead Costs

Investment

2008     108.730.000 FCFA

85.469.000 FCFA

23.261.000 FCFA

2009

108.730.000 FCFA

85.469.000 FCFA

23.261.000 FCFA

2010

106.260.000 FCFA

84.360.000 FCFA

21.900.000 FCFA

Source: Village Survey (Aug. / Sept.  2011)

 

Adminitrative accounts (actual)

Actual Situation

2008

2009

2010

Total Revenue

7.994.277 FCFA

7.106.835 FCFA

145.600.204 FCFA

Total Expenditure

7.880.185 FCFA

6.949.510 FCFA

140.175.910 FCFA

Surplus

114.092 FCFA

157.325 FCFA

5.424.294 FCFA

 

An overview of the existing financial records indicates that TOC has a very weak tax base which seriously puts to question the council’s ability to provide basic services to its population. The budget execution rate for 2008 and 2009 was less than 8%.   In 2010, the execution rate rose to 63% largely because of the transfer of funds from the Public Investment Budget (PIB).


4.3 Consolidated Problems and Needs per Sector

Sector

Core

Problem

Causes

Effects

Needs

Basic Education   Limited access to quality Basic Education
  • Insufficient qualified teaching staff
  • Insufficient classrooms
  • Insufficient  benches
  • Limited permanent classrooms
  • Limited access to didactic materials
  • No functional school libraries
  • No residence for staff
  • Insufficient latrines and water points in schools
  • High illitracy rate
  • Juvenile delinquency
  • Rural Exodus
  • Poor Results at Public Examinations
  • High rate of school dropouts
  • Construct permanent structures and additional classrooms in schools
  • Recruit qualified teaching personnel
  • Supply didactic materials and other school needs
  • Construct water points, latrines, fences, libraries
  • Initiate contacs with NBDC
Secondary Education   Limited access to quality Secondary Education
  • Insufficient number of secondary schools
  • Insufficient qualified teaching staff
  • No play groups in schools
  • Limited classroom equipment and furniture
  • Limited access to didactic materials (students and teachers)
  • No functional school libraries
  • No lantrines, fences and water points in schools
  • Low scolarisation rate
  • Poor performance of school
  • High rate of school drop outs
  • High rate of illitracy
  • Juvenile delinquency
  • High rate of prostitution
  • Rural exodus
  • Construct additional classrooms in schools
  • Recruit qualified teaching personnel
  • Supply didactic materials and other school needs
  • Construct water points, latrines, fences, libraries
  • Create a high school within the council area
  • Initiate contacts with NBDC

 

Public Health  Limited access to quality health care services
  • Insufficient health equipment for consultations, pharmacy, laboratory
  • Insufficient qualified medical personnel
  • Insufficient and inadequate coverage of community outreach programmes
  • Inadequate  health infrastructures
  • Long distance trek to existing  health units

 

  • High cost of health treatment
  • High prevalence of diseases
  • High infant mortality rate
  • High rate of rural exodus
  • Drop in per capital income
  • High cost of  expenditure
  • High death rate
  • Low standards of living
  • Recruit qualified medical personnel
  • Supply modern health equipment (beds, refrigerators, laboratory, drugs)
Water   Poor access to potable water
  • Insufficient potable water points
  • Inadequate alternative sources of potable water.
  • None functional pipe borne water supply
  • Long distance to fetch water in streams
  • Poorly treated available sources like the community wells
  • § High prevalence of water borne diseases
  • § High cost to treat related water borne diseases
  • § Drop in per capital income
  • § Low standards of living
  • § Construct more water schemes in more villages
  • § Rehabilitate existing water points In Madie and Toko
  • § Initiate contacts with OSRI
Energy  Poor access to electricity supply
  • None functional thermal electricity plants  in Toko and Madie Ngolo
  • No connection to the national electricity supply network (AES SONEL)
  • None functional maintenance committees for community generators
  • High cost to maintain  community generators
  • § Difficulty using electrical appliances
  • § High incidence in  health hazards like eye problems
  • § Difficulties for students  to study  at night
  • § High rate of insecurity
  • § Difficulty managing perishable foods
  • § Rehabilitate  electrification networks in in Toko and Madie Ngolo
  • Extension of AES SONEL  from Mundemba to Toko
Public Works   Poor state of rural road network
  • None maintenance of earth roads
  • Poor  state of culverts and bridges
  • Insufficient farm to market roads
  • Poor community mobilization
  • None existence of road maintenance committees
  • High cost of transportion
  • Limited circulation of persons, good and services
  • Rural exodus
  • Overloading of persons on clandestine vechicles
  • Drop in per capital income
  • Drop in living standards
  • High rate of accidents
  • Constant maintenance of existing road network
  • Construct bridges and culverts
  • Extend road network to other villages
  • Aquire front head loader
  • Rehabilitate council tipper
  • Initiate contacts with OSRI
Women Empowerment and  the Promotion of the Family   Marginalisation of women and children
  • Absence of social structures
  • Insufficient  facilities fo r women focused activities
  • Weak economic power of women
  • Insufficient and inadequate representation and participation of women in development and political issues
  • Ignorance of women on their rights
  • Under scholarisation of the girl child
  • Absence of  gender policy
  • Insufficient opportunities for the women and the girl child
  • High dependence rate of women
  • High prevalence  of early births for the girl child
  • High prevalence of abandoned children
  • High prevalence of early girl child marriages
  • Mobilize and sensitize on gender equality and related topics
  • Train administrative and council authorities on gender mainstreaming
  • Equip Home Economics Center in Toko.
  • Sensitize and train on women’s rights and the family
  • Train and support women on income generating activities
  • Initiate contacts with REACH OUT, Cameroon
Commerce  InsufficientBusiness and commercial activities
  • Insufficient market facilities
  • Poor information on prices of goods in other areas
  • Poor road network
  • Insufficient financial institutions
  • High price speculation on products
  • Insufficient revenue
  • Risk of diseases and loss of goods
  • Exploitation of the communities by traders (buyam-sellams)
  • Construct modern periodic market in Madie
  • Improve on Market in Toko Information Systems
  • Regularly maintain road network
  • Initiate contacts with SG SOC & KORUP
  • Activate Toko Village Bank
  • Lobby for Installation of Micro finance institution
Agriculture and Rural Development Low  agricultural production / productivity
  • § High cost of farm inputs
  • § Inadequate technical know how
  • § Pest and diseases attack on cocoa (black pod)
  • § Limited access to improved planting materials
  • Insufficient and inadequate transport facilities
  • § Limited access to agricultural equipment and inputs
  • § Insufficient training of farmers
  • § Low financial capacity on producers
  • § Insufficient technical personnel
  • § Limited access to training opportunities
  • § No storage facilities
  • § Drop in agricultural out put
  • § Low  revenue
  • § Poor living standards
  • § Low purchasing power
  • § Low harvest
  • § High post harvest losses
  • § Rural Exodus
  • § Organize trainings on modernmproduction techniques and agricultural inputs utilisation
  • § Provide modern farming equipment   to farmers
  • § Recruit trained agricultural personnel
  • § Provide modern storage facilities for perishable products
  • § Create and constantly maintain farm to market roads
  • § Network with KORUP Management Plan
  • § Network with SG SOC Management Plan
  • § Network with Christain Philantrophic Management Plan
Livestock, Fisheries and Animal Industries Low livestock and fisheries production/productivity
  • High cost of animal feed
  • Poor techniques of animal rearing (free range)
  • Inadequate technical know how.
  • Poor methods on animal reariing
  • Limited access to livestock technical services.
  • Fish Poisoning
  • § High rate of diseases outbreaks
  • § Limited Production of high  breed  animal species
  • § Low intake of protein
  • § Reduced revenue
  • § Low standards of living

 

  • Organize capacity buiding for animal breeders
  • Restructure  CIGs
  • Assist animal farmers with seed capital.
  • Initiate contacts with HPI
State Property and Land Tenue  High insecurity of state property and land
  • Limited number of title deeds for state and private property
  • Cultural limitations
  • Poor community sensitisation on the importance of land titles and how to go about it
  • § Illegal possession of land
  • § Conflicts between individuals and  neighbouring villages
  • § Create Sub delegation in the municipality
  • § Facilitate access to title deeds.
  • § Sensitize population on land issues.
Housing and Urban Development   Poor Town Planning
  • Construction of housing using local and temporal materials
  • Poor financial capacity of the population
  • Insecurity of occupied land
  •  Limited access to a communal electrification network
  • Absence of urban development and housing facilities
  • Absence of a Council Plan for villages
  • Absence of waste management plan
    • Haphazard building of houses
    • Poor construction of houses
    • Absence of vision and consciousness on construction of modern houses
    • High rate of water borne diseases
    • High rate of fire disasters
    • High rate of promiscuity
    • High rate of accidents
    • § Create and institute functional communal electricity and pipe borne water networks
    • § Elaborate Town plan
    • § Facilitate access to construction and building materials/equipment
Environment, Nature Protection and Sustainable Development High rate of Environmental degradation
  • High rate of water pollution
  • Poor management of natural resources
  • High rate of timber exploitation by illegal exploiters
  • Poor drainage system
  • § Displacement and extinction of animal  species
  • § High rate of erosion
  • § High incedent of climate change
  • § Increase rate of pollution
    • Encourage tree planting
    • Sensitize on the impact on environmental issues
Forestry and Wildlife  High rate of forest exploitation
  • Illegal exploitation of the forests  for timber
  • Illegal hunting in the forest
  • Poor knowledge of forestry laws
  • Insufficient Forest controlers
  • Absence of a structure for the forestry post.
  • § Dissapearance of certain species
  • § Destruction of biodiversity
  • § Climate change
  • Displacement of animal species
  • § Construct forestry post
  • § Increase number of technical staff in the forestry post
  • § Sensitize on the forestry laws
Territorial Administration and Decentralization  Insufficient local administrative services
  • Unavailable  personnel
  • Insufficient equipment
  • Limited collaboration with VTC
  • Slow classification of Chiefs
  • High  costs associated with administrative services
  • § High rate of rural exodus
  • § Drop in population
  • § Reduced trust of local administration
    • Transfer personnel and supply working equipment
    • Speed up process of classifying Chiefs
    • Develop confidence building measures and Sensitize population
Higher Education Inaccessibility to higher education
  • Absence of  professional education facilities
  • Insufficient  financial resources of parents

 

  • Difficult access to socio-professional training
  • High educational fees
  • Abandonment of studies
  • Juvenile delinquency
  • Under-development
  • Insufficient number of educated elites
  • § Offer scholarships to youths who have completed secondary education
Social Affairs   Insufficient social services and empowerment of vulnerable persons
  • Non existence of a data base of vulnerable persons
  • Absence of social centre and other infrastructure
  • None existence of social workers
  • Psychological trauma
  • Juvenile delinquency
  • Construct social centre
  • Recruit social workers to be at their disposal and to offer psycho-social assistance to them when need be
  • Establish lists of vulnerables.
  • Initiate contacts with REACHOUT
 Youth and Citizen Education

 

Insufficient youth empowerment facilities and programmes
  • Insufficient trainers and youth animators
  • Limited entrepreneural capacities
  • Limited access to funding youth interests
  • High illiteracy rate
  • Absence of youth empowerment structures and services
  • Limited mobilization of youths on income generating activities
  • § High rate of unemployment
  • § High illitracy rate
  • § Juvenile  delinquency
  • § High rate of teenagers pregnancies
  • § High prevalence and spread of HIV and AIDS
  • § High rate of rural exodus
  • § Increase sensitization of youths on different opportunities available
  • § Create  functional youth empowerment centres
  • § Recruit youth trainers and animators
Sports and Physical Education  Insufficient  sporting activities
  • Insufficient sporting activities
  • Insufficient sport equipment in schools
  • Insufficient sport teachers in the different schools
  • § Low rate of physical exercise
  • § Poor development of sports and leisure disciplines
  • § Absence of sport organisations
  • § Insufficient  sport competitions
  • § Construct a sports complex
  • § Institute Proper management of the available sports facilities
  • § Employ sport teachers in schools
  • § Organize local  sporting activities
Transport Poor means of  transportation
  • Non existence of transport agencies in the municipality
  • Non existent transporters union
  • High cost of transport
  • Poor state of roads
  • Poor state of vehicles
  • Overloading of vehicles  and motor bikes
  • High rate of accidents
  • Inadequate circulation of persons and goods
  • Low economic activities
  • Drop in the labor force
  • High cost of transport
  • Rural exudos
  • Reorganize rural transportation network
Employment and Vocational Training  High rate of unemployment
  • Absence of a vocational training center
  • Insufficient  employment opportunities
  • High illitracy rate
  • Absence of professional training for potential job seekers
  • Absence of professional training schools
  • § High rate of illegal activities
  • § Juvenile delinquency
  • § High crime wave
  • § Construct SAR-SM and a professional training centre
  • § Support self employment through supply of seed capital
Small and Medium size Entreprises, Social Economy and Handicraft Insufficient actors in the informal sector 

 

  • Ignorance on procedures and formalities on enterprises creation
  • Limited opportunities for (mechanics, tailoring, panel beating/welding etc)
  • Weak vision and entrepreneurial capacity
  • Low capacity and skills of the population
  • Slow and weak promotion of the sector
  • High prices for basic services
  • High taxes for existing enterprises
  • Weak economic power of the population and the council
  • Insufficient revenue collection and diversification strategies
  • Create enabling environment to attract informal sector actors
  • Sensitize on small and medium size enterprises services
  • Support creation  of small and medium size enterprises and related services
Scientific Research and Innovation  Limited access to scientific innovations
  • Absence of research facilities (structures, personnel, equipment)
  • Poor dissemination of scientific innovations
  • Poor policy formulation and programming by the state with petroleum companies
  • Little or no information on agro pastoral innovations
  • Limited access to improved planting materials
  • Poor promotion of sectoral activities
  • Low quality of agricultural / Livestock products
  • Rudimentary production techniques
  • Poor production
  • Low revenues
  • High poverty rates
  • Train local community researchers
  • Institute Award of best innovative research projects
  • Carry out research on other  potentials
  • Initiate contacts with research departments of KORUP and PAMOL.
Tourism and Leisure  Poor development of touristic potentials
  • Absence of touristic infrastructures
  • Poor development of touristic sites
  • Enclavement of the communities
  • Poor Road network
  • § Poor attraction of tourists
  • § Poor economic power of the population and the communities
  • § Limited benefite from Pro Poor Tourism activities
  • § Develop touristic sites
  • § Construct touristic infrastructures (hotels, restaurants and guest houses)
  • § Maintain road network
Arts and Culture    High rate of deterioration of cultural values
  • § Absence of  community halls
  • § Poor development and promotion of cultural initiatives
  • § Poor socio-cultural infrastructure
  • § Poor financial and organisational capacity
  • § Poor community  mobilisation
  • § Non-binding decisions of ‘Palavar Houses’
  • § Loss of cultural values
  • § No cultural contribution in the economic growth of   communities
  • § Rural Exodus
  • § Construct community halls
  • § Organize cultural events
  • § Construct cultural Shrines

 

Industry, Mines and Technological Development Limited Development of the mining /  industrial sector
  • No feasibility studies carried out in this sector
  • Absence of trainings
  • Poor sensitization of the population
  • Absence of mining and industrial serctor policy

 

  • Poor conception of development plans
  • Over exploitaton of resources
  • None financing of micro projects by companies
  • Weak economic power of the council and population
  • High rate of poverty in the communities
  • Conduct feasibility study on existing minerals within the municipality.
  • Organize a Toko Development Conference
Post and Telecommunications  Difficult access to information and postal services
  • Poor access to Radio,  TV and internet signals
  • Poor Mobile Telecommunication network
  • Absence of Community radio station

 

  • § Population is less informed
  • § Poor exposure to the outside world
  • § Difficulties in communicating with people within and out of the community
  • § High rate of unemployment
    • § Installradio and TV network antennas
    • § Establish Community radio
    • § Institute Mobile Telecommunication net works
Labour and Social Security  High rate of Job insecurity
  • Insufficient number of stabilised entreprises and organisations
  • Poor organisation and structuring of self employment
  • High taxes
  • Poor sensitisation
  • § Poor participation in development activities
  • § High rate of poverty
  • § High rate of rural exodus
    • § Attract enterprises in the municipality
    • § Sensitize on the rights of the employee
Public Security  High rate of insecurity
  • No resident public security staff
  • No permanent security offices
  • Refusal of transferred staff to reside in the municipality
  • High rates of unprosecuted domestic desputes
  •   High crime wave
  •  Create public security post
  • Transfer security staff
  • Construct houses for security staff
Communication  Poor communication networks
  • Poor access to Cameroon TV and Radio signals
  • Poor lobbying capacity
  • No community radio
  • Poor initiation of community radio project
  • Poor circulation of newspapers
  • No newspaper agents
  • Poor circulation of information
  • Limited access to development programmes
  • Limited access to world events
  • Install CRTV antenna
  • Create community radio
  • Install news paper vendors

4.4. Table of Priority Projects per Village in the key Social Sectors

(villages with similarly ranked prioritized projects have been

grouped together)

Villages Sector Micro-projects in order of priority Estimated Costs (pending feasibility studies)
 

Toko, Meangwe I, Bonabeanga, Bweme

 

 Water and Energy  Rehabilitate and extend thermal electricity plant

 24.000.000

Rehabilitate and extend water scheme

50.000.000

Public Health Equip the health centre with essential drugs and equipment

8.000.000

Arts & Culture Construction of a community hall for cultural manifestation

10.000.000

Commerce Equip market with lock up stores

10.000.000

Basic Education Equipment and furniture in GS (pupil desks, table’s chairs for teachers)

30.000.000

Secondary Education Construction of four classrooms to GSS and supply of didactic materials

36.000.000

Public Works Rehabilitate road network

200.000.000

Madie I, II & III Water and Energy  Rehabilitate and extend thermal electricity plant

24.000.000

Rehabilitate and extend water scheme

50.000.000

Public Works Rehabilitate road network

200.000.000

Basic Education Equipment and furniture (pupil desks, table’s chairs for teachers)

30.000.000

Secondary Education Construction of four classrooms to GSS and supply of didactic materials

36.000.000

Culture Construct a community hall for cultural manifestations

10.000.000

Commerce Construct a modern permanent  market

30.000.000

Public Health Supply of basic health equipment and drugs to health center

10.000.000

Mofako, Iyoe, Basari, Dipundu, Ilondo, Lowe Public Health Construction of a  health centre and   public toilets

30.000.000

Basic Education Construction of  8 classrooms to four GSs  and supply didactic materials

107.800.000

Water and Energy Install water scheme

50.000.000

Install thermal electricity

38.500.000

Public Works Maintenance of existing road network and rehabilitation of culverts and bridges

72.000.000

Commerce Construction of a modern permanent  market

30.000.000

Dienge, Iwasa, Ikoi, Ndoi, Culture Construct community hall for cultural manifestations

10.000.000

Water and energy Construct a water scheme with gravity

50.000.000

Install thermal electricity

38.500.000

Basic Education Construction of four additional classrooms in  two GSs and supply of didactic materials and teachers tables and chairs

76.500.000

 Public Health Construct and equiped  health centre

20.000.000

Public Works Rehabilitation  of the road network

6.000.000

Ngamoki, Nwamoki Water and Energy Install water scheme

50.000.000

Install thermal electricity

38.500.000

Public Health Construction health center and equip   with basic essential  drugs

30.000.000

Public Works Rahabilitate existing road network

72.000.000

Commerce Construct  market

20.000.000

Esukotan, Ikenge, Banyo Water and Energy Install 3 thermal electricity plants

34.000.000

Install 3 water schemes

100.000.000

 Public Health Construct and equip  health centre (2)

50.000.000

Basic Education Rehabilitation of classrooms and supply of didactic materials

50.000.000

Public Works Rehabilitate road network

102.000.000

Employment & VocationalTraining Construct and equip SAR SM and make functional

50.000.000

Lipenja, Ikoti I, Ikoti II, Esoki Public Health Rehabilitate  and equip  health centre

20.000.000

Water Install water scheme

38.500.000

Energy Install 3 thermal electricity plants

34.000.000

Public Works Rehabilitate existing road network

106.000.000

Basic Education Construction of additional 3 classrooms and supply with teacher desks

24.000.000

Secondary Education Construct 2 classrooms for GTC

18.000.000

Culture Construct a community hall for cultural manifestations

10.000.000

Commerce Construct modern  market

20.000.000

 Bareka I & II, Betika, Bokuba, Iboko Water and Energy Install water schemes and form  functional management committee

107.000.000

Install thermal  electricity plants (2)

38.500.000

Public Health Construction of health center

26.000.000

Public Works Rehabilitate existing road network

50.000.000

Basic Education Construction of 6 classrooms and equip with  teachers desk and didactic materials

72.000.000

Culture Construct  3 community halls for cultural manifestation,

30.000.000

Masaka, Lobe, Tombe, Mayeke Water and Energy Install water schemes and form  functional management committee

50.000.000

Install thermal  electricity plants (4)

50.000.000

 Public Health Construction of health centre and equip   with basic essential  drugs

30.000.000

Public Works Rehabilitate existing road network

50.000.000

 Basic Education Construction of 4 additional classrooms

42.000.000

Dikome Ngolo, Mapanja, Dibonda I & II, Public Works Rehabilitate existing road network and construction of culverts/bridges

106.000.000

Water and Energy Supply  of a potable water scheme

50.000.000

Install thermal electricity (3)

50.000.000

Public Health Rehabilitate health centre

36.000.000

Basic Education Construction of 6 addition classrooms in GS Dikome, Mapanja and Dibonda

92.000.000

Bobangi, Ipongi, Babianga, Kile Kile, Mobenge Water  and Energy Supply of  pipe borne  water scheme by gravity

105.000.000

Install thermal electricity (3)

50.000.000

Culture Construct 3 community halls for cultural manifestations

45.000.000

Public Works Rehabilitate existing road network

106.000.000

Commerce Construct modern  market

30.000.000

 

5.0.               STRATEGIC PLANNING

5.1 Vision and Objective of the Communal Development Plan

 

 

The Vision

“Toko Council and the population enjoy a healthy relationship in which a well maintained road network links all villages with improved social infrastructure including electricity, water, health and education.”

 

 

  The Objective

 

“Toko Council continuously strives toward improving the life styles of the population through the effective and efficient supply of basic services in the domains of health, education and socio economic infrastructure.”

 

5.2 LOGICAL FRAMEWORK BY SECTOR

WOMEN EMPOWERMENT AND THE PROMOTION OF THE FAMILY:

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Decision making by women improved At least 50% of women take decisions on matters that concern them by 2020. – Testimonies- Administrative reports Negative cultural practices against women reduced.
Specific objective Marginalization of women and children reduced By 2015 at least 50% of women are empowered personally, economically, socially, culturally and politically. – Administrative reports-  Testimonies Male subordination reduced
Results 1. Economic power of women increased At least 40% of women embark on profitable income generating activities by 2015. – Business records- Administrative reports Favourable economic conditions
2. Representation and participation of women in development and political issues increased. By 2015, at least 50% of members in development and political committees are women –  Administrative reports-Testimonies – Negative socio-cultural biases.-  Inferiority complex of women reduced.
3. Ignorance of women on their rights reduced By 2015, at least 50% of the women in the municipalities know their rights and apply them – Testimonies-  Reports Male subordination reduced
4. Level of education for women increased At least 20% of young girls enroll in schools at all levels yearly. School enrollment registers Negative cultural practices reduced

 

PUBLIC WORKS :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Circulation of goods and persons increased By 2020 transport means increase in the municipality yearly by at least 15% –          Traffic counts-          Testimonies Stable economic  environment
Specific objective Rural roads network improved By 2020, at least 30% of the communities  are accessible all seasons –          Transport record-          Testimonies

–          Visits

–          Community collaboration-          Stable economic environment
Results 1. Farm to market roads increased By 2020, at least 40km of roads constructed, regularly maintained and accessible all seasons. –          Administrative reports-          Visits –          Community collaboration-          Stable economic environment
2. Conditions of existing roads improved At least 30km of existing roads are regularly maintained and accessible all seasons by 2015 –          Visits-          Administrative reports Community collaboration
3. State of culverts and bridges improved 25% of broken down culvers and bridges are rehabilitated and used by 2015 –          Visits-          Testimonies Community collaboration

 

ENERGY RESOURCES :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Lighting of communities improved By 2020, at least 30% of communities in the municipality are regularly supplied with electricity –          Public interviews-          Administrative reports

–          Observations

Favourable economic and political environment
Specific objective Access to electricity supply increased At least 20% of the population use electricity for lighting of their houses and businesses by 2015 –          Business record-          Interviews Favourable economic and political environment
Results 1. Thermal electricity plants in Toko and Madie Ngolo made functional By 2015, two thermal electricity plants in Toko and Madie Ngolo are maintained regularly, and supply electricity throughout. –          Observations-          Testimonies

–          Administrative reports

Stable economic environment
2.   Community generators increased and functional At least 20 community generators installed and functional by 2015. –          Testimonies-          Observations Community collaboration
3. Connection to the national electricity supply network (AES SONEL) enhanced By 2015, Toko town has functional AES SONEL installations –          Administrative report-          Public interviews Stable political environment

 

 

WATER RESOURCES :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Prevalence of water born diseases reduced By 2020, the  number of reported cases of water borne diseases reduce by at least 50% in all the communities with portable water –          Health centre records-          Testimonies Water pollution reduced
Specific objective Access to potable water increased At least 10 communities have  access to potable water by 2020 –          Administrative reports-          Visits

–          Testimonies

Favourable policy framework
Results 1. Potable water schemes increased At least 10 communities have functional portable water schemes by 2020 –          Site visits-          Administrative reports An enabling economic and political conditions
2. Functional water schemes increased All existing water schemes are maintained regularly and functional by 2015. –          Site visits-          Administrative reports An enabling economic and political conditions
3. Contamination of available water sources reduced. At least 20% of water sources in the municipality are good for drinking by 2015 –          Testimonies-          Site visits

–          Council reports

Community collaboration

 

 SECONDARY EDUCATION :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Global objective Illiteracy rate at the secondary level reduced By 2020, literacy rate increased by at least 20% in the municipality –          Administrative and management reports Favorable policy framework
Specific objective Access to quality secondary education increased At least 60% of pupils from primary school have access to secondary education and at least 60% obtain 4 “O” level subjects or more by 2015 –          GCE ‘O’ level results-          Administrative and management report Favorable economic and political environment
Results 1. Qualified teachers increased By 2015 each secondary schools have at least 10 qualified teachers –          Transfer decision-          Administrative and management report Favorable economic and political environment
2. Infrastructure increased All secondary and technical schools have at least five classroom blocks, a water point, a latrine, a library and workshop  by 2015. –          Visit to schools-          Administrative and management reports Favorable economic conditions
3. Equipment increased By 2015, all classrooms constructed are equipped with desks, chairs, tables & blackboards –          Visits to schools-          Inventory record Favorable economic conditions

 

BASIC EDUCATION :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Global objective Illiteracy rate at the basic level reduced By 2020 at least 70% of children (half of them girls between the ages of 12 – 14) obtain F.S.L.C –          Reports of the inspectors of basic education-          F.S.L.C results –          Favourable policy framework-          Favourable economic and political environment
Specific objective Access to quality basic education increased By the year 2020 at least 80% of the children (half of them girls) within the municipality have access to quality basic education –          F.S.L.C results-          Administrative and management reports –          Favourable policy framework-           Favourable economic and political environment
Results 1. Qualified teachers increased At least 90% of nursery and primary schools have at least four functional qualified teachers by 2015. –          Transfer decisions-          Administrative and management reports –          Favourable policy framework-           Favourable economic and political environment
2. School infrastructure increase (classroom, latrines, libraries, water points, staff residence) At least 70% of nursery and primary schools in the municipality have at least four classrooms, a water point, a latrine and a library by 2015. –          Visit to schools-          Administrative and management report Favourable economic conditions
  3.  School equipment / materials increased By 2015 at least 70% of classrooms constructed are fully equipped with desks, chairs, tables, boards and required didactic materials yearly.  –          Visit to schools-          Administrative and management repor Favourable economic conditions

 

 PUBLIC HEALTH :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Global objective Health status improved By 2015, the death rate reduces by a least 30% each year. –   Health centre records-   Testimonies –          Economic and political stability.-          Epidemic reduced
Specific objective Access to quality health services improved By 2015 at least 60% of the population have access to quality health services –   Health centre records-   Testimonies Cooperation of stakeholders
Results 1. Health infrastructure increased By 2015, all health centers created are constructed according to required specifications –   Visit to health centres-   Health centre reports Favourable economic and political environment
2. Health equipment increased (beds, delivery beds and kits, laboratory equipment etc) By 2020, all health centers have at least 50% of required basic equipment –   Visit to health centres.-   Inventory record Favourable economic and political environment
3.  Access to quality and affordable essential drugs increased All health centers have pro-pharmacies with regular supply of essential drugs by 2015 –   Visit to health centre and pro-pharmacy-   Testimonies Favourable economic and political environment
4.  Qualified health personnel increased By 2015 all centres have at least 3 functional qualified staff –   Health centre reports-   Transfer decisions Favourable policy framework

  

 COMMERCE :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Global objective Commercial activities  increased within the municipality By 2014, revenue of the council  from commercial activities increase by at least 15% annually –          Accounts document-          Testimonies Favorable taxation policy
Specific objective Commercial activities increased Diversified commercial activities increase by at least 30% by 2015 –          Visit to business places-          Council revenue reports Enabling business climate
Results 1. Micro – enterprises increased At last 50 lucrative micro – enterprise exists by 2015 –          Visit to market-          Council report Favorable economic environment
2. Marketing of products improved By 2015 at least 70% of the population market their products in appropriate environment and fetch good prices –          Interviews with market masters.-          Radio announcements on market prices Availability of funds ensured
Commercial activities  increased within the municipality By 2014, revenue of the council  from commercial activities increase by at least 15% annually –          Visit to micro-finance-          Testimonies Laws establishing micro-finance institutions respected

 

AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT:

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Global objective Agricultural products regularly available in the municipality Varieties of agricultural products available in the municipality all cropping seasons by 2015 –          Administrative reports-          Testimonies Favorable climatic conditions
Specific objective Agricultural production and productivity increased By 2015 at least 40% of farmers increase their yields by at least 10% yearly –          Farm visits-          Farm record

–          Administrative reports

Epidemic outbreak reduced
Results 1. Pests and diseases attack on cocoa (black pod) reduced At least 20% reduction in losses due to pests and diseases attack by 2015 –          Farm records / visits-          Administrative reports Favorable prices for fungicides and pesticides
2. Use of improved planting materials increased By 2013 at least 40% of farmers use improved planting materials yearly and experience an increase in yields, –          Farm record-          Administrative report s Timely availability of improved planting materials
3.  Use of fertilizers increased (organic and inorganic) By 2015, at  least 30% of farmers use organic and inorganic fertilizers and increase their yields by at least 10% yearly. –          Farm record-          Administrative reports Favorable prices for inorganic fertilizers
4.  Farming practices improved By 2014 at least 30% of farmers practice improved farming techniques –          Farm visit administrative reports Bush fire reduced
  5. Post harvest losses reduced By 2014 at least 30% of farmers reduce post harvest losses by at least 50% –          Administrative reports-          Interviews Rural road network improved

 

 

LIVESTOCK :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Global objective Nutritional conditions of the population improved At least 40% of the population increase protein intake by at least 10% annually –          Testimonies-          Health record Epidemic outbreak reduced
Specific objective Livestock production and productivity increased By 2020 at least 30% of the population keep livestock and increase production by at least 10% yearly –          Farm record-          Administrative reports Epidemic outbreak reduced
Results 1.  Livestock production practices improved At least 50% of livestock farmers practice improved breeding techniques by 2015 –          Farm visits Epidemic outbreak reduced
2. Use of improved livestock breed increased By 2015 at least 60% of farmers use improved livestock breed and increase the production –          Farm visits-          Administrative reports Favourable economic environment
3. Use of quality livestock feed increased By 2015 at least 50% of farmers use quality livestock feed and increase their production by at least 5% –          Farm record-          Administrative reports Favourable prices for livestock feed
4. Rate of diseases incident reduced By 2015, disease attack on animals reduce by at least 3% annually –          Farm record-          Administrative reports Epidemic outbreak reduced

 

 FISHERIES : 

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Global objective Nutritional intake of the population improved By 2015 at least 30% of the population increases their protein intake by at least 10% yearly. –          Testimonies-          Health record Stable economic environment
Specific objective Fish production and productivity  increased By 2015, the fishing population increase their harvest by at least 3% annually –          Administrative reports Fish poisoning reduced
Results 1.  Sustainable Fish harvesting methods increased By 2015, at least 50% of fish harvesting is done with improved equipment –          Visit to fishing  sites-          Administrative reports Environmental laws respected
2. Fish pond increased At least 4 functional fish pond exist in the municipality by 2015 –          Visit to fish pond-          Administrative reports Stable economic environment

 

STATE PROPERTY AND LAND TENURE:

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Global objective Security of State and Private properties improved. By 2015 at least 40% of state property and land  secured –          Visits-          Administrative reports –          Favourable land tenure policy.-          Enabling political and economic climate
Specific objective Legal possession of land increased. By 2015 at least 30% of Government property are in good state with reduced  illegal possession –          Visits-          Land certificates

–          Administrative reports

–          Favourable land tenure policy.-          Favourable political and economic climate
Results 1. Title deeds for state and private land increased. At least 20% of land have land certificates and are developed by 2015 Land certificates Conflict management ensured
2. Management of state property and land occupied improved By 2015, a management plan is developed and implemented by all stakeholders. Management plan Collaboration of all stakeholders

 

 

HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT:

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Master plan for the municipality developed At least 3 major towns in the municipality have master plans by 2015 –          Town visit-          Administrative reports Collaboration between council and urban development and housing
Specific objective Town planning improved By 2015, the towns of Toko, Madie 1 and Lipenja are well presented with streets –          Town visit-          Administrative reports Collaboration between council and urban development and housing
Results 1. Master plans of the municipality made available Master plans of Toko, Madie 1 and Lipenja put in place and used by 2013 –          Master plan-          Administrative reports Collaboration between council and urban development and housing
2.  Construction of houses using permanent materials increased At least 30% of the houses in the municipality are permanent structures by 2015 –          Permits-          Council reports Collaboration between council and urban development and housing
3.  Haphazard building of houses reduced At least 40% of the population construct their houses with building permits by 2015 –          Town visits-          Council reports Favorable economic conditions

 

 

ENVIRONMENT, NATURE PROTECTION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Rate of pollution reduced Water and air pollution reduce in the municipality by at least 20% by 2015 –          Site visits-          Administrative reports Environmental laws respected
Specific objective Environmental degradation reduced Environmental degradation due to human practices reduce by at least 20% by 2015 –          Site visits-          Testimonies

–          Administrative reports

–    Environmental laws respected-    Community collaboration
Results 1. Management of natural resources improved At least 20% of natural resources are sustainably managed by 2015 –          Visits to forests, water sources and famers-          Administrative reports –    Environmental laws respected-    Community collaboration
2.  Waste management improved By 2014 a functional waster management system is put in place –          Town visits-          Council reports Community collaboration
3.  Drainage system improved By 2014, drainage systems are constructed, functional and regularly maintained –          Site visits-          Council reports –    Favorable economic conditions-    Community collaboration

 

 FORESTRY AND WILDLIFE :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Extinction of forest resources reduced By 2015, destruction of biodiversity reduced by at least 20% –   Administrative report-   Visits to forest –    Forest laws respected-     Fire disasters reduce
Specific objective Management of forest resources improved By 2015 at least 50% of the population practice sustainable forest management techniques –   Site visits-   Administrative report

 

–    Forest laws respected 
Results 1. Illegal exploitation of timber reduced By 2015, Illegal exploitation of the forest reduced by at least 20% –   Administrative report-   Visits to forest –    Forest laws respected-    Conflict over land use reduced
2. Illegal hunting reduced By 2015, Illegal hunting reduced by at least 20% –   Administrative report-   Testimonies –    Forest laws respected 
3. Non timber forest products sustainably managed By 2015 at least 10.000 NTFPs are domesticated and sustainably harvested –   Visits to forest and farms-   Testimonies Community collaboration
4.  Forestation increased. By 2015 at least 5000 trees are planted in the municipality –   Visits to the forest Community collaboration

 

TOURISM AND LEISURE :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Revenue from the tourism sector  increased Annual revenue from the tourism sector increase by at least 20% –          Council accounts record-          Testimonies Favorable economic and political conditions
Specific objective Development of tourist potentials increased By 2015 at least 100 tourists visit the municipality annually –          Council reports-          testimonies Favorable political conditions
Results 1. Tourist infrastructures such as hotels and restaurants increased By 2014 at least 1 functional standard hotel and restaurant exist in the municipality –          site visit-          administrative  reports Enabling economic conditions
2.  Development of tourist sites increased At least 3 tourist sites are developed and attract tourists by 2014 –          site visits-          council report Enabling economic conditions
3.  Community mobilization improved By 2014, at least 10  tourist guides  trained and functional –          testimonies-          council reports Community solidarity ensured

 

ARTS AND CULTURE :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Cultural values enhanced By 2015, Cultural awareness within the municipality increase by at least 50% –          reports Stable economic and political climate
Specific objective Deterioration of cultural values reduced Cultural values in the  municipality are practiced by at least 50% of the population by 2015 –          testimonies-          reports Community solidarity ensured
Results 1. Development and promotion of cultural activities increased By 2015, at least 50% of cultural activities are revived and practiced in the municipality –          testimonies-          administrative reports Stable political climate
2.  Cultural infrastructures established By 2015 at least 2 functional community halls and museums exist and are used –          site visits-          council reports Stable economic environment
3. Community mobilization improved At least 60% of the population take part in annual cultural activities –          reports-          testimonies Community solidarity ensured

 

INDUSTRY, MINES AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Industrial base of the municipality increased Council industrial policy put in place  by 2013 –          Visits-          Administrative reports

Favorable policy framework
Specific objective Development of the mining and industrial  sector improved At least one feasibility study conducted by 2014 –          Administrative reports-          Testimonies Favorable policy framework
Results 1. Mining activities in the municipality promoted At least 1 processing industry functional by 2015 –          Prospection reports-          data Favorable policy framework
2. An industrial zone put in place By 2015 at leas one industrial zone exists –          Site visits-          Reports Favorable political climate

 

 

COMMUNICATION :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Circulation of information improved By 2015, at least 50% of the population are informed on major events –          Testimonies-          Reports Favourable policy framework
Specific objective Access to information increased .By 2015 at least 50% of the population can regularly send and receive information –          Testimonies-          Reports Favourable policy framework
Results 1. Access to radio, TV and internet signals improved By 2015, at 30% of the population receive CRTV and other signals –          Home visits-          Reports Favourable policy framework
2.  Community radio put in place By 2015, at least one functional community radio exist in the municipality –          Visit to radio-          Reports Favorable economic conditions
3. Circulation of news papers increased By 2014 at least one functional newspaper vendor exist in the municipality –          Available newspapers-          Reports Favorable economic conditions

 

 POST AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Communication with people within and out of the country improved By 2015 at least 50% of the population regularly send and receive information using telecommunication –          Testimonies-          reports Favorable policy framework
Specific objective Access to postal services and telecommunication increased By 2015 at least 50% of the population are satisfied with postal and telecommunication services –          testimonies Favorable policy framework
Results 1. Mobile telecommunication network increased By 2015 at least 2 functional mobile telephone networks exist in the municipality –          list of subscribers-          testimonies Stable economic environment
2.  Functional post office put in place By 2015 at least 1 functional post office exist in the municipality –          visit-          administrative reports

–          testimonies

Favorable policy framework

 LABOUR AND SOCIAL SECURITY :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Job security increased At least 50% of the working population have job security by 2015 –          Testimonies-          Administrative reports Favorable economic climate
Specific objective Employee Social security payments improved By 2015, 50% employers regularly contribute social security for  their workers –          Testimonies-          Administrative reports Favorable economic climate
Results 1. Stable Institutions increased By 2014 at least 5 stable and profitable institutions established within the municipality  –          Visit-           council reports Favorable economic climate

 

 PUBLIC SECURITY :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Crime ware reduced By 2015, at least 40% of the population in the municipality circulate freely and live in peace –          Testimonies-          Administrative reports Enabling economic and political climate
Specific objective Insecurity reduced By 2015 the number of criminal cases reduce by at least 30% yearly –          Testimonies-          Security reports Enabling economic and political climate
Results 1. Security officers increased By 2015 at least 10 new elements of the  forces of law and order are transferred and functional –          Transfer decision-          Administrative reports Favourable policy framework
2. Permanent structures for forces of law and order and customary court put in place By 2015 gendarmerie brigade, police post and customary court structures are constructed and functional –          Visit-          Administrative reports Favourable policy framework
3.  Lighting of the municipality increased By 2015, the streets of Toko and Madie Ngolo  are regularly lighted. –          Visit-          Council reports Favourable policy framework

 

 

TERRITORIAL ADMINISTRATION AND DECENTRALISATION :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Peaceful coexistence and mutual respect within the municipality By 2015 at least 70% of communities express willingness to collaborate with local administrators –          Visits-          Administrative reports Favourable economic and political condition
Specific objective Trust in local administration increased By 2014 at least 50% of the population respect their chiefs, community laws and the local administration –          Testimonies-          Reports Enabling political climate
Results 1. Collaboration and classification of Chiefs improved By 2014 at least 60% of Chiefs are recognized and serve as auxiliaries of the administration. –          Testimonies-          Administrative Reports Enabling political climate
2. Community awareness, commitment & mobilization improved By 2014, at least 60% of the population regularly participates in meetings initiated by the administration. –          Testimonies-          Reports Collaboration community members ensured

 

 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND INNOVATION:

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Access to Scientific benefits increased within the municipality By 2015 at least 70% of the population have  access to scientific innovations –          Testimonies-          Administrative reports Favourable economic climate
Specific objective Technological innovations increased By 2015,  improved scientific technologies in agriculture and livestock available within the municipality –          Visits-          Administrative Reports Appropriateness of technology ensured
Results 1. Dissemination of scientific innovations (inputs) improved By 2015 scientific inputs in agriculture and livestock made available in 49 villages –          Testimonies-          Field visits

–          Reports

Timeliness and appropriateness of research findings
2. Research outreach programs increased By 2013, research outreach programs  exist in the municipality –          Testimonies-          Research Reports Collaboration of stakeholders ensured

 

SOCIAL AFFAIRS :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Assistance to vulnerable population increased By 2015, at least 70% of vulnerable persons are empowered and satisfied with the services rendered –          reports-          testimonies Enabling political and economic conditions
Specific objective Social services improved By 2015 at least 70% of vulnerable persons have access to quality social services -Reports-Testimonies Enabling economic conditions
Results  

 

1. Social Centers increased At least 2 functional social centers exist by 2014 -Site visits-Reports Enabling economic conditions
2. Social workers increased By 2014, at least 4 functional trained social workers exist -Transfer decision-Administrative report Favourable policy framework
3. Awareness on available social benefits for vulnerable persons increased At least 80% of vulnerable persons know their social benefits and at least 70% get them regularly -Administrative reports-Testimonies Enabling economic conditions

 

 

 

 

 YOUTH AND CITIZEN EDUCATION :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Awareness on youthful living and civic  responsibilities increased At least 70% of youths are living responsible lives by 2014 -Visit-Reports Favourable economic conditions
Specific objective Youth empowerment facilities and programs increased By 2014, realistic youth programs are drawn up and implemented yearly in conducive environments -Visit-reports Favourable education policy
Results1 Trainers and youth animators increased By 2014 at least 2 functional youths animators are in place and functional -visit-Report Favourable economic conditions
2. Youth empowerment structures and services increased By 2015 at least 1 youth animation centre is constructed and functional -Transfer decision-Administrative report Favourable policy framework.
3. Mobilization of youths on income generating activities increased At least 10% of youths operate gainful businesses by 2014 -Reports Enabling political conditions.

 

 SPORTS AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Physical education exercises increased. By 2015, at least 50% of the population carry out physical exercises -Testimonies-Visits Change of attitude in sporting activities
Specific objective Sporting activities increased Diversified sporting activities increased by at least 20%  and promoted regularly -Reports-Observations Enabling economic conditions
Results 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. Sports equipment in schools increased By 2015 each school is equipped with at least 3 sport equipment -School record-Visits Enabling economic conditions
2. Sports teachers increased At least 5 functional trained teachers in place by 2013 -Transfer decision-Reports Favorable policy framework.
3. Sports complex increased At least 2 sport complex exist and used. -Visits-Reports Enabling economic conditions.
4. Local sports activities increased At least 2 sport competitions organized yearly -Council reports-Testimonies Enabling economic conditions

 

 

 EMPLOYMENT AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING :

 

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Skills development  increased. By 2015, marketable skills transferred to at least 40% of persons within the employable age -Testimonies-Trainees evaluation reports Enabling economic conditions
Specific objective Employment increased By 2015, at least 40% of individuals with professional skills are gainfully employed -Employment contracts-Testimonies Enabling economic conditions
Results1.

 

1. Training opportunities increased By 2014, at least 500 individuals trained on small business start ups -Reports-Testimonies Favourable policy framework
2. Self employment increased By 2015, at least 50% of those trained are self employed – Visit to business places- Tax receipts

 

Enabling business climate

 

 

 TRANSPORT :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Circulation of goods and persons improved At least 50% of the population move safely and on time within and outside the municipality by 2015 -Observations-Council record

-Testimonies

Favourable economic and political conditions
Specific objective Means of transportation improved By 2015, at least 50% of the population travel in good vehicles with affordable fares -Testimonies-Council record Cooperation of transporters ensured
Results 

 

 

 

 

 

1. Transport vehicles increased By 2015, transport vehicles and motorbikes increase by at least 40% -Council record-Observations Enabling economic conditions
2. State of vehicles improved At least 70% of vehicles and motorbikes are regularly maintained -Visit to garages-Testimonies

-Records of broken down vehicles

Enabling economic conditions.
3. Overloading of vehicles and motorbikes reduced At least 40% of passengers travel comfortably in vehicles and on motorbikes regularly. -Testimonies-Transport record Cooperative transporters union

 

 

  HIGHER EDUCATION :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Number of professional institutions  increased At least 1 professional institution exist in the municipality by 2014 -Testimonies-Reports Enabling economic conditions
Specific objective Access to quality higher education increased At least 25% of youths obtain Diplomas and degrees by 2015 -Enrollment register-Testimonies Favourable economic and political environment
Results 

 

 

 

 

1. Access to professional schools increased At least 25% of youths are admitted into professional schools by 2015 -Visit-Decision creating the school Favourable political environment
2. Higher professional schools in the division increased At least 1 professional school created  by 2014 -Testimonies  Enabling economic conditions.

 

SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZE ENTERPRISES, SOCIAL ECONOMY AND HANDICRAFT :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Actors in the Informal Sector within the municipality increased By 2015  informal sector actors increase by at least 35% yearly –    council revenue reports-    testimonies –   security ensured-   enabling economic environment
Specific objective Small and medium size  enterprises increased By 2015 at least 40 small and medium size enterprises are operational in the municipality –    Visit-    Council reports enabling economic environment
Results 1. Capacity and skills of the population for informal sector activities increased At least 400 persons  acquire knowledge and skills and operate small enterprise (restoration, woodwork, hair dressers, mechanics, tailoring) –    Visit to business places-    Council reports –   enabling economic environment-   enthusiasm of youths
2.  Access to the services of small and medium size enterprises increased At least 70% of the population attend various training organized by this sector by 2013 Training reports –   enabling economic environment-   wiliness of the youths ensured

 

 

 TOKO COUNCIL :

Strategy Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions
Level Formulation
Overall objective Provision of basic services to the population increased At least 70% of the population have access to basic services by 2015 –  Visits-  Observations

–  Pictures

– Administrative reports

Enabling economic and political environment
Specific objective Functional capacity of Toko council strengthened By 2015, at least 80% of  council departments are in place and offering services to the population –  Testimonies-  Administrative report

–  Visits

–  Pictures

– Collaboration of main stakeholders- Enabling economic conditions
Results  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. Human resource management improved – By 2015, the council is equipped with sufficient qualified and regularly motivated staff. –  List of council staff- Organigramme

– Council reports

– Permanent residence of staff ensured- Favourable policy framework
2.  Funds increased Council funds increased yearly by at least 25% and used following budget allocations –           Financial report-          Testimonies Favourable economic conditions
3. Management of council assets increased By 2015 at least 50% of council  assets are acquired and used according to standard operating procedures –          Visit-          Council report –          Favourable economic conditions-          Collaboration of all stakeholders ensured
4.  Collaboration with main stakeholders improved By 2013, at least 50% of the main stakeholders actively participate in the realization of development projects in the municipality -TestimoniesCouncil reports

 

Conducive political climate

 

  

5.0.                                        OPERATIONAL PLANNING (PROGRAMMING)

 

Cost of the CDP per Sector

No

Sector

Cost of Activities (FCFA)

1

Women Empowerment and the Promotion of the Family

124.000.000

2

Public Works

3.219.000.000

3

Energy

225.000.000

4

Water

2.004.300.000

5

Secondary Education

99.960.000

6

Basic Education

909.080.000

7

Public Health

74.700.000

8

Commerce

59,000,000

9

Agriculture and Rural Development

323.000.000

10

Livestock

83.300.000

11

Fisheries

71.000.000

12

State Property and Land Tenure

5.300.000

13

Housing and Urban Development

10.900.000

14 Environment, Nature Protection and Sustainable Development

34.100.000

15

Forestry and Wildlife

35.600.000

16

Tourism and Leisure

63.000.000

17

Arts and Culture

155.400.000

18

Industry, Mines and Technological Development

3.000.000

19

Communication

26.300.000

20

Post and Telecommunication

20.000.000

21

Labor and Social Insurance

16.400.000

22

Public Security

100.500.000

23

Territorial Administration and Decentralization

9.900.000

24

Scientific Research and Innovation

20.000.000

25

Social Affairs

100.700.000

26

Youth and Citizen Education

105.400.000

27

Sports and Physical Education

57.300.000

28

Employment and Vocational Training

210.800.000

29

Transport

60.000.000

30

Higher Education

4.500.000

31

Small and Medium Size Enterprises, Social Economy and Handicraft

20.000.000

32

Toko Council

78.200.000

33

Total Cost of the CDP

8.309.640.000

 

Total cost of the Communal Development Plan (CDP) of Toko municipality is eight thousand three hundred nine million six hundred and forty thousand francs CFA.


6.1. Mid Term Expenditure Framework (MITEF) 3 years (2012 to 2014)

 

No Sector Micro Projects / (locations)                                 Cost Funding Source
1 Basic Education Lobby for transfer of 20 trained teachers(Mundemba & Buea)

600.000

Council Budget

2   Construct  (12) Classrooms(Toko, Madie I, Lipenja, Mokako, Dikome, Dibonda)

118.000.000

PIB /FEICOM

3   Construct (12) Latrines(Toko, Madie I, Lipenja, Mokako, Dikome)

60.000.000

PIB /FEICOM

4   Construct (5) Fences(Toko, Madie I, Lipenja, Mokako, Dikome)

50.000.000

PIB /FEICOM

5   Supply (3.719) Desks(Kilikile, Esukotan, Ikenge, Bweme, Betika,Nwamoki, Ikoe, Banyo, Ndoi, Itali, Mofako, Dibonda, Bombangi, Lipenja, Dikome, Madie I, II, III, Toko, Moboka)

111.580.000

PNDP/ FEICOM

6   Supply  (72 sets) of Tables and Chairs(Kilikile, Esukotan, Ikenge, Bweme, Betika,Nwamoki, Ikoe, Banyo, Ndoi, Itali, Mofako, Dibonda, Bombangi, Lipenja, Dikome, Madie I, II, III, Toko, Moboka)

25.000.000

PIB

7   Supply Didactic Materials (assorted)(Kilikile, Esukotan, Ikenge, Bweme, Betika,Nwamoki, Ikoe, Banyo, Ndoi, Itali, Mofako, Dibonda, Bombangi, Lipenja, Dikome, Madie I, II, III, Toko, Moboka)

46.000.000

PIB

8 Secondary Education Lobby for the transfer of  20 trained teachers(Toko, Madie I, Lipenja)                    600.000

Council Budget

9 Construt  14 Classrooms and Workshops(Toko, Madie I, Lipenja)

126.000.000

PIB/FEICOM

10 Construct  3 Latrines (Toko, Madie I, Lipenja)

16.250.000

PIB/FEICOM

11 Construct 3 Fences(Toko, Madie I, Lipenja)

32.000.000

PIB

12 Supply  400 Desks (Toko, Madie I, Lipenja)

12.000.000

PNDP / PIB

13   Supply  (10 sets)Tables and Chairs(Toko, Madie I, Lipenja)

3.500.000

PIB

14   Supply Didactic Materials (assorted)(Toko, Madie I, Lipenja)

6.000.000

PIB

15   Allocate and Equip library (1)(Toko)

20.000.000

PNDP / PIB

16   Construct Administrative Block (2)(Toko, Madie I)

45.000.000

PIB

17 Public Health Renovate 2  Health Centers (Lipenja & Dikome)

15.000.000

FEICOM

18   Supply 10 Normal Beds (Lipenja & Dikome)

3.000.000

               FEICOM
19   Supply 8 Delivery Beds (Toko, Madie I, Dikome)

  4.000.000

                FEICOM
20   Supply 6 Delivery Kits (Toko, Madie I, Dikome)

1.500.000

PIB

21   Supply 15 Baby Cots (Toko, Madie I, Dikome)

750.000

PIB

22   Supply 3 lots of Laboratory Equipment (Toko, Madie I, Dikome)

15.000.000

PIB

23   Equip  3 pharmacies with shelves and drugs(Toko, Madie I, Dikome)

25.000.000

PNDP

24   Train 3  Pharmacy Attendants (Toko, Madie I, Dikome)

600.000

SWSFH

25   Lobby  for transfer of qualified staff(Toko, Madie I, Dikome)

600.000

Council Budget

26 Agriculture & Rural Development Train farmers in 3 zones on pests and diseases control & Supply fungicides and pesticides(Ngolo, Batanga, Bakoko Zones)

13.000.000

FEICOM

27   Organise farmers in 3 zones to have access to fungicides and pesticides(Ngolo, Batanga, Bakoko Zones)

150.000

Council Budget

28   Sensitize farmers in 3 zones on the use of improved planting materials(Ngolo, Batanga, Bakoko Zones)

600.000

Council Budget

29   Distribute improved planting materials to farmers in 3 zones at subsidized rates(Ngolo, Batanga, Bakoko Zones)

70.000.000

FEICOM

30   Supply 3 Cassava Processing Units in 3 zones(Ngolo, Batanga, Bakoko Zones)

40.000.000

FEICOM

31   Train farmers in 3 zones on soil improvement techniques(Ngolo, Batanga, Bakoko Zones)

1.000.000

PNDP

32   Train farmers in 3 zones on improved farming practices(Ngolo, Batanga, Bakoko Zones)

1.000.000

PNDP

33   Train farmers in 3 zones on post harvest losses(Ngolo, Batanga, Bakoko Zones)

1.000.000

FEICOM

34   Support Plantation Farming & Supplyplanting materials (cocoa, cassava, plantains, banana) in 3 zones

(Ngolo, Batanga, Bakoko Zones)

80.000.000

PNDP / MINADER / FEICOM

35 Commerce Construct market(Madie I)

10.000.000

PIB

36   Maintain Markets(Madie I, Meangwe I)

5.000.000

PIB

37   Disseminate market prices of goods(Madie I, Meangwe I)

300.000

Council Budget

38   Lobby for the creation of 1 Micro- finance Institution(Madie I)

400.000

Council budget

39 Public Works Conduct 2 Studies for road construction(Madie I, Toko)

5.000.000

PIB

40   Construct new road(Madie I, Toko)

120.000.000

PIB

41   Maintain new roads(Madie I, Toko)

50.000.000

PIB

42   Conduct Studies for road rehabilitation(Madie I, Toko)

2.500.000

PIB/ FEICOM

43   Rehabilitate roads(Madie I, Toko)

70.000.000

FEICOM

44   Conduct Studies for Bridges and Culverts(Madie I, Toko)

1.500.000

FEICOM

45   Construct 6 Bridges(Madie I, Ikenge, Banyo, Lipenja, Moboka, Dikome Ngolo)

 

340.000.000

PNDP / PIB

46   Construct  12 Culverts(Madie I, Ikenge, Banyo, Lipenja, Moboka, Dikome Ngolo)

48.000.000

PNDP / PIB

47 Energy Rehabilitate 1 thermal electricity plant (Madie)

500.000

Council Budget

48   Maintain 1 thermal electric plant (Toko)

100.000

Council Budget

49   Install 4 Community generators (Dikome, Lipenja, Mapanja, Ikenge)

47.000.000

PIB

50   Maintain Community generators(Dikome, Lipenja, Mapanja, Ikenge)

3.000.000

Council Budget

51 Water Submit  1 Proposal to FEICOM (Toko)

500.000

Council Budget

52   Conduct Studies(Dikome, Lipenja, Mapanja, Ikenge)

2.500.000

FEICOM

53   Construct 4 water shemes (Dikome, Lipenja, Mapanja, Ikenge)

252.000.000

FEICOM

54   Mobilize Community Contribution(Dikome, Lipenja, Mapanja, Ikenge)

500.000

VDC / TOC

55   Creat and equip water maintenance committee(Dikome, Lipenja, Mapanja, Ikenge)                       600.000         Council Budget
56   Rehabilitate & Extend Madie – Moboka water sheme

15.000.000

PNDP

57   Sensitise Communities on hygiene and sanitation in 4 villages(Dikome, Lipenja, Mapanja, Ikenge)

500.000

VDC / TOC

58   Enact and implement laws on use of 4 sources of water(Dikome, Lipenja, Mapanja, Ikenge)

200.000

VDC / TOC

58   Train 4 Caretakers(Dikome, Lipenja, Mapanja, Ikenge)

250.000

Council budget

59   Protect 4 Catchment areas(Dikome, Lipenja, Mapanja, Ikenge)

500.000

Council budget

60 Toko Council  Train Staff and Councilors(Toko)

5.000.000

PNDP

61   Aquire Office equipment(Toko)

7.000.000

PNDP

62   Paint Council Chambers(Toko)

5.000.000

FEICOM

63   Rehabilitate Tipper & Pick up(Toko)

10.000.000

FEICOM

64   Rehabilitate Catepillar(Toko)

10.000.000

FEICOM

65   Acquire Real Estate(Toko)

50.000.000

PIB

66 Total MITEF

2.007.580.000

 

Total cost of TOC MITEF (2012 – 2014) is two thousand seven million, five hundred and eighty thousand francs CFA.

6.3    Annual Investment Plan

 

6.3.1. Available Resources and Deadlines

No Donor Amount (FCFA) When Donor Conditions
1 PNDP

63.000.000

March

10% Council Contribution

2 Toko Council

7.560.000

March

PNDP Requirement

3 PIB

19.500.000

February

Contract Award

4 TOTAL

90.060.000

 

 

 

 

6.3.2. Annual Program of Priority Projects (2012)

No

Sector

Name of Project

Type of Project

Objective

Location (s)/ Villages

Financing Partner / Execution Period

Project Cost

(FCFA)/ Vote Holder

1

Basic Education

Supply 320 desks in nursery and primary schools

Supplies

To increase access to quality educational facilities

GNS: Lipenja & Toko. GS: Madie Newtown, Madie Ngolo, Madie III Boembe, Banyo, Mofako Batanga, Bweme, Kilekile, Ikoi Ngolo, Dikome Ngolo, Moboka, Meangwe I, Toko, Betika, Dibonda, Bombangi, Lipenja, Ikenge, Esukotan, Itali, Nwamoki, Ndoi

PNDP/ TOC

(March 2012)

9.600.000/ Mayor

2

Secondary Education

Supply 70 desks to secondary schools

Supplies

To increase access to quality educational facilities

GSS Madie I and GTC Lipenja

PNDP/ TOC

(May 2012)

2.100.000 / Mayor

 

Supply 60 desks to secondary schools

Supplies

To increase access to quality educational facilities

GSS Toko

PIB

(May 2012)

1.800.000 / Director of Secondary Education

 

Construction of 2 classrooms

Construction

To increase access to quality educational facilities

GSS Madie Ngolo

PIB

(May 2012)

18.000.000/ Director of Secondary Education

 

Supply 6 Lots of tables and chairs

Supplies

To increase access to quality educational facilities

GSS Toko, Madie I and GTC Lipenja

PNDP / TOC

(May 2012)

1.500.000 / Mayor

 

Supply Didactic materials

Supplies

To increase access to quality educational facilities

GSS Toko, Madie I and GTC Lipenja

PNDP / TOC

(May 2012)

1.800.000/ Mayor

 

Equip Library with shelves and books

Supplies

To increase access to quality educational facilities

GSS Toko

PNDP / TOC

(May 2012)

1.260.000/ Mayor

3

Public Health

Equip pharmacy with shelves and drugs

 

Supplies

To increase access to quality health care

Toko

PNDP/ TOC

(May 2012)

5.000.000/ Mayor

4

Agriculture & Rural Development

Train farmers on improved farming methods (Post harvest lost & Soil improvement techniques) 

 

Supplies

 

Ngolo, Batanga and Bakoko

PNDP/ TOC

(March 2012)

1.000.000/ Mayor

5

 

Supply improved planting materials

Supplies

To increase food crop security

Ngolo, Batanga and Bakoko

PNDP/ TOC

(March 2012)

3.000.000/ Mayor

6

Water

Rehabilitate and extend potable water to Madie I & Moboka

Construction

To increase access to portable water supply

Madie I & Moboka

PNDP/ TOC

(June 2012)

15.000.000/ Mayor

7

Public Works

Construct  Iroka Bridge

Construction

To improve security of movements between Toko and Meangwe I

Meangwe I

PNDP/ TOC

(June 2012)

12.000.000/ Mayor

8

 

Construct culverts in Toko

Construction

To increase movement between Toko town

Toko

PNDP/ TOC

(June 2012)

6.000.000/ Mayor

9

Toko Council

Organise capacity building workshops (training) for Council Staff and councilors 

 

 

 

Supplies

To improve the functioning of Toko Council

Toko

PNDP/ TOC

(March 2012)

5.000.000/ Mayor

10

 

Supply computer, generator, tables, chairs, shelves, cupboards in offices

Supplies

To improve the functioning of Toko Council

Toko

PNDP/ TOC

(March 2012)

7.000.000/ Mayor

11

Total 2012 AIP

 

 

 

 

90.060.000

 

            TOC Priority Projects for 2012 stands at ninety million and sixty thousand francs CFA

6.4.  Simplified Environmental Management Framework of the

MITEF.

 

6.4.1. Main Potential Impact (socio-environmental) and

Mitigation measures

 

a)      Possible Social Impacts:

Micro project type in the MITEF Possible Social  Impacts  (Positive)  Possible Social  Impacts  (Social  Risks) Mitigation Measures
Supply Improved planting materials to farmenrs & Open new farms (plantations) –     Increased self employment opportunities-     Increased food production

–     Reduction in malnutrition

–     Food security ensured

–     Conflicts on land to be ceded for plantation planting  –     Create and train Land Management Platform members-     Ensure concrete Land Transfer agreements with KORUP, Christain Philantrophic and SITHE GLOBAL

 

Construction of classrooms and laboratories  for seconday education –     High performance in public exams-     Condusive learning environment

–     Increased  literacy rate

–     Reduction in leasure activities due limited land –     More allocation of land for play ground
Construction of embarkment –     Improve circulation of persons and goods-     Less distruction of buildings and household equipment –     Increase in accident –     Sign board  along the embarkments indicating danger zones
Install  new thermal plans –     Increase in socio economic activities-     Reduction in rural exodus

–     Increase in self employment

–     Increase in communication

–     Increase in crime wave-     Fire desasters

–     Conflict in site selection

–     High security control-     Installation of circuit breakers
Construction of New water schemes –     Reduction of  water borne diseases-     Intensification and diversification of socio cultural activities due to increase time available

–     Children will be more punctual at school leading to better performance

–     Improved hygiene and sanitation

–     Change in gender roles (more men fetching water since the taps are at their door steps)

–      Poor sanitation around water systeems –     Sensitisation of the population proper hygiene and sanitation
Construction of new roads –     There will be reduction in travelling hazards and risks-     Reduction in transport fares

–     Transportation cost for goods to travel by vehicle and motorbike will significantl reduced

–     Communities will notice an increase in traffic volume

–     Influx of theives  due to good roads-     High rate of juviniel deliquency and prostitution –     High security control-     Sensitisation of youths
Supply equipment (beds, delivery kits, laboratories –     Reduction in mobility and mortality rates-     Improvement in health status –     Poor hygienic conditions in use of equipments –     Sensitisation on hygienic conditions in use of equipments
Construction of new classroomsFor Basic education –     High performance in public exams-     Condusive learning environment

–     Increased  litracy rate

–     Reduction in leasure activities due limited land –     More allocation of land for play ground

 

 

b)      Possible Environmental Impacts: 

Micro project type in MITEF Possible Environmental Impacts  (positive)  Possible Environmental Impacts  (Environmental Risks) Mitigation Measures
Supply Improved planting materials to farmenrs & Open new farms (plantations) –     Reduction in  post harvest losses  –     Destruction of the forest and wildlife systems –     Agreement with conservation organizations on land to be ceded for farming
Construction of classrooms and laboratories –     Condusive learning environment –     Destruction of the natural environment –     Areas dug should be backfilled and trees planted
Construction of embarkment –     Reduce landslides along the motorable road  –     Water course will distroyed –     Deviation of the water course
Install new thermal electricity plant –     Provision light for the storage of fish thus reduced post harvest lossess –     Pollution of the environment by carbon monoxide –     Filter (carbon filter) to reduced pollution
Construction of new water schemes 

 

–     Improvement of hygiene and sanitation –     Destruction of soil struction and erosion for areas dugged for the construction of structures and pileline-     Waste from structures –     Areas dugged for construction  of structures and pileline will be backfilled-     Waste from structures will be directed to soak away pits ; through the availibility of water supply
Construction of new roads –     Post harvest losses in the disenclaved communities will witness a reduction –     Destruction of flora and funa-     Increase in soil erosion

–     Environmental pollution (dust)

–     Planting of trees along the road-     Construction of drainage system

–     Watering of road during construction

Supply equipment (beds, delivery kits, laboratories) –     Improved hygienic and sanitation conditions in the health centers and hospitals –     Poor waste disposal –     Dumping site for waste will be created and used-     Gabage cans will be installed
Construction of  new classrooms –     Condusive learning environment –     Destruction of the natural environment (funa and flora)-     Digging of site will increase erosion –     Planting of trees and lowers

 

6.4.2. Simplified Socio Environmental Management Plan

 

The plan below outlines  the measures,  actors,  periods and follow up indicators with corresponding  costs associated with the MITEF.

Environmental measures Putting in place actors Periods Follow up actors Costs Observations
Train Council Follow up Committee on environmental aspects of project implementation(using PNDP’s socio-environmental management framework).

 

PNDP    2012
  • Div. Delegations of MINEP  & MINAS
  •  PNDP
Council / PNDP joint budget
Checklist on the Socio-environmental form. SG and  Development officer 2012 to   2014
  • Div. Delegations of MINEP  & MINAS

  PNDP

  Follow up Committee

  Minicipal councilor s

Council / PNDP joint budget Associated Cost are inbuilt at  micro project conception level
Train COMES on  Policies to safeguard  socio environmental aspects. PNDP 2012    to 2013
  • Div. Delegations of MINEP  & MINAS

  PNDP

  Follow up Committee

  Minicipal councilor s

 Council / PNDP joint budget
Conduct Environnemental Impact  Studies/ Assessments (EIA) Council Executives and PNDP. 2012 to   2014
  •  Div. Delegations of MINEP  & MINAS

  PNDP

  Follow up Committee

  Minicipal councilor s

Council / PNDP joint budget The Council shall cover any costs associated with resettlments.
Monitor Socio Environmental Management Plan and Contractors. Follow up Committee andContractors 2012 to   2014
  • Div. Delegations of MINEP  & MINAS

 

 Council / PNDP joint budget

 

 

6.5. CONTRACT AWARD PLAN (CAP):

The CAP is presented in three categories namely; construction, infrastructure and supplies which are financed by the PNDP.

Category Project Location Deposit  of Tender Delivery of Tender Contract Amount
Construction Construction of 2 classrooms GSS Madie Ngolo

26/02/12

9/07/12

18.000.000

Infrastructure Rehabilitate and extend potable water to Madie I & Moboka Madie I & Moboka

26/02/12

9/07/12

15.000.000

(PNDP Funds)

Construct  Iroka Bridge Meangwe I

26/02/12

9/07/12

12.000.000

(PNDP Funds)

Construct 2 culverts Toko

26/02/12

9/07/12

6.000.000

(PNDP Funds)

Supplies Supply 320 desks in nursery and primary schools GNS: Lipenja & Toko. GS: Madie Newtown, Madie Ngolo, Madie III Boembe, Banyo, Mofako Batanga, Bweme, Kilekile, Ikoi Ngolo, Dikome Ngolo, Moboka, Meangwe I, Toko, Betika, Dibonda, Bombangi, Lipenja, Ikenge, Esukotan,Itali, Nwamoki, Ndoi

26/02/12

9/07/12

9.600.000

(PNDP Funds)

Supply 70 desks to secondary schools GSS Madie I and GTC Lipenja

26/02/12

9/07/12

2.100.000

(PNDP Funds)

Supply 60 desks to secondary schools GSS Toko

26/02/12

9/07/12

1.800.000

(PNDP Funds)

Supply 6 Lots of tables and chairs GSS Toko, Madie I and GTC Lipenja

26/02/12

9/07/12

1.500.000

(PNDP Funds)

Supply Didactic materials GSS Toko, Madie I and GTC Lipenja

26/02/12

9/07/12

1.800.000

(PNDP Funds)

Equip Library with shelves and books GSS Toko

26/02/12

9/07/12

1.260.000

(PNDP Funds)

Equip pharmacy with shelves and drugs  Toko

26/02/12

9/07/12

5.000.000

(PNDP Funds)

Train farmers on improved farming methods (Post harvest lost & Soil improvement techniques) 

 

Ngolo, Batanga and Bakoko

26/02/12

9/07/12

1.000.000

(PNDP Funds)

Supply improved planting materials Ngolo, Batanga and Bakoko

26/02/12

9/07/12

3.000.000

(PNDP Funds)

Organise capacity building workshops (training) for Council Staff and councilors 

 

 

 

Toko 

26/02/12

9/07/12

5.000.000

(PNDP Funds)

Supply computer, generator, tables, chairs, shelves, cupboards in offices Toko

26/02/12

9/07/12

7.000.000

(PNDP Funds)

Total CAP         90.060.000

 

6.0. MONITORING AND EVALUATION  MECHANISM

 

6.1.    Composition of the Follow up Committee:

No Name Position Function Telephone
1 Osih Mindako President Civil Status Registry/ Council Technician 96 58 39 87 / 79 67 31 21
2 Balemba Hilary Secretary Development Officer 74 85 56 93
3 Chief Nwese Adilf Ekokola Member Traditional Ruler 75 01 13 40
4 Nakeli Daniel Mboka Member Teacher
5 Cjief Esoh Samson Member Agric Technician
6 Chief Eboka Eboka Christopher III Member Traditional Ruler 77 01 51 67
7 MUDEC Group, Buea Technical Adviser LSO 77 64 94 30

Functions of the Follow up Committee:

 

Follow up work done by contractors as per the contract specifications including environmental concerns.

Execute periodic supervision visits to ensure that effective work is being done

Obtain funds through communication with the competent persons or structures

Evaluate and Update the AIP and MITEF

Update the Consolidated Report (Monographic Study) of Toko Council.

Search alternative sources of Funding for council activities.

Activate and operate the email address and website of the council

Work in close collaboration with Council Executives

Produce Monthly & Quarterly reports to the council

 6.2 Indicators for monitoring and evaluation (relation to the AIP)

 

Micro project
Strategic Action to be accomplished
Date of Monitoring and Evaluation
Resources Needed
What was planned to be done Person Responsible What has been done What still has to be done When should it be completed What will be there to show that it has been done Comments and reaction of the M&E committte
Activity 1            
Activity 2            
Activity 3            
Activity 4            
Activity 5            


7.3  Follow up Plans,Tools and Frequency (2012)

 

No. Duties Tasks Tools Expected Results Time Responsible
1 Participatory Management of information related to the execution of the CDP Collection of data Data Sheets Collected data Permanent Dev. Agent
Reporting Data consolidation charts Reports Monthly Dev. Agent
Hold Meetings Minutes Reports Monthly President Follow up Committee
Review & Dispatch Reports Project Monitoring book, Progress Reports, Project Schedule Reports Monthly Mayor
2 Participatory Administration of the Follow up process Prepare Committee Action & submit to Mayor/PNDP Action Plans Reports Monthly Dev. Agent Committee Chairperson
Hold Focus meeting on AIP & CAP Minutes Reports March 31st 2012 Mayor/SG
Monitor Tender Process on Feasibility Studies (FS) Minutes Reports March/April SG/ Dev. & Fin.Officer/
Monitor  Execution of FS Minutes Reports March/April SG/ Dev. & Fin.Officer/
Ensure proper validation of FS Minutes Reports March/April SG/ Dev. & Fin.Officer/
Submit request for financing from PNDP/other funders March/April Mayor
Mobilize council/community contributions March/April Mayor/ SG/Dev. Agent
Monitor execution of micro projects Minutes Reports March/April
Planned spot checks during project execution Project Monitoring book, Progress Reports, Project Schedule Reports Monthly President/members of  Follow up Committee
Unplanned spot checks during project execution Surveys Reports Weekly VDC & VTC, Couniclor concerned
Monitor validation of receipt of completed projects Reports March/April/ May/ June President/members of  Follow up Committee
Monitor commissioning & use of projects March/April/ May/ June President/members of  Follow up Committee
3 Socio Environmental Management Train Follow up Committee on Environmental PNDP Checlist aspects of project management PNDP Checlist Reports March/April Mayor
Train Enlarged Council Session on Socio- environmental Policies PNDP Checlist Reports March/April Mayor
Monitor Socio environment aspects of projects PNDP Checlist Reports March/April/ May/ June President/members of  Follow up Committee
Conduct Environmental Impact Assesments (studies) PNDP Checlist Reports March/April/ May/ June President/members of  Follow up Committee
Monitor Socio Environmental Management Plan PNDP Checlist Reports March/April/ May/ June President/members of  Follow up Committee
4 Logistical Support to Contractors during project execution Provide  Safekeeping for Materials Rooms Materials safe Daily VDC & VTC, Couniclor
Provide Lodging Rooms Contractor comfortable Daily VDC & VTC, Couniclor
5 Communication of CDP contents Review and Execute communication plan Communication checklist Report Monthly SG/ Dev. & Fin.Officer/
  Create & maintain contacts with potential funding partners for the MITEF with focus on the 2013 projects Internet/letters Report Monthly SG/ Dev. & Fin.Officer/
Initiate and Maintain Decentralized Cooperation with neighboring Councils (Mundemba, Nguti, Konye, Dikome Balue, Eyumojock) Meetings/letters Report Quarterly SG/ Dev. & Fin.Officer/
Maintain liaison role with all technical services at sub divisional, divisional & regional levels Meetings/letters Report Monthly SG/ Dev. & Fin.Officer/
6 Participatory Reviews Update Council Monograph Data Sheets Report November SG/ Dev. & Fin.Officer/
    Review  2012 AIP Data Sheets Report Quarterly SG/ Dev. & Fin.Officer/
Review MITEF & Prepare 2013 AIP Data Sheets Report November SG/ Dev. & Fin.Officer/
Facilitate Resource Mobilization for 2013 Data Sheets Report November SG/ Dev. & Fin.Officer/
Facilitate Municipal Deliberation  2013 AIP Meeting Report November Mayor
7 Execute  Financial Commitments Raise PV Check Reports Monthly Finance Agent
    Sign Check Check Reports Monthly Mayor
Produce financial statements Income statement Reports Monthly Fin. Agent


 

7.4  Review Mechanism of the CDP and preparation of the next

AIP

 

The Follow up Committee should engage in monthly reviews of the 2012 AIP to ascertain the rate of realisation and  to address gaps.

An end of 2012 evaluation exercise should be conducted so as to enable TOC determine best practices and lapses inorder to improve on future performances.

TOC development actors should be current with information on new orientations and emerging issues (regular use of the internet) that could be exploited and integrated in the AIP of 2013.

The services of competent development actors within and without the municipality (including the PNDP) should be highly solicited.

 

7.5  Communication Plan of the CDP

 

The Communication Plan to be produced annually,  is a tool which will inform the council on best possible ways to make the broadest publicity about its CDP to the public and to technical and financial partners.

ACTION TIMEFRAME PERSONS RESPONSIBLE
Produce and circulate fliers to all villages containing objectives, activities, and community rights & responsibilities 10th to 31st January 2012 Mayor /SG/Dev. Officer
Organise Open Day in 5 Key villages  and distribute MITEF/ AIP to  all socio development groups 1st Feb. To 31st March 2012 Mayor, Deputies/SG/ Dev. Officer 
Jumpstart Decentralized cooperation of Bakassi Councils Feb. 15th to 28th, 2012 Mayor, Deputies/SG/ Dev. Officer 
Lobby potential partners including  PNDP, SONARA, HPI, SOWEDA, FEICOM, KORUP, CHRISTAIN PHILANTROPHIC, SG SOC, MINADER, MINEPIA, MINEPAT, MINBASE, MINSEC, MINSANTE, MINEE, MINTRANSPORT, MINTP, Elites and Embassies etc… March 2012 Mayor, Deputies/SG & Follow-up committee

 

7.0.                                        CONCLUSION:

The process to elaborate the CDP of KIC can be effectively appreciated when one looks at the actors and tools at each stage within the process, the timing, the challenges encountered and the way forward. The process took place between the months of July and December 2011 and involved three principal actors including the council (beneficiary), the PNDP (financial and technical support) and the LSO (service provider). Other actors including council management, staff, local stakeholders and technical services were actively involved at various stages of the process which included; preparation, participatory diagnosis, data consolidation and analysis, planning, resource mobilization and programming, monitoring and evaluation. The preparatory stage started with the training of LSO data collectors who later restituted the training to other research assistants. The council and the LSO held several planning meetings and sensitized (using fliers, circulars and the radio) the population on their role and responsibilities which ended with the holding of the official launching workshop. The main result in this first stage was to create awareness and increase the participation rate of the stakeholders. The next stage was the participatory diagnosis stage which withnessed the collection and treatment of information (using a variety of tools) at the level of the council, urban space and in all villages sector by sector. The diagnosis in the council involved councilors, staff, council management, and beneficiaries of council services including technical collaborators located within the municipality. Diagnosis at the level of the urban space was conducted in Barracks (main commercial town) and Ngosso I (administrative head quarters) because they had a few sectors with infrastructure which makes them somewhat urban. Diagnoses involving twenty nine identified sectors were also conducted in all thirty two villages. The main outputs at this stage were the CID and USD reports. The third stage involved the consolidation of the village by village and sectorial data which enabled the production of the consolidated diagnosis and mapping report. The forth stage in the process included the planning workshop, resource mobilization and programming during which yhe deliberations of several participants facilitated the production of a draft CDP. The last two stages in the process involved implementation (AIP and CAP) and monitoring and evaluation of financed activities. The entire process was challenging because it was participatory with sometimes conflicting viewpoints. The level of understanding of stakeholders also added to the challenges as planners had to speak through interpreters with the risk of information being distorted. The timing of the process was problematic in that it data was collected during the heart of the rainy season with violent sea waves that put immense strain on the research assistants. Due to insecurity within the municipality, researchers were accompanied by BIR elements who were constantly putting pressure on the data collection activities by hurrying to return to their bases because they were not well informed on the need for patience when communicating with villagers.

Finally, the collaboration between the main actors in the CDP elaboration process was relatively cordial largely due to the fact that the roles and responsibilities of each were clearly spelt out and constantly being reviewed.



Team Building for Rffective Council management

Team Building for Effective Council Management

( By Charlie MBONTEH, Tel. 77649430, email: mudecgroup@yahoo.com &

 Francis KONGNYUI, Tel. 77517900, email : wachefrancis@yahoo.com )

Introduction

The 2004 Law on Decentralization mandates Local Councils to foster development in their municipalities in several domains including: health, education, infrastructure, sports, leisure and culture.

The Law also allows for Collegial Management requiring Mayors and their Deputies to collaborate closely in performing their clearly defined roles.

The Prime Ministerial Decree no. 2008/0752 of 24th April 2008 clearly spells out the Attributes Delegated to Deputy Mayors. This decree reinforces the aspect of Collegial Management thereby not leaving things to the discretion of the Mayor.

Furthermore, as resources (human, material and financial) are being transferred from the Central Government to Local Councils, it is expected that the Council Management Team will work together to enable them accomplish their expanded responsibilities.

It is, therefore, necessary and mandatory for Council Managers to adopt a team spirit so as to involve all stakeholders in ensuring that there is effective and efficient use of scarce resources. It is within this orientation that this module is necessary for the training of Council Managers as the First Transfer of Funds are being engaged.

At the end of this session, participants will be able to:

  • Understand  the Fundamental Principles of Team Dynamics
  • Appreciate the need for Joint Planning, Execution, Monitoring and Evaluation of Council Activities

What is a Team?

A team is a cohesive group of people working collectively toward the same objective. Team members usually feel “a sense of togetherness, belonging and ownership.”

In the context of local council management, the team comprises the Mayor, Deputies, Committee Chairpersons, the Secretary General and the Municipal Treasurer. In some cases, the Town Planner and all other Heads of Council Services can be included in this team. While this represents the internal part of the team, it is necessary to think that there are external partners who also work in the interest of the council including the Supervisory Authority, Local Council services at the level of the Governor, Government Technical Services within the council area and other Development Actors sich as Church organizations in the municipality.

The term “TeamBuilding” refers to a group of workmen each completing one or a set of operations that lead to a common objective.

It is also a number of persons associated together in a work activity of organisational development.

Council Team building relates to the process of improving the performance of council managers by using appropriate methods.

It also means building inter-personal relationships (both oral and written) of council managers such as  talking, discussing, asking and answering questions, being ready for brainstorming or for working unusual hours, listening and asking for suggestions, respecting and following the indications received, keeping the morale as high as possible and motivating the people when needed.

 

Stages in the life Cycle of a Team:

Forming: Members begin to familiarise themselves with one another.

Informing : Detailed information is circulated about the team

Storming: Tensions, frictions and conflict erupt. Members are still pursuing personal and even hidden agendas.v Norming: Conflicts and tensions are resolved; roles are clarified. The team begins to get more cohesive and harmonious

 

Performing: Soon after the objectives, procedures and norms have been adopted, members collectively pursue group objectives. There is synergy, productivity is increased and solutions emerge

Transforming: Meeting the challenges of the times or adapting to the current needs of members

Mourning: Closure or dissolution of the team (Exit Strategy in cases of handing over resulting from elections or transfers).

 


  1. 2.      Characteristics for Effective Council Teams
  • Have Clear Objectives

When goals are clearly defined, it is easy for team members to grasp the purpose of the team. Once they understand these objectives, team members are likely to further understand the direction that will enhance team success.

Also, clear objectives and goals foster ownership. For instance, team members are likely to own goals and work towards achieving them if they have been involved in establishing them as team. In addition, clear goals foster team unity, while unclear goals, on the other hand, foster confusion and individualism.

Practically, a team can ensure that goals or objectives are understood by having each team member list them and, then, compare the similarities and differences before agreeing on the final goals.

  • Specify Clearly the Roles of each Member

With clearly specified roles, team members easily understand why they are on any team.

When team members are comfortable and satisfied with their primary roles on the team, they can identify the roles they play during team activities. Most often, conflicts erupt in teams due to unclear roles.

  • Effective Communication

Communication is cardinal for effective teamwork.  Members need to be able to listen to others in the team and also offer constructive feedback that will ensure that the message received has been well understood. To improve its current performance, a team uses the feedback from the team assessment in order to:

  • Identify any gap between the desired state and the actual state
  • Design a gap-closure strategy.

 

Effective communication among team members increases the chances of success in attaining desired objectives.

Daglow’s Law of Team dynamics: “Small teams are informed. Big teams infer.”

  • Clarify Ambiguities: Design internal rules and regulations that guide the actions of members and can be referred to in situations where there are divergent views. The council team with reduced ambiguity will increase the possibilities of supplying quality services to the population.
  • Effective Decision Making:

Decision-making is effective when the team is aware of and uses many methods to arrive at decisions. Consensus is often touted as the best way to make decisions.

The team should discuss the method they want to use that will yield positive results in project execution. Generally, the team could collectively:

ü  Identify a  problem

ü  Analyse it

ü  Provide alternative solutions

ü  Choose best solution

ü  Follow up execution and reporting

 


  • Ensure Balanced Participation

A team thrives on participation. Through active participation everybody on the team is fully involved. Participation should be encouraged throughout all the stages (planning, execution, monitoring and evaluation).

Each member is given an opportunity to contribute whenever necessary. The more a team involves all its members in its activities, the more it is likely to experience a high level of commitment, synergy and success.

  • Give Value to  Divergent Views

Because team members are individuals, they bring individual and, sometimes, unique contributions that should be valued by other members of the team. It goes beyond gender, race, age, family and friends.

Thus, a diversity of thinking, ideas, methods, experiences and opinions help to create a high performing team. In short, everything is done to ensure that everyone’s opinion is sought and valued by others on the team.

  • Conflict Management  

Conflict is a situation where members have divergent interests and are willing to protect and defend such interests at all costs. Conflict is common in all teams and is essential to the creativity, productivity and growth of any team.

Every team – effective or ineffective (functioning or dormant) – experiences conflicts. The council manager can handle conflicts through a variety of strategies including confrontation, compromise and collaboration. It is the manner of managing conflicts that distinguishes the quality of teams. Effective teams see conflicts as positive. To them, it represents progress and growth.

Some benefits of healthy conflicts include: 

a)        Find productive ways to communicate differences, seek common goals and gain consensus.

b)        Encourage creativity by enabling the team to look beyond current assumptions and parameters.

c)        Allow team members to express their emotions thus preventing feelings about unresolved issues from becoming obstacles to the team’s progress

 

  • Encourage a Positive Atmosphere of Team Spirit

A positive atmosphere, characterised by trust and openness, enables team members to be comfortable enough with one another; it fosters a spirit of camaraderie and is propitious for members to embark on creative activities, take risks and even make mistakes.

In such an atmosphere of team spirit, there is plenty of laughter and light-hearted jokes. In fact, research shows that people who are enjoying themselves are more productive than those who dislike what they do.

  • Emphasize Corporate Relationships

Team members know they need one another’s skills, knowledge and expertise to produce something together that they could not do alone. There is a sense of belonging and a willingness to make things work for the good of the whole team.

  • Encourage Participatory Leadership

Leaders share the responsibility of the tasks; they are supportive and fair. They strive relentlessly to create a climate of trust and openness. They are, above all, good coaches and teachers.

As good role models, they serve as catalysts that spur their teams to enhanced productivity. In the best of circumstances, it is difficult to spot out such leaders during a casual observation.

Strategies for Functioning Teams

a)      Hold Effective Weekly Meetings

b)      Serve Reminders to communicate ideas, activities, intentions, programs by use of Memos and Agendas

c)      Joint Planning and Effective distribution of Tasks (Action Planning for a given period).

It includes:  Activity, Responsibility, Deadline and Resources needed

 


Types of Team Members:

No Type Characteristics Team Building Strategies
1 The Bully  > To hurt or frighten someone.> To force someone to do something they do not want to do > Other members should remain calm.> Try to do what is acceptable to the Bully.
2 The Doer  > Someone who gets actively involved in something rather than just thinking or talking about it >Encourage the Doer.  >Motivate the Doer.
3 The Clever One  > Having the ability to understand and learn quickly and easily >Assign him/her to a technical role. >Encourage his/her participation by soliciting their ideas.
4 The Talkative  >  Talking a lot >Define clearly his/her role.>Make regular references to the Internal Rules and Regulations.
5 The Introvert  > Someone who is quiet, shy and unable to make friends easily >Encourage their participation.> Solicit their ideas before, during and after meetings.

> Assign them into committees.

6 The Sceptic  > Person who doubts the truth or value of an idea or belief > Give regular feedback on activities.> Coach on the need to take risks.
7 The Thick-skinned Some one who feels that  his/her idea  is best > Assign him/her to a leading role in an activity.> Always request alternative views from him/her.
8 The Untouchable Not able to be punished, criticized or changed in any way > Always emphasize on the need to respect the Laws, Internal Rules and Regulations.
9 The Cynic  Person  who believes that people are only interested in themselves and are not be trusted > Involve them at every level of the project cycle.> Encourage ownership of the activity.

 

TEMPERAMENTS OF TEAM MEMBERS

No Temperament Characteristics Team Building Strategies
1 SANGUINE:  Positive,  Hopeful, Optimist Encourage and Motivate them. Assign him/her to a technical role. Encourage his/her participation by soliciting their ideas. Assign him/her to a leading role in an activity.> Always request alternative views from him/her. Always emphasize on the need to respect the Laws, Internal Rules and Regulations.
2 MELANCHOLIC:  Person who is usually sad without reasons  for extended periods Encourage their participation.> Solicit their ideas before, during and after meetings.

> Assign them into committees. Give regular feedback on activities.

> Coach on the need to take risks. Involve them at every level of the project cycle.

> Encourage ownership of the activity.

3 CHOLERIC:  Angry or easily annoyed > Other members should remain calm and try to do what is acceptable to them.> Assign him/her to a leading role in an activity.

> Always request alternative views from him/her.

> Always emphasize on the need to respect the Laws, Internal Rules and Regulations

4 PHLEGMATIC:  Someone who tends not to get excited or emotional about things Encourage their participation.> Solicit their ideas before, during and after meetings.

> Assign them into committees.

Give regular feedback on activities.

> Coach on the need to take risks.

Involve them at every level of the project cycle.

> Encourage ownership of the activity.

 

        1 – Advantages of Team Building.

– Leads to efficiency in productivity

– Effectiveness in meeting deadlines for project implementation

– Encourages specialization and division of labour

–  Reduces stress

2 – Disadvantages of Team Building

–          Could result into conflicts, disagreements and  envy

 

–          Could result in delays in decision making when seeking for consensus

 

–          Could result in abandoned projects

Conclusion

In conclusion, a high performing team can accomplish more together than acting individually. The new dispensation on decentralization expands the functions of local councils. The council can certainly execute these expanded functions when all council workers operate in a team. Building the council team requires a positive team spirit from all workers. Team spirit is a necessary foundation or condition for team building in the council environment. Team spirit must be cultivated, encouraged and rewarded. Inclusive participation should serve as a roadmap within the spirit of team building in every council.

The Mayor is elected by the population and is, therefore, uniquely positioned to encourage a healthy working environment upon which a productive team can be built in the council. The Deputies can (beside their main duties) play a supportive role by collaborating with the Mayor in building effective teams in their councils. The Committee Chairpersons can play an important role in team building by ensuring that each committee member participates actively.

The Secretary General, who is the Coordinator of council services, can facilitate effective team building by holding regular meetings, encouraging staff to speak out and ensuring that the roles of each staff are clearly defined with measurable indicators.

The Municipal Treasurer can contribute immensely towards team building by making the timely availability of funds that will ensure the smooth functioning of the team.               


Small Business Management Notes

 

MARKETING AND SELLING

                                                     

a)      Food for Though

“It is a fool whose own tomatoes are sold to him”.

Black people are great and creative producers. Yet there even more consistent consumers. We have given so much to the world and for some strange reason, we keep buying it back. We can not complain about what others do to us if we are not doing for ourselves. If we as a people are ever t stand, we must give credit to one another for the things we create. We must take every necessary precaution to safeguard what is ours. Buy in your own communities first. Educate our children well. Protect the women and elders at all cost. Give to our own expecting nothing in return. Above all, do not allow the love of money to supersede our pride for our people……………..

 

b)     The Goal:

To equip the potential person/farmer with skills which help him/ her to market his/ her products/ service efficiently and profitably.

 

c)      Objectives:-

At the end of this chapter we should be able to:

  1. Define marketing and selling (process and concept)
  2. State the importance , differences and relationship of both
  3. Identify pertinent elements relating to marketing and selling

 

Brief Background

The marketing of goods/ service/ ideas has been around for long as people of the world have engaged in trade. Before the 1930’s we experienced a production-oriented marketing. This means that the producer presented a product and the consumers purchased it. Between 1930’s and World War II, we experienced a sales oriented marketing whereby producers developed their sales force, advertised and sold to consumers. The present day is experiencing a consumer oriented marketing where producers must be engage in the total marketing concept? What then is the total marketing concept? Let us find out………………

 

As more and more producers are engage in the production and the supply of the same product, and as companies are getting bigger and bigger, there is an increased need for companies (businesses) to satisfy the consumers who enjoy the power of choice. A business person should fine out what the consumer needs, produce a product to appeal to the consumer and then engage in advertising and sales methods designed to appeal to the consumer and then engage a follow-up on consumers after sales.

Let us take a look at some basic definitions:

Marketing: – This is a process by which we identify, informs, persuade, convince, a potential customer to buy a product/service and engage in follow- up the sale of a good has taken place.

(Are you sure you can explain all the underlined words?)

 

Marketing Concept: – BUINESS SHOULD DO EVERYTHING POSSIBLE TO STAISFY A CUSTOMER AS WELL AS TO MAKE A PROFIT (find out what is a concept)

 

Selling: –  This is the process which actually places goods and services in the hands of the final consumer. Simply put, selling is the exchange of goods/services/ideas for money.

 

Selling concept: THE MORE YOU KNOW ABOUT YOUR CUSTOMER AND WHAT HE/SHE NEEDS/WANTS THE MORE YOU SELL AND THE BIGGER WILL BE YOUR PROFITS

Given the above definitions we can deduce the importance, differences and relationships market and selling.

 

Importance and relationship include:-

  • They generate income/create employment
  • They create satisfaction/offer choice
  • They enhance living standards

 

Their difference include;-

  • Selling is a tactic/marketing is a strategy. A tactic is a part of a strategy. What do you mean?

 

Now let us take a close look at selling

Type of selling

  • Retail (item by Item)
  • Wholesale(in Bulk)
  • Specialty selling (selling a particular name brand of a product)
  • Departmental selling (one-stop shopping center)

Selling channel includes:-

  • personal /direst selling (face o face)
  • impersonal /indirect selling (telephone, mail, TV, radio, newspaper)

 

Factor affecting selling includes:-

  • Prices, income, taxes, demand, credit facilities, sellers, attitude and business location

At this junction, we have a working knowledge of marketing. Our appreciation of the subject will increase as we move on…….

 

CASE STUDY

Your cousin is a hawker selling ladies shoes and handbags.  He target customers in their offices, drinking spots and banks. You have recently graduated from CM Marketing Seminar. What will you advice your cousin to do in term of marketing his products.

 

STARTING A BUSINESS (For Your Information)

a)      Food for thought:-

“We must learn to look for that which we have been trained not to see”

 

b)     The Goal:-

To expose the potential business person to a few facts he /she needs to understand before engaging I a business venture

 

c)      The objectives

At the end of this chapter, we should be able to:-

  1. Appreciate the who, what, when and how of starting a business
  2. Know the importance of a feasibility study
  3. Know how to register a small business

 

GOING INTO BUSINESS

Thinking of owing and managing your own business is a wonderful idea provided you know and have what it takes.

Starting understanding a business is risky at best, but your chances of making it will be better if you understand the problem you will encounter and work out as many of them as you can before you start

 

BEFORE YOU START

Auto-observation

Think about why you want to start your own business. Do you want it badly enough to keep you working long hours without knowing how much money you will end up with? Have you worked in any business like the one you want to start? Have you worked for someone else as a foreman or manager? Have you had any business training in school? Have you saved any money/

 

Knowing Yourself:

Can you start a business and make it go?

Are you a self –starter?

Below are some questions and worksheets to help think through what you need to know and do. Under each, check the answer that says what you feel or comes closer to it. Be honest to yourself. Check each question if the answer is YES. Where the answer is NO. You have some work to do.

Worksheet No 1

  1. I do things on my own. Nobody has to tell me to get going……………………….
  2. If someone gets me started keep going all right…………………………………
  3. I don’t put myself out until l have it………………………………………………

How do you feel about other people?

  1. I like people. I can get along with just anybody……………………………………….
  2. I have plenty of friends –l don’t need any one else…………………………………..
  3. Most people irritated me……………………………………………………………….

Can you lead others?

  1. I can get more people to go along with when l start something……………………
  2. I can give the order if someone tells me what l should do…………………………………
  3. I let someone else get things moving, then l go along if l feel like it………………………

 

 

Can you take responsibility?

  1. I like to take charge of things and see them through………………
  2. I will take over if l have to, but I’d rather let someone else be responsible………………….
  3. There’s always some eager bearer around waiting to show how smart he is. I say let him……

How good an organizer are you?

  1. I like to have a plan before l start. I’m usually the one to get things lined up when the group wants to do something……………………………………
  2. I do all right unless things get too confused. Then l quit………………………………………..
  3. Get all set then something comes along and presents too many problems. So l just take things as the come……………………………………………………………………

How good a worker are you?

  1. I can keep going as long as l need to. I’d mind working hard for something l want…………
  2. I’ll work hard for a while, but when l have had enough, that’s it………………………………
  3. I can’t see that hard work gets you anywhere………………………………………………….

Can you make decision?

  1. I can make up my mind in a hurry if l have to. It usually turns out O.K too…………………
  2. I can if l have plenty of time………………………………………………………………….
  3. If l have to make up my mind fast, l think later l should have decided the other way……….
  4. I don’t like to be the one who have to decide later l should………………………………….

Can people trust what you say?

  1. You bet they can, l don’t say things l don’t mean………………………………………
  2. I try to be on the level most of the time, but sometimes l just say what’s easiest
  3. Why bother if the other fellow doesn’t know the difference………………………………

Can you stick with it?                                           

  1. If l make up my mind to do something, l don’t let anything stop me…………………………
  2. I usually finish what l start- if it goes well……………………………………………………
  3. If it doesn’t go right away, l quit. Why beat your brains out………………………………

How good is your health?

  1. I never run down…………………………………………………………………
  2. l have enough energy for most things l want to do…………………………………
  3. I run out energy sooner than most of my friends seem to……………………………

 

Count the checks you made

How many checks are there beside the first answer to each question? ………………………………..

How many checks are there besides the second answer to each question?…………………………

How many checks are beside the third answer to each question?……………………………………………..

If most of your checks are besides the first answer, you probably have what it takes to run a business. If not, you are likely to have more trouble than you can handle by yourself. Better find a partner who is strong on the point you’re weak on. If many checks are besides the third answer, not even a good partner will be able to shake you up

 

Now go back and answer the first question.

How about the money?

  • Do you know how much money you will need to get your business started?……………………….
  • Have you countered up how much money of your own you can put into the business?……………
  • Do you know how much credit you get from your suppliers –the people you will buy from?……..
  •  Do you know where you can borrow the rest of the money you need to start your business?….
  • Have you figured out what net income per year you expect to get from the business?……………
  • Count your salary and profit on the money you put into the business…………………………
  • Can you live on les than this so that you use some of it to help your business to grow…………
  • Have you talked to a banker/financial institution and credit union about your plans?……..

 

How about a partner

  • If you need a partner with money knowing that you don’t have, do you know someone you can get along with?…………………………………………………
  • Do you know the good and bad point about doing it alone, having a partner, and incorporating your business?…………………………………………..
  • Have you talked to a lawyer about it?………………………………

 

How about your customers

  • Do most businesses in your community seem to be doing well?…………………………………..
  • Have you tried to find out whether stores like the one you want to open  are doing well in your community and in the rest of the country ……………………………………
  • Do you know what kind of people will want to buy what you will plan to sell?……………
  • Do you like people to live in the area where you want to open your store?………………..
  • Do they need store like your?…………………………………………………………………….
  • If not have you thought about opening a different kind of store or going to another neighborhood………………………………………………..

 

GETTING STARTED

Your Building

  • Have you found a good building for your store? ……………………………………………..
  • Will there be room for expansion when your business grow bigger…………………………
  • Can you re-structure the building the way you want it without spending too much money……
  • It is assessable?………………………………………………………
  • Have you had a layer check the lease and zoning?………………………………………………………..

Your equipment and supplies

Do you know just what equipment and supplies you need and how much they will cost?

(Here, make a list of furniture, fixture and equipment) see if you can save some money by buying second –hand equipment.

 

Your merchandise

  • Have you made a decision on what things to sell?…………………………………………………….
  • Do you know how much or how many of each of you will buy to open your store with?………….
  • Have you found suppliers who will sell you what you need at a good price……………
  • Have you compared the prices and credit terms of different suppliers?…………………………….

 

Your records

  • Have you planned a system of records that will keep track of your income and expenses, what you owe other people, and what other people owe you?………………………………………..
  • Have you work out a way to keep track of your inventory so that you will always have enough on hand for your customers but not more than you can sell?………………………………..
  • Have your figured out how to keep your payroll record and take care of tax report and payments?……………………………………………………..
  • Do you know what financial statement you could prepare?………………………………………….
  • Do you know an accountant who will help you with your records and financial statement?……..

 

Your store and the law

  • Do you know what licenses and permits you need?……………………………………………
  • Do you know what business law you have to obey?…………………………………………………
  • Do you know a lawyer you can go to for advice and for help with legal papers?……………………

 

Protecting your store

  • Have you made a list of what you like and don’t like about buying a business someone else has started?…………………………………………………………………………………
  • Are you sure you know the real reason why the owner wants to sell this business……………
  • Have you compared the cost of buying the business with the cost of starting a new business?….
  • Is the stock up to date and in good condition?………………………………………………………
  • Is the building in good condition?……………………………………………………………………
  • Will the owner of the building transfer lease to you?………………………………………………………
  • Have you talked with other business owners in the area to see what they think of the business…
  • Have you talked with the company suppliers………………………
  • Have you talked with a lawyer about it?…………………………………………………………………

 

 

 

Making It Go

Advertising

  • Have you decided how you will advertise? (Newspaper-poster-handbills-radio-mail)………….
  • Do you know where to get help with your adverts?………………………………………………………
  • Have you watched what other store do to get people to buy?…………………………………………

 

The price you charges

  • Do you know how to figure what you should charge for each item you sell?………………………
  • Do you know what other stores like yours charges?……………………………………………………

 

Buying

  • Do you have a plan for finding out what your customers want?……………………………………
  • Will your plan for keeping track of your inventory tell you when it is time to order more and how much to order?…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
  • Do you plan to buy most of your stock from a few suppliers rather than a little from many, so that those you buy from you will want to help you succeed?……………………………………..

 

Selling                                                                                                 

  • Have you decided whether you will have sales clerks or self-service?………………………….
  • Do you know how to get customers to buy?…………………………………………………………..
  • Have you though about why you like to buy from some salesclerks while others twin you off?…….

 

Your employees

  • If you need to hire someone to help you, do you know where to look?……………………………
  • Do you know what kind of person you need?…………………………………………………………….
  • Do you have a plan for training your employees?………………………………………………………..

 

 

Credit for your customers

  • Have you decided whether or not to let your customers buy on credit?……………………………
  • Do you know the good and bad points about joining a credit –plan?………………………………
  • Can you tell a dead bear from a good customer?…………………………………………………………

 

A few extra questions

  • Have you figured out whether or not you could make more money working for someone else?………
  • Does your family go along with your plan to start a business of your own?……………………..
  • Do you know where to find out about new ideas and now products?……………………………..
  • Do you have a work plan for yourself and your employees?………………………………………….
  • Have you gone to CM consultancy for help with your plans?…………………………………………..

If you have answered all these questions carefully, you’ve done some hard work and serious thinking. That’s good. But you have probably found some things you need to know more about or do something about. Do all you can for your self, but don’t hesitate to ask for help from people who can tell you what you need to know? Remember, running a business takes guts? You’ve got to be able to decide what you need and then go after it.

 

 

GOOD LUCK!!

Type of business you are engaged in (or want to engage in)

a)      Farm crop production (coffee, cocoa, banana, yams, rice etc)

b)      Animal husbandry, livestock production & cattle, poultry, goats, sheep, rabbits, fish, pigs etc.)

c)      Manufacturing (blacksmithing, tailoring, cloth making, handicrafts etc)

d)     Services (motor, electronics, watch repairing, barbershop, transportation of goods or people etc)

e)      Trading (shop, whole sale)

f)       Skilled trade (construction, plumbing, carpentry, masonry)

g)      Other (specify)

 

How and why was business started? (Or why and how do you want to start business?)

a)      Acquired business from family members

b)      Started business by choice (usually as a result of previous work experience)

c)      Started business by necessity ;i.e. no other employment opportunities available

d)     Other (specify)

 

How was the initial capital to start the business obtained? Or do you intend to obtain the initial capital to start the business? (Estimate percentage if possible)

a)      Personal saving

b)      Loan or gift from family members

c)      Loan from community (specify)

d)     Loan from a financial institution e.g. Bank or credit union

e)      Grant or loan from a donor agency

f)       A combination of the above

If already in business, what is your business address and location?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Total Amount in FCFA used to start business (approximate)

a)      25.000 to 50.000

b)      51.000 to 100.000

c)      101.000 to 200.000

d)     201.000 to 500.000

e)      501.000 to 1.000.000

f)       Above 1.000.000

 

Ownership:

a)      Sole proprietor

b)      Partnership (how many partner)

c)      Other (specify)

Do the business keep records (a) YES   (b) NO?

Present net worth of your business (all that is owned minus what is owned )in France CFA

a)      0 to 50.000

b)      51.000 to 150.000

c)      151.000 to 500.000

d)     501.000 to 1.000.000

e)      1.000.000 to 5.000.000

f)       Above 5.000.000

g)      Don’t know (specify why)

Other than shortage of capital, rate on a scale of 1 to 5

(1=favorable, 2=very favorable, 3= moderate, 4 = unfavorable 5= very unfavorable).  The degree to which the following factor affects business performance

a)      Government policies (taxation ,subsidies etc)

b)      Technical skills

c)      Labor shortage

d)     Raw materials

e)      Transportation

f)       Lack of markets

g)      Others (specify)

Entrepreneur’s outlook on future of business

a)      Optimistic

b)      Pessimistic

c)      Indifferent

 

What factors contribute most to the success of your business? (Specify) what efforts, if any, has the entrepreneur taken to alleviate the problems facing the business (specify)

 

How to register a small business (are business formalities restrictive)

  • Business plan of action
  • Site (location)
  • Capital needs (budget)
  • Employment needs
  • Ministry of trade and commerce
  • Ministry of finance
    • Department of taxation
    • Patent
    • Stamp duty
    • Price control
    • Business license
    • Stamp application form (form 1B)
    • Certified copy of I.D card
    • Business name
    • Copy of patent
    • Attestation of business premises
    • Authorization in case of drugs by ministry of Public health
    • Article of Association in case of partnership
    • Fees according to capital involved.

 

 

 

 

 

BUSINESS PLAN DEVELOPMENT

 

Food for Thought:

“Plan Purposefully, Prepare Prayerfully, Proceed Positively and Pursue Persistently”

 

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE BUSINESS PLAN

  • Provides the business with directions
  • Provides good entrepreneurship
  • It strengthens the business over time
  • It helps eliminate the unwanted surprises.

PRELIMINARY WAYS TO PREPARE:

  1. Read trade journal
  2. Begin to network
  3. Contact trade associations
  4. Begin to build your personal financial resources

 

THE PRODUCT: FINDING A NEED

Ten questions to ask about the product or service:

1. Is it needed?

2. Is it unique?

3. Is it easy to understand?

4. What is the market potential?

5. Can the product line expand?

6. Is there an existing customer base

7. Are the productions cost realistic?

8. Why would a customer buy it over a competitor product?

9. Can you bring it to market before the competition?

10. Is it priced competitively?

 

UNDERSTANDING THE MARKT

Things you should know about your competitors?

  1. What are their products?
  2. How are they different from yours?
  3. what are their strengths
  4. What are their weaknesses
  5. What customers do they target
  6. What territories are they in?
  7. What are their prices
  8. What do they include in that price

 

Source of market information

  1. Library
  2. research unit of local Ministries /Offices /Department
  3. Trade meeting and shows
  4. Trade magazines
  5. Chambers of commerce
  6. on line data base (computer)
  7. Suppliers
  8. School/Universities

 

DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY

How to get the product to the customer:

  1. Choose a distributor with a reason to push your product
  2. Bolster the distributor’s efforts with your own
  3. save cost by shipping in volume
  4. share fight cost with another company

 

SEVEN WAYS TO CONTAIN AND IMPROVE CSAH FLOW:

  1. Share with another company
  2. Purchase equipment cheaply (auction are good source)
  3. Or lease rather than buying
  4. Use sales representatives rather than full time sale people
  5. Push customer for prompt payment
  6. Don’t hold exceed inventory
  7. In the beginning give yourself a small salary

 

PEOPLE

Putting together a winning team

  1. Outside expertise
  2. Partners
  3. Take time to hire the right person
  4. Attract top people who have proven right records
  5. Look for specific expertise
  6. Look for confidence , ability to work with others, know exactly what you want each person to add to your organization

 

Outside Expertise

  1. Seek specialized knowledge
  2. Choose experts who understand and pursue your business objectives .e.g. A lawyer, an accountant and a business consultant

Partners:

  1. Choose a partner whose skills compliment your own
  2. Bring additional resource such as capital and contacts
  3. Has a compatible management philosophy

 

 

THE BUSINEE PLAN

Putting it all on paper

  1. THE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  2. COMPANY HISTORY
  3. THE PRODUCT/SERVICE
  4. THE MARKET
  5. THE COMPETITION
  6. MARKETING
  7. MANUAFACTUREING /OPERATIONS
  8. MANAGEMENT
  9. FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS
  10. FINANCIAL NOTES: Maintaining the relationship; growing your customer bas netw

 

  1. THE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Should contain

a)      A description of your business

b)      Identification of your target market

c)      Description of your management team

d)     Summary of Key financial projections

e)      Summary of funding requirements

 

  1. COMPANY HISTORY

Should Contain

a)      Who started the business and when

b)      What is the legal form of your business

c)      Are there present loans or investment commitments

 

  1. THE PRODUCT/SERVICE

The product/service entails:

a)      Precise definition of your product/service

b)      Distinct product /benefits

c)      Legal protection obtained or applied for

 

 

  1. THE MARKET

The market should state

a)      Who are your customers?

b)      What are the Historic Forecasted rates of Growth?

c)      How will you distribute your product /service

d)     How is the purchase decision made and by who

 

  1. THE COMPETITION

The competition should say

a)      Who are your competitors

b)      What are their strengths and weaknesses?

c)      What is the market share of each?

d)     What share of the market to intend to capture and how?

 

  1. MARKETING

a)      How will you research, develop and test your product

b)      How will you compensate your sales staff

c)      What is your product pricing strategy

d)     How will you promote your product

 

  1. MANUAFACTUREING /OPERATIONS

Manufacturing /Operating:

a)      Will you produce  your product

b)      What are your company’s production strengths and weaknesses

c)      Do you plan on adding production capacity

 

  1. MANAGEMENT

a)      Who is your management team

b)      What level of expertise do they poses (education/experience/achievements)

c)      Are you in partnership? What level of influence (politically, economically etc) does your partner have.

 

  1. FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS

What should you prepare?

a)      Monthly cash flow projections (1-2 years)

b)      Monthly profit and loss projections (1-2 years)

c)      Monthly projected balance sheets (1-2 years)

 

  1. FINANCIAL NOTES

What must you do?

a)      Be prepared to invest your own money in the business

b)      Be prepared to disclose your personal financial situation

c)      Be prepared to answer any questions to financial institutions on your industry

d)     Go to investors that know your industry

e)      Be able to explain why this is an excellent investment

f)       Know exactly how much money you need and how much equity you are prepared to give up to potential investors

 

Maintaining the relationship:

  1. Repay loans on time
  2. Keep investors informed
  3. Negotiate covenant you can live with

 

Growing your customer base:

  1. Remembers the customer is always right
  2. Keep in constant contact with your major customers
  3. Excellent service is critical
  4. Ask your customer how your service/product can be improved
  5. Find ways to solve your customers problems
  6. Look for situations in which both you and your customers win

 

Networking:

Industry colleagues, customers, suppliers, local businesses, bankers and lawyers, politicians, community groups.

 

CASE STUDY

  1. Want to crossbreed snails
  2. Want to grow mush room?
  3. Want to mass-produce soap
  4. Want to operate a fishpond
  5. What’s your own project?

 

Produce a business plan, which can convince a donor or a bank ( financial institution) for funding.

                                   

 

                                       MARKETING PLAN

Food for Though:

WORK OUT A PLAN, PLAN THE WORK and WORK THROUGH THE PLAN”

 

GOAL: to impress upon the businessperson the importance of developing and using a marketing plan

 

Objectives:

By the end of this chapter, we will be able to:

a)      Give the definition of marketing plan

b)      List the “importance” of a marketing plan

c)      Analyze the six steps to marketing plan

 

Marketing Defined

b)      Marketing is every detail of your business

c)      Marketing is taking a good look at your customers, competitors and suppliers

d)     Marketing is the distribution of goods and service: that means marketing is: everything from the inception of an idea to the acceptance of the idea in the market place

e)      Marketing is growth

f)       Marketing is the function that identifies the needs of the buying public, assessing the extent of the needs and endeavoring to satisfy them in the most profitable manner

g)      Marketing is promotion- i.e. Through newsletters, by telephone, radio etc

 

Marketing plans (where successful marketing starts)

a)      Marketing plan is defined simply a document that formalizes, your missions, goals, objectives which you want to achieve.

b)      Importance of a marketing plan

  1. it is good way to save money
  2. it keeps one on a steady track
  3. it prevents owners from being distracted by every sales representative who walks in trying to sell space or time
  4. it helps the company to grow
  5. it is a convenient vehicle.

 

THE MARKETING PLAN INVOLVES SIX STEPS

 

1. Diagnosis (where are you now and why)

a)      What is your image?

b)      What is your position in the market place?

c)      How do you perceive customers?

d)     How do you measure employment ‘effectiveness?

e)      What service should you offer?

f)       What about your prices, competition, quality control, client base, sales comparison, advertisement cost etc

g)      Where are you getting your business? I.e repeats business, new business with existing customers, new business with new customer?

h)      Are you generating business fro existing from client? Are you networking?

i)        Have you defined your market? I.e. think about your potential customers. The geographical area you serve etc

j)        What are your annual sales?

k)      How frequently do your customer purchase?

l)        What are their particular needs

m)    Are you communicating to customers the benefits of doing business with you

 

A commonly used tool to analyze your business currently position is the SWOT analysis

 

 

Strength Weaknesses
Opportunities Threats

 

 

 

  • Identify all your business strengths
  • List all your weaknesses

 

These two are internal to your business. Now see which opportunities (external to your business) which you can derive from your strengths. Also see which threats (external to your business) which can arise from weaknesses. Given the opportunities and threats (limitations0 you can now engage in prognosis.

 

2. PROGNOSIS (Where do you want to be and when)

b)      Is your producer/service going to remain competitive?

c)      Is there opportunity for your key employees to grow fast enough to carry on business well?

d)     Are you paying enough attention to marketing to ensure future growth?

 

 

3. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

a)      Clearly define your goals and objectives

b)      Make projections on your business in terms of:-

  1. Market position
  2. Size of business
  3. Are your customers going to patronize the business regularly?
  4. What is the percentage of new business and in what market?
  5. what new business are you going to generate with existing clients
  6. What new market would you want to develop?

 

4. STRATEGY: (How are you going to get there)

a)      Start with your market  budget

b)      Figure time for each person and your designated market team based on your resources, goals and market place

c)      What market strategy would you employ?

 

This is would it be: Direct mails? Newspapers? Television? Radio? Trade press? Speeches to targeted groups? Business lunches? Newsletters? Update of company brochure? Taking a critical look on your company logo and letterhead?

Not that before you implement your business strategies, you have to take your time, effort and cost in to consideration.

5. TACTICS: (How are you going to get there?)

d)     What specific tactics are you going to use to accomplish the three strategies you have chosen? For example, let’s assume that your market is anxious for specialized information that only you and a few others can give. You have decided that: Newsletters (fliers) Network (contact groups such as church, meeting houses) and business lunches are the key strategies).

For newsletters, ask yourself:

  1. Who are assigned to write the newsletters?
  2. what is the time and the anticipating mail day? After determining this, work backward from that date to determine assignment date line.
  3.  clarify the roles of everyone involved. Don’t be afraid to delegate.
  4. once theses questions have been answered, start implementing the strategies

 

apply the same procedure discussed above for the networking. That is determine which organization you belong to now, who will represent you in each group etc. these procedures also apply to business lunches i.e. you should consider who to invite and how often should they be invited. All theses will provide information needed

Let us combine all the above steps into another commonly used tool called the work plans

WORK PLAN FOR 2001 (……………… BUSINESS)

Activity Responsible Dateline Means Available Measure by verifiable Indicator
         

 

 

 

The work plan will keep the entrepreneur on track. Please feel free to constantly adjust your work plan in order to meet the changing times

 

 

6. CONTROL (How are you doing)

You have to find out:

e)      Your progress every three months by reviewing your activities with your key people. This could be done by organizing brainstorming session with your key people to examine things like:

 

  1. Number and quality of new accounts
  2. levels of success
  3. repeat business
  4. new business with existing clients
  5. evaluate time invested
  6. check profitability
  7. clients feedback

 

To effectively control business operations, it is advisable to use a performance tools:

Planned Activity/output Actual Activity/Output Variance (why)
   

 

 

 

While considering the above factors do not paint a rosy picture in the first few steps of the marketing plan. Paint a realistic picture. However, if you find that you have problems in dealing objectively with the marketing plan, you just put it off and hire a marketing consultant.

 

CASE STUDY

E.T.A Enterprises is a successful firm located in Kumba having three separate units. The firm main product is trye. With the changing economic, social and political patterns in our country, E.T.A has been forced to continuosly monitor and evaluate its long  and short –term plans as reflected in the diversity of products offered. E.T.A’s other units includes , cars ,Auto parts/repairs

 

QUESTION

If you were E.T.A’s Marketing Contract, what recommendations would you make for future strategic market planning.

 

COSTING

a)            Food for Thought:

“Money is exactly like sex, you think of nothing else if you don’t have it and think of other things when you have it”

b)           Goal

To expose the potential business person to the necessary inputs which make-up prices

c)            Objectives

At the end of this chapter, we should be able to:

Define price

  1. Establish costing (determining cost)
  2. Understand the need to stay in business

 

A)    WHAT IS COST

Cost is the amount of expenditure (actual or notional) incurred in or attributable to a given thing. Cost can be classified as follows

Direct Cost (prime):- this is a cost which is obviously traceable to a unit of out-put or a segment of business operation. e.g raw material/wages/salaries

Indirect Cost:- this is a cost which is not is obviously traceable to a unit of out-put or a segment of business operation. e.g. accidents at work.

Fixed cost: – this is a cost which does not change in total as the rate of output varies within a specific range e.g. land, buildings

Variable cost: – This is a cost which changes in total with changes in the rate of output e.g. electricity/water

 

Cost of production (factors)

–          Raw materials –inputs to which value will be added

–          Labor- human effort needed

–          Depreciation on equipment/ machinery (wear & tear)

 

B)    WHAT IS A COST UNIT

This is a unit of production or service, in relation to which the costs are collected and controlled. The following are the cost units for certain industries:

 

Industry                                                           Cost Unit

Bricks (building trade)                              per 100.000etc

Furniture making                                      per unit of output/production (per chair/desk)

Auto-mechanics                                        per job done

Oil changes/engine mount

Hotel/catering                                          per portion produced

Plate; a serving/etc.

 

Think of the nature of your products /services? Think of the distance, storage problems between producer and consumer. What are some of the disadvantages and advantages of using middle persons (agents, retailer, and wholesaler?)

 

CASE STUDY

1)      See the Amue Shoe Company in chapter 3. What marketing mix strategy would you recommend to Mr. Kome and why?

2)      Mary Lou is 25 years old woman who completed school six years ago. She has two children but not married. Her father owns a business 9sale of food and drinks). The shelves are not well arranged. Mary Lou is the manager. She combines the cash intake of food and drinks. She is not on a salary but does all cooking, buying and selling for the business. When her child is sick, she buys drugs from cash sales. She gives credit to all her neighbors who repay her at will. There are two other drinking spots in the same area. Her sales fluctuate such that some days she does not sell anything and cannot purchase to replenish her stock. You have completed from CM marketing workshop. Mary Lou has asked you to join her and help make the business to flourish.

What are your suggestions?

3)      You are the sales manager of Mola stores INC. Your sales have been very good because of your quality products and good location. Recently, many stores selling similar products have located in your neighborhood. Their products come fromNigeria,KoreaandTaiwan. What should you do?

C)    WHAT IS A COST CENTER

Cost center is a place, location, equipment or a group of persons with reference to which cost is accumulated for the purpose of control. For example; production cost center, service cost center, suitable for large companies.

D)    ELEMENT OF COST

The element of cost is the sum total cost components groups. That is purchase price of materials, the cost of time of labor, and the values of other expenses.

The following is a chart showing elements of cost:

Material cost = Direct materials + Indirect materials

Labor cost   = Direct labor      + Indirect labor

Expenses      = Direct expenses   + Indirect expenses

Format of a cost sheet                                                              

  1. Direct Material                   –
  2. Direct labour                      –
  3. Direct expenses                  –

 


Prime Cost

  1. Factory Overheads             –

 

Factory Cost

  1. Administrative overheads  –

Cost of Production

  1. Selling and distribution      –

Total cost (or cost of sales)    –

  1. Add-% margin of profits (mark-up or entrepreneurial addition usually 10% to 30% of cost of production).

 

Selling price                       –

CASES

Do costing for and determine the price of:-

  • A plate of food is your restaurant
  • A service performed

–       teaching

–       health

–       Salon etc

  •           A taxi service (drop)
  •           Any more ideas? Be my guest!

One does not just enter into business to get out next day/next year. The following are tools utilized by a businessperson in order to assist him/her stay in business.

a)            Cost/benefit analysis

b)           Break even analysis

 

Cost/benefit analysis

Goal: – As a control tool this analysis is to show the relationship between expenditure and income of your business.

Objectives: – to determine when loses are acceptable and profit should be expected.

Definition: – This is an analysis, which helps us to determine the break-even point of our business. To break even means one is either not making profit or not making loses. Before we determine all the above, one has to engage in costing a product/service. This will lead to cash flow projections, which are necessary ingredients in business plan write –ups.

If the production of a plate of food is 300 FRS CFA and you re selling if for 450 CFA. Prepare a cost/benefit analysis for 15 plates of food sold. (See table0

 

 

COST BENFIT
a)      Cost of one plate                      300

b)      Cost of 15 plates                   4.500

c)      Price of one plate

d)     Price of 15 plates

 

 

450frs

6.750frs

                                                         4.500FCFA

6.750FCFA

 

Cost of producing 15 plates of food                      = 4.500 FRS

Sales derived from selling 15 plates of food         =   6.750 FRS

Net Profit                                                               =   2.250 FRS

 

At sales of 4.500FCFA your business is said to be breaking-even. (10 plates of food is your break-even quantity).

The BEP is where your business is neither losing nor making profits. It shows you where you are and generates thought on……….what you should be doing in order to stay in business.

 

 

CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

a)      Food for Thought

“To understand how any society functions you must understand the relationships between the men and women”.

 

b)     Goal:

To understand the buying patterns of consumers and how a business can utilize the marketing mix too positively influence consumer behavior.

 

c)      Objectives:-

At the end of this chapter, we should be able to:-

  1. Define consumer behavior
  2. Know some facts associated with buying
  3. Understand the marketing mix(4p’s or 5p’s?0
  4. Appreciate the use of the marketing mix in order to positively influence consumer behavior

 

Content

  1. Consumer behavior is simply trying to understand the way people decide to spend money, credit or time. What products /services, ideas attract people. Why, when, where and how consumers purchase and use goods. Who and what influence their decisions. Understanding consumer behavior will guide the business person in positively influencing that behavior. The tool to use is the marketing mix (4P’s) however, let take a look at buying.
  2. What is buying? It is the exchange of money for goods, service or ides. Why do people buy? Well, we buy to re-sell (buyam-sellam) we buy because we cannot produce all we want/ need and we buy to satisfy human needs.

Based on where we find ourselves in the above setup, Abraham Maslow says we spend and buy services associated with the level in which we are. However, most human beings (95%) never go above the affiliation needs. We buy our products, services or ideas through cash payment, credit,

by check or markets or through third parties (agents). The buying publics consist of two major consumers. The one is institutional consumers comprising of businesses, professional offices. Non governmental organizations, non-profit making organization, schools and government. The second group is the ultimate consumers (everybody). We either buy for personal use (shirt) for family use (house clock) or buy for someone else’s use (gift). Our buying may be influence by psychological or sociological reasons. The formula to keep in mind is:

 

We buy (choice) because there is a need, the purchasing power (ability to buy) and our prejudices towards the variety of products/services/ideal in the market. Our decision to buy may also be rational (bases on cost, dependability and usefulness) or it could be emotional (sensory satisfaction, fear, pride, sociability and emulation).

Now that we have successfully discussed the art of buying let us turn our attention to the marketing strategies which can be utilized in order to positively influence buying buyers.

 

 

The above picture offers a working knowledge of forces and mixes which together and in different ways influence the buying public.

 

EXTERNAT FORCE:-

These are set of uncontrollable forces, which influence the business person (adversely or positively) and he/she has very little control over them. Let us shed some light on each

  1. i.        Legislative Force :-

Sometimes called the regulatory force, theses are laws passed by the legislature (National Assembly) which dictate the way the government wants businesses to operate e.g. No tow pharmacies to be located within a particular area. Think others?

 

  1. ii.      Legal Forces

These are decision handed down by the courts of law and the said decisions may not favour a businessperson.

Think of a customer taking you to court

How about an employee you laid –off

 

  1. iii.    Political Forces

Politics will always influence business. A bad political set up will not create an enabling environment for business to flourish. Similarly you can belong to an opposition party and find your contracts seized or not funded by the party in power. You may not even be allowed to bid for the contract if it is known that you do not subscribe to the party in power. A good business person should therefore be very careful as to his/ her political sentiments.

 

  1. iv.     Technological Forces

Here we find machines and equipment changing everyday. The typewriter is fast making way to the computer. Machines now mould blocks. Cars have telephone just in case you haven’t notice! The businesspersons have no choice but to keep abreast

 

  1. v.       Economic and Competitive Forces

The fact that the economy is experiencing a depression, recession, boom, inflationary conditions, cut in salaries, reduced purchasing power, devaluation does not mean the business world should disappear. You might not be able to control the above but you’ve got to keep going. What about your competitors. Some may engage in price wars and cut throat advertisements! Can you control them?

 

  1. vi.     Societal Forces

We live in a world of tribalism and nepotism. People can decide to buy from their tribesman or friend or relative. Can you control them? I’ll surely like to know how! This is the external environment, which may be friendly, or hostile depending on how you fit in. however, do not lose hope. The businessperson can use the marketing mix to survive in business.

 

WHAT IS THE MARKETING MIX:-

Otherwise called the 4P’s (Product, Price, Place, Promotion) theses are a set of controllable variables utilized by a businessperson in order to positively influence consumer behaviour.

A businessperson must study the target very carefully for the characteristic of the target market determine the make-up of the marketing mix. Let us study the 4P’s very closely.

A. Product Mix:-

Here we attempt to determine consumers’ needs wants and translate them into desirable product/services. What product will appeal to the market?

  • The need for fruits all year round= food preservation
  • The increase in working women= increased in “ dress for success”
  • The increase in working women=increase in day care centers

Remember the basic product qualities of quality, style, features/ options/services, packaging, warranties, color, brand name which has to fit the product, image which has to fit the user. What product is needed? How and when? What opportunities exist? Are you reevaluated existing product lines? Are you diversifying into related product lines?

Is it a single product appeal (shoe?)

Is it one basic product line (dressing, shirts, blouses and trousers?)

Is it diversified product lines (skincare, food items, dresses etc)

Is you’re an old or new product? Remember the basic steps in new product development. Generation of ideas, screening, concept testing, business analysis, test marketing and commercialization.

In all above never loose sight of the risks and benefit involved. Remember that adding-value to products/ services ideas will go a long way in guaranteeing sustainability of your business. The product life cycle concept (PLCC) is a tool used by business to prolong their life span.

 

THE Product Life Cycle Concept (PLCC)

 

TIME /SCALE

A= Introductory stage: A new business is known

You spend huge sums of money to acquire land, building, equipment, machinery, and workers. There is huge cash outflow.

B= Awareness stage: Advertising and promotion are very necessary at this stage. Little sales but more expenditure

C= Growth stage: Here the business begins to experience huge sales (Economies of scale). There is competition. Promotion is reinforced.

D= Maturity stage: The business is enjoying huge profit margins, diversification should be considered. Machines and equipment re old and needing replacement. More sales promotion

E= Peak Stage: The highest level of sales output is reached and maintain it means diversify, reinforce current operating levels ,pump in new ideas , new energy and reinforce sales promotion

F= Decline stage: There is cut throat competition. To avoid decline you should take note of D&E above.

 

B. PRICING MIX:-

What is price? It is the value of something expressed in monetary terms. How is it determined? By adding cost of production to mark you get price. It is that easy? Well , let take a closer look….setting prices is affected by the external economic environment and by the companies’ internal policies. Price policy is guided by returned on investment (ROI) where  profit are calculated as percentage of investment.

How high a price will we charge?

  • Above the market? (low volume, luxury goods)
  • Below the market? (discount stores willing to capture markets share/turnover)
  • With the market? (price leader)

 

  1. i.                    Price skimming:-

Increase price initially and reduce it later when competition heats up. This is good because you recover development cost early in the game

  1. ii.                  Price penetration:-

Low initial price, recovers initial investment through large sales volume. This is good because rapid sales discourage competitors

  1. iii.                Price lining:-

Here we offer merchandise at a limited number of set prices

If you buy quality 15 at 500 FRS

If you buy quantity 10 at 750FRS etc

This is good because it makes the selling job easier for sales representative and an easier choice for the consumer

  1. iv.                 Psychological pricing:-

Reducing a few francs from the rounded figure to make the consumer feel that he/she is paying less e.g. 485,4975 and 9,950 respectively to 500, 5.000 and 10.000

  1. v.                   Suggested retail price:-

Stating categorically that the price has no mark-up from sales representative  makes the consumer feel that he/she is getting his/her money’s worth.

Some handy pricing problems are:

  • Prices keep changing readily due to changing technology, poor economic ,environment,(inflation, devaluation, reducing incomes)
  • Competition (local/foreign including dumping)
  • Legal environment (cost of safety from law suits.)

The price you charge is yours. But think again……….someone has to pay …..demand and supply cannot be forgotten.

 

PROMOTIONAL MIX:

You cannot sell a cat in the bag”. Every business must as a rule promote itself/image and its products/service. Promotional mix includes advertising, personal selling, publicity and sale promotion. Let us define each:

  • Advertising – Any paid, non-personal presentation made by an identified sponsor through mass communication. Example? Why not!
  • Personal selling:- face to face interaction between a business (usually through sales representatives) and the potential consumer of its products/service
  • Publicity: Non paid information relating to goods/services. Usually through moving vans, fliers etc.
  • Sales promotion:- any attempt to increase sales by showing good will. Through sponsorship of sporting events (Guinness MountCameroonRace). Also by offering various forms of discounts/gifts etc.

In advertising we talk of the media mix. We will see this in a later chapter on advertising. The question at this juncture is what is the most effective way of promotion? You have to think of your business? Is it a small one? Then maybe personal selling is what you need. It is flexible, develops a personal report, and allows for demonstrations, which can be more convincing to the customers. What are your strengths and weaknesses? It is important to know. For a big company, which covers a wider area, maybe TV/Radio adverting will be more appropriate. A non-profit, non governmental organization may utilize a combination of mix above but more of publicity.

D. PLACE (DISTRIBUTION) MIX:-

What is the strategy for reaching the final consumer? Is it by air, sea, land or rail? What channel of distribution are we going to use?

CUSTOMER RELATIONS

 

a)      Food for Thought:

“Life has two rules:

  1. Never Quit
  2. Always Remember Rule 1”

Human beings (customers) are complex to deal with; however, your business should never quit trying to satisfy the customer.

b)     Goal

To expose the business person to the relationship between his/her business and the customer (consumer)

c)      Objectives

At the end of this chapter, we should be able to:

  1. Know the definition and importance of the customer to any business
  2. know how to analyze his/her customer
  3. know how to find out ,what customers want and how they perceive you
  4. Appreciation the important of customer satisfaction and its relationship to profitability.

 

  1. I.       Definition and importance of a customer

A customer is anyone who purchases (buys) your product /services or idea. The customer can be a middle person or the final consumer. For importance of customer see Gandhi quote

The relationship between your business and the customer.

“…………….. A customer is the most important visitor in our premises. He/she is not dependent on us. We are dependent on him/she. He /she is not an interruption in our work. He/ she is the purpose of it. He /she is not an outsider in business. He/she is part of it. We are not doing a favour by serving him/her. He /she is doing us a favour by giving us the opportunity to do so.”

MAHATMA GANDHI

 

The customer is the king/queen of business

The customer is always rights

A business should do everything to satisfy a customer as well as to make a profit

  1. II.                How to analyze your customer

A good business person needs to know his/ her customer consequently; you have to ask yourself the following questions:

  • Who are your customers?
  • Where are they?
  • What do they want?
  • What are their interest, habits and purchasing power?
  • How did you serve them?
  • What are their future needs?
  • How frequently are they going to purchase?
  •  What can you do to get more business?

 

Remember that the more narrowly you define market, the more effectively you can target those markets. Things are always changing so you have to keep you with the changing habits of your customers. The answer to the above question will tell you the visible side of your customers.

  1. III.             How to find out what customers want and how they perceive you
  • Ask some existing clients about your products or service in terms of prices, quality and the competition
  • Prepare a brief questionnaire (survey) which will reflect consumer feelings about your products/services
  • Attend trade shows and association conference, set you workshops/seminars.

 

Try to identify the right audience in order to get honest feedback.

Try to find out from customer

Why you lost business with them, remember that customer quit because:

  • 1% die
  • 3% move away to other locations
  • 5% make other friendship (change tastes)
  • 9% due to competitive reasons (price)
  • 14% due to product dissatisfaction (quality)
  • 685 due to the attitude or indifference towards the customer by some employee
  • Are you 100% sure that you have the right attitude
  • What can you do to get them back?
  • What can you do to improve business with them?
  • Listen without becoming defensive
  • From your existing customers find out:
    • Why they buy from you?
    • How are your service
    • What major problems do they encounter when conducting business with you?
    • Always give incentive to your customers in other to improve business with them
  1. IV.    The importance of customer satisfactory and its relationship to profitability

Customer satisfaction is important because he/she will come back for repeat purchases which mean that you sell and make more profits. (Remember the marketing concept)Customer satisfaction has a Win-Win relationship with profitability (positive relationship) in that the more satisfied your customer, the more he/she will buy then you will sell hence the higher your profits

  1. V.     The importance of good human relation in business is that it helps you to generate sales, builds goodwill, creates interpersonal satisfaction and enhances your status in society.

It is necessary to know how to handle customer grievance at all levels.

The don’t include:-

  • Don’t conclude for the customer
  • Don’t argue with the customer
  • Don’t interrupt the customer when he/she is speaking
  • Don’t loose your temper (always be in control)
  • Don’t talk too much.

They do’s include:

  • A smile will take a million steps
  • Give your best service at all times
  • Give greetings /good wishes/polite words
  • Offer customer benefits of your products /services/ideas.

TIPS TO REMEMBER:

  • Society has turned from a product world to a customer world consequently; the need for marketing has increased.
  • Marketing must be based on a customer orientation. What the consumer needs may suggest a product/service to fill that need. But only when the need is transformed into a want can there be a sale.
  • Marketing requires successful relationships and interaction amongst the producer, the consumer and the middle person.

 

HOW TO INFLUENCE OTHERS

  1. Showing genuine interest in what they are interested in
  2. Smile
  3. Make others feel important
  4. Be sympathetic
  5. Give away credit
  6. Avoid arguments
  7. Allow face saving
  8. Admit your errors
  9. Praise lavishly but sincerely
  10. Accentuate the positive
  11. Catch the mood (the moment)

CASE STUDY

Mrs. Ade nee Iya Eposi Tambe is a regular customer to your store. Yesterday she walked in your store and collected items worth 7.160 FRS. She was at the counter with many other customers. When it was her turn to pay for the items she said she had given you a 10.000 FRS note. You can not remember having received the money from her. There are several other customers in the store. What would you do and why.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Roles & Responsibilities for Elected Officials

Table of Content

Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………………………. 2

Brief on MUDEC…………………………………………………………………………………… 3

Major Innovations in the Council Law…………………………………………………… 4

Councils in the Decentralization Process………………………………………………….. 6

Classification of Councils……………………………………………………………………….. 7

Council Organs and Functions…………………………………………………………………. 8

Councilor as a Local Leader…………………………………………………………………….. 8

Supervisory Authorities………………………………………………………………………….. 12

A Poem to all Councilors………………………………………………………………………… 15

Council Organizational Chart (Sample)…………………………………………………….. 16

Council Development Planning………………………………………………………………. 17

Managing Council Contracts…………………………………………………………………. 18

Project Cycle Management…………………………………………………………………….. 21

Project Identification and Project Planning…………………………………………………

Project Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation……………………………………

Introduction to the Council Budget………………………………………………………… 23

Principles, Process, Preparation and Sources of Revenue……………………………..

Stages in Budgeting…………………………………………………………………………………

General Policies and Key Points……………………………………………………………….

Human Resource Management in Council………………………………………………. 27

Good Local Governance………………………………………………………………………… 30

Participation………………………………………………………………………………………….

Gender in Local Leadership……………………………………………………………………..

Holding Productive Meetings……………………………………………………………………

Managing Conflicts in Local Councils………………………………………………………..

The Council and Technical Services………………………………………………36

The Main Technical Services the Council Works with………………………………..

The Role of Parliamentarians in Local Governance……………………………..38

The Council and the Non Public Sector…………………………………………40

Civil Society and other Non Public Actors…………………………………………..

Building Partnership between the Council and Non Public actors……………………

 

 Acknowledgement

 

The Municipal Development Counselling (MUDEC) Group was privileged to be included in the realisation of the project to develop the product “Roles and Responsibilities (RR) of Councils and Partners.” Product development included tool development and testing, implementation/monitoring and evaluation.

MUDEC Group has since trained several Councils and their partners on Roles and Responsibilities (RR) in the South West and North West Regions of Cameroon.

We remain very thankful to the following for the participation of MUDEC Group through the whole process:

 

  • The Management of HelvetasCameroon(Bamenda)

 

  • The Management of SNV-Highlands (Bamenda)

 

  • The Management of CEFAM (Buea)

 

We remain very thankful indeed.

 

This document has been produced based on RR training reports for several councils in the North West /South West Regions. The 2004 Law on Decentralization as applicable to Councils was the working document for the trainings.

Brief on MUDEC

The Management Control Team of the Municipal Development Counselling (MUDEC) Group is happy to officially introduce our organization to you.

We are a Local Capacity Builder (Local Support Organization) based in Buea, and we have effective presence in the South West/North West Regions of Cameroon. Our area of focus is in participatory governance processes where our strategic partners include the Local Government Training Center (CEFAM), the National Community Driven Program (PNDP), RUMPI Project,  to mention a few.

Together we have developed tools in the following areas: –

Roles & Responsibilities (RR) for Councils and Partners.

Partnership & Participation (PP) for  Councils and Village Communities

Local Economic Development (LED)

Human Resource Development (HRD), based on Gender & Human Resource Audits of Councils.

Resource Mobilization (RM) especially in the domain of market studies & tourism development

Coalitions, Alliances, Networks (CAN) of local development stakeholders.

 

MUDEC Group has facilitated Village Development Plans (VDP) and Communal Development Plans (CDP) in the South West Region.

MAJOR INNOVATIONS IN THE COUNCIL LAW No.2004/018 of July 2004

 

Institutes a single nomenclature: the Council, thus eliminating the other appellations (urban and rural council).

Devolves State powers to Councils with respect to economic, social, health, educational, cultural and sports development

Institutes 4 annual Council sessions instead of the current 2

Amends oversight powers with respect to the suspension , dissolution and substitution of Council organs

Restores Council unions and defines a legal framework for decentralized cooperation

Institutes the City Council as the sole special regime applicable to certain urban centers; thus eliminating special regime City Councils.

Clarifies power sharing between the City Council and the sub-divisional Council

 

Some Implications for Councils

On Promotion of Local Development

Attribution of roles for Regions and Councils in the following domains: local economy, social, health, culture, sports, education.

Local Development Planning

 

On Democracy

Progressive devolution of powers to local levels – Regions and Councils

Residence clause for Mayors and their Deputies

Attempt to reduce right of oversight by administrative authorities

 

On Good Governance

Provision for collaboration with civil society

Legal cover for local and international partnership development

Provision of recourse to arbitration by aggrieved partners.

Increased number of Council sessions (4)

Provision for citizen participation e.g. in monitoring Council budget and execution

 

On Council Management

Provision for collegial executive (Mayor and Deputies fix agenda for Council sessions)

Greater respect to the person of the Mayor and Deputies

v Secretary General clearly identified as Coordinator of Council services

Mayor and Deputies to receive remuneration and compensation for damages received in the course of executing their duties

 

Councils empowered to create corporations and take up shares in public and semi public and private companies, for the purpose of providing public services

Deliberating organ can consult and remunerate resource persons.

Councils can create unions and engage in various forms of cooperation, locally, nationally and internationally.

 

Supervisory Authority over Councils.

Who wields supervisory powers over councils?

Article 10 law no 2004/017 of 22 July 2004, that the state shall ensure supervisory powers over regional and local authorities.

Supervisory power is held by the STATE

Authorized by the PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC

Represented by the MINISTER in Charge of Regions and Local Authorities

Through the GOVERNOR at the REGIONAL level

And the SDO at the COUNCIL level

 

What are the powers held?

v Over administrative issues such as appointment and dismissal, functioning of Council organs, sanctioning and approval, co signing of deliberations

 

Instruments/Deliberations that must receive prior approval are:

  •  The budget /additional budget.
  •  Loans
  •  International cooperation agreement
  •  Land
  •  Participation in enterprises
  •  Contracts above allowed ceiling
  •  Recruitment of some categories of personnel
  •  Local Development Plans

 

  • Oversight powers. All deliberations of the Council must be forwarded within 15 days of it decision for approval by the Supervisory Authority, who can nullify the act for grossly illegal. Time limit for approval is 30 days.

The council in the decentralisation process (Legal Environment).

 

Objective:

To reinforce the Councilor’s knowledge on the legal framework of local councils.

Definition of a council

Types of councils

Council organs/functions

Councillors (roles, rights, obligations, don’ts)

Roles of Mayor and Deputies

Roles of the Secretary General

Roles of the Municipal Treasurer/Sub Treasurer

Roles of the Stores Accountant

Roles of the SDO (first supervisory authority)

Roles of the Governor

Roles of MINATD/MLRA

Roles of the  PM & the President of the Republic/

Council Organisational Chart

Local leadership roles of Councillors

What is decentralisation?

Decentralization is the devolution or surrender or sharing by the

State of some or part of its powers and appropriate resources to

regional and local authorities.

 

 

What is a Council?

A Council is a basic decentralized local authority having the status of a corporate body under public law.

 

  • It has a legal personality and financial autonomy.

 

  • It promotes economic development, health and social development, and educational, sport and cultural development, of the population within the Municipality.

Classification of Councils

 

No Type Headed by Mode of ascension to power
1 Councils Mayor & Deputies Election
2 Sub Divisional Councils Mayor & Deputies Election
3 City Councils Government Delegate & Assistants Appointment

 

NUMBER OF MUNICIPAL COUNCILORS

 

Population

Councilors

Deputies

Less than 50,000

25

2

50,000-100,000

31

2

100,001-200,000

35

4

200,001-300,000

41

4

Above 300,000

61

6

 

                      COUNCIL ORGANS AND FUNCTIONS

 

 

Deliberative: All elected Councillors for 5 years.

Executive:   Mayor and Deputies elected by all Councillors (the Secretary General is not an executive member).

Council Committee: Elected Councillors grouped under Finance/ Natural Resource Management, Infrastructure and Development, Social…with Chairpersons.

 

                                        FUNCTIONING OF ORGANS.  

Aspect Deliberative Executive Committees
ROLE Hold discussions on Council matters and take decisions in case of equal votes, the President’s point is considered in public voting and the eldest candidate qualifies for secret ballot. Ensure the day to day running of the council. Deliberate on matters conferred to them by the executive.
MEETING Four (4) Ordinary sessions per year, budgetary and administrative account, maximum of 8 days per session. Extra ordinary sessions possible. As often as possible  
CONVOCATION Mayor for ordinary sessions.

-Supervisory Authority for Extra.

2/3 of its members, the Mayor or Supervisory Authority.  

The Councillor as a local leader is:

  • A Policy and Decision Maker
  • An Enabler
  • A Communicator
  • An Overseer
  • A Negotiator and Facilitator
  • A Power Broker
  • A Financier
  • An Institutional Builder
    • The election of the Mayor and Deputies;
    • Voting the Council budget;
    • Approving the administrative accounts of the Mayor/Government Delegate and the management accounts of the Municipal revenue collector;
    • Granting special revenue and expenditure authorizations;
    • Contracting loans and accepting gifts and legacies;
    • Authorizing Council intervention in the economic and social spheres, in particular by directly operating or taking a financial stake in private or public bodies;
    • Approving town plans;
    • Adopting names for streets and public squares and places;
    • Authorizing the purchase of real estate;
    • Authorizing the holding or abolition of fairs, and changes in fair sites;
    • Authorizing the cession or exchange of Council properties.
The roles of a councillor include:                           

Councillors have the right to:

  • Be convened to Municipal Council Sessions.
  • Be informed of the agenda or issues to be discussed.
  • Vote.
  • Request extraordinary sessions.
  • Request closed door sessions.
  • Be re-elected.
  • Delegate his/her vote (vote by proxy)
  • Accept or reject municipal decisions taken.
  • A copy of the minutes of the previous proceedings.
  • Belong to a constituted committee.
  • Resign.
  • Take leave of absence to attend sessions.
  • Be reimbursed travelling expenses.
  • Be sent on mission.
  • Sitting allowances during sessions.
The Mayor is responsible for:
  • Taking measures designed to safeguard public morals and decency;
  • Taking all measures designed to embellish the built up areas of the Council;
  • Making appointments to Council posts.  However, the Supervisory Authority appoints Secretaries General of Councils;
  • Recruiting, administering and dismissing Council staff, under the control of the Supervisory Authority;
  • Taking measures to ensure order on Council roads;
  • Issuing permits for temporary occupation of streets and public squares and for temporary deposit of materials on the roads, rivers, harbours, river side and other public Council places, taking into consideration the need for these places to be used by the public;
  • Issuing building and alignment permits and authorizations relating to the public highway, in particular for piping under roads;
  • Ordering the demolition of any building erected contrary to town planning regulations or falling into ruin, when two months have passed without response to notice;
  • Representing the Council for public purposes;
  • Chairing the municipal Council and, therefore, responsible for order, and in this capacity may have any person disturbing public order expelled from the chamber or arrested;
  • Solemnizing marriages, and recording and certifying births and deaths:  She/He issues certificates of marriage, birth and death;
  • Preparing the Council budget and presenting it before the Councillors;
  • Authorizing expenditure;
  • Administering Council revenue;
  • Directing Council work;
  • Taking necessary measures for Council roads;
  • Drawing up annually a schedule of municipal road works, in collaboration with the local public works representative; the said schedule has to be submitted to the Supervisory Authority for approval when passed by the municipal Council;
  • Placing contracts, signing leases and letting work on tender in accordance with the legal procedure; etc.

The Government Delegate performs all of the above roles but is also specifically assigned the role of organizing and managing the city services; a function that is not assigned to Mayors!

Deputies:

  • They shall Civil Status Registrars
  • Shall along with the Mayor draw up the agenda for council’s sessions.
  • Implement development activities and mass participation activities in particular.
  • Control the collection of council taxes, duties and levies and propose methods to improve such collections.
  • Follow up the execution of council contracts.
  • Mayor may delegate duties and powers to deputies but take full responsibilities of the outcome.
  • Supervisory authority insists on written duties (municipal order) to Deputies. However, financial power cannot be delegated.

Municipal Treasurer:

  • Shall draw up the Council Management Accounts
  • Shall recover Council revenue and settle Council expenditure
  • Shall be the Council Accountant
  • Shall keep and manage Council valves and funds
  • Shall open accounts in the name of the Council

 

The Secretary General:

  • Shall assist the Council Executive
  • Shall be the main coordinator of Council administrative services
  • Shall attend meetings of the Council executive and provide secretarial services therefore
  • Shall have delegation of signature to accomplish his/her duties
  • Shall act as Secretary at sessions with the assistance of Councilors and other Council support staff
  • Shall draw up minutes of Council proceedings

 

The Stores Accountant:

  • Shall record incoming and outgoing Council property
  • Shall keep an inventory of Council property
  • Shall certify services rendered the Council (visa of Delivery Note etc)
  • Shall ensure the safekeeping and handling of Council property
  • Shall draw up a stores management account

 

Supervisory Authorities:

 

President of the Republic:

  • Directs and ensures the implementation process of decentralization
  • Ensures national unity, integrity and proportionate development
  • Appoints and terminate Government Delegates and Assistant Government Delegates at City Councils
  • Set up Councils, determining their names, area of jurisdiction and chief towns
  • May effect change of name, chief town or boundaries of a Council
  • Can temporarily group a number of Councils together
  • May dissolve the Council if its activities grossly undermine and threaten national unity, peace and the security of the State
  • Can suspend the activities of the Council, for the purpose of maintaining law and order, and appoint an ad hoc body to take decisions on behalf of  such a Council
  • Can dismiss the Mayor and his Deputies from office
  • May raise some urban centers because of their specific nature, to City Councils.

 

The Minister In charge Of Regional and Local Authorities (MINATD)

  • Under the authority of the Head of State he exercises supervisory authority over regions and Councils
  • He oversees the effective implementation of the decentralization process
  • Appoints and dismiss the Council Secretary General
  • Can propose the temporary grouping together of a number of Councils
  • Records nullity and nullifies deliberations taken by the Municipal Council
  • Can automatically take the place of the Government Delegates and Mayors if they refuse to put into effect laws, resolutions or court rulings
  • Shall retire irregular Councilors who fail to attend three successive sessions
  • Shall appoint a special body and a chairman and his Vice within 8 days following the dissolution of or acceptance of resignation of all Councilors of a Council
  • Shall determines modalities for the allocation of sessions allowances and the reimbursement of expenses incurred in the discharge of duties assigned Mayors, Deputy Mayors, Councilors, Chairmen and members of the special body
  • Shall enforce a model list of Council jobs, taking into account the size of the various Councils
  • Shall set special civil status registries within some Councils, appoint their Registrars and fix the conditions of payment and amounts to be paid to the Registrar as allowance
  • Shall approve a priori the council decision to create a council police service
  • May suspend Mayors and Deputy Mayors for serious misconduct and in case of infringement of laws and regulation in force
  • Shall lay down conditions of devolution of assets and liabilities of an urban center comprising Sub Divisional Councils
  • Shall approve before hand cooperation agreements among councils
  • Can dismiss a Mayor, Government Delegate, Chairman of a council union or any other councillor who is sentenced for crime or whose conduct seriously undermines the interest of the council, city council or council union
  • Shall represent the President of the Republic, the Government and each Minister in his administrative unit
  • Shall safeguard national interest, ensure administrative control, respect of rules and regulation in force
  • Shall supervise and coordinate, under the authority of the government, the running of the State civilian administrative service in the region
  • Shall be the only authority empowered to speak on behalf of the State before board of regional authorities
  • Shall receive statutory and individual decision taken by the President of the regional council
  • Shall give prior approval for:-

The Governor (Delegate of State):

-Initial and annex budget, below-the-line accounts, and special expenditure authorization

-Loans and loans guarantee

-International cooperation agreements

-Land matters

-Securities and shares

-Agreements on the execution and control of public contracts

-Awarding public service contracts beyond the term of service the board

-Recruitment of certain personnel

-Regional development plans and regional land development plans.

 

The Senior Divisional Officer:

  • Shall exercise supervisory authority of the State over Councils
  • Shall represent the President of the Republic, the Government and each Minister in their administrative units
  • Shall have authority over deconcentrated government services in their administrative units
  • Shall approve deliberations of the Council seeking authorization of the regional Council for local projects initiated on public coastland and water ways
  • Shall approve management instruments issued by the Mayor before being forwarded to the Council for information
  • Can request the Mayor to convene an extra ordinary session of the Council
  • Shall authorize the Council on request to consult, in session civil servants or state employees or any other person on account of their expertise.
  • Shall number and sign the register of the Council proceedings
  • Shall receive copies of resignations from Councilors
  • Shall approve beforehand the decision of the Council to institute the position of special Deputy Mayor
  • Shall convene the first session of the Council following the proclamation of result of the Council elections
  • Shall receive the list of the proclamation of results of candidates elected to the posts of Mayor and Deputies
  • Shall supervise the publication and enforcement of laws, regulations and measures of a general character as well as the implementation of general security measures, by the Mayor.
  • Shall propose to the MRLA the creation of special civil status registries
  • Can take the place of the Mayor
  • Visas resolutions of Councils and Council decisions
  • Shall inform the MRLA in case of Mayor’s or Deputy recalcitrance to relinquish one of his posts incase of incompatibility
  • Approves the delegation of powers from Mayors to Deputies and Secretary General
  • Shall approve in advance meetings of Sub-Divisional Council initiated by the Government Delegate to the City Council
  • Shall notify an incriminated official or Councilor of the immediate cessation of his/her duty
  • Shall be the sole authority empowered to speak on behalf of the state before Councils of their administrative units
  • Shall approve Council development plans prior to adoption.

 

The Divisional Officer (DO)

The Divisional Officers are not part of the Supervisory Authority of the Council, but Council authorities have to work closely with them, since they  represent the State in:

  • Maintenance of law and order in the Council area or subdivision.
  • Coordinating activities of various government services.
  • Attending Council sessions, if delegated by the SDO.
  • Assist in the collection of Council taxes.

 

A Poem Dedicated To All Councillors

 

Follow the roles; follow the roles, all councilors

 

Must follow the roles, all the time

…………

to avoid conflicts, to avoid quarreling, to avoid

 

cheating, to avoid infighting, to avoid inequality, to

 

avoid mismanagement………….

 

Councilors follow your roles always!!

The above scenario applies if the Health Officer is employed by the Council. However, if the health officer is seconded from his/her ministry to the council, then the officer occupies the same level as the Secretary General, Municipal Treasurer, and Stores Accountant.

 

COMMUNAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (CDP).

 

Objectives:

        The reader should know:

·        The Communal Development Plan (CDP) process.

·        The role of Council Committees in the CDP.

  • The importance of having a CDP.

 

Definition:

Development planning is a midterm or long term process (3-

5years)

starting with a collection of baseline data (monographic study) to

come up a strategic plan with prioritised activities to be

implemented within the municipality.

Importance:

To meet the needs of the community members.

To promote community ownership

To build a sense of community

To know what to do to develop

Priority setting for implementing projects and activities.

Guide for identification of human resource development and institutional development needs.

To get a general overview of funds needed.

To enable the council to forward projects for funding.

To better manage scarce council resources.

To stimulate forward thinking

To promote team work

 

Steps:

Collection of baseline data (monographic studies)

Situational analysis

Problem analysis

Drafting of Strategic Plan

Drafting of Annual Operational Plans

Elaboration of a Monitoring system

Yearly Evaluation.

MANAGING COUNCIL CONTRACTS

 

A)  Public Contracts in Cameroon are regulated by:

  • Ø Decree No 95/101 of9/6/95bearing on the regulation of public contracts;
  • Ø Decree No 2000/155 of30/6/2000to modify some provisions of the 1995 Decree;
  • Ø Decree No 2002/030 of28/01/2002bearing on the organization and functioning of tender boards.

Council contracts are public contracts.

 

B)   Definition Of Public Contracts

A public contract is a written contract signed in accordance with statutory provisions and by which a contractor, supplier or service provider agrees with the State, Local Council, a Public Corporation or establishment either to carry out works or provide goods or services on behalf or under their supervision for a payment.

  • One party to the contract must be Public (a State entity, a moral person of public law)

 

C)  Types Of (Public) Council Contracts

i)                   Local Purchase Order

ii)                Jobbing Order

iii)              Contracts

 

i)                   Local Purchase Order (Bon de Commande)

This is the smallest contract placed for amounts less than 5 Million Francs. The Contracting Officer takes the action alone on a one to one dialogue with the supplier.

ii)                Jobbing Order

Jobbing Orders are used for public orders of amounts above 5 Million francs    but less than 30 Million francs. The Contracting Officer places an open call for tender through competition between contractors of the Administration, by publishing a notice in an authorized publication

iii)              Contracts

All public orders above 30 Million francs are called contracts. The procedure for contracts is the same as for Jobbing Orders except that the TendersBoard or Contract Award Commission must have an INDEPENDENT OBSERVER in its sessions

 

v The Contracting Officer or Project Owner for Councils is the Mayor or Government Delegate.

 

D)  Procedure For Contract Awards

v Open call for tender (Contracts by invitation to tender)

v Negotiation (Mutual agreement) exceptionally with at least 3 candidates to be consulted. (Negotiated Contracts)

 

E)   Types Of Tenders Boards

A public tender board is the technical support body, appointed for the purpose of assisting a project owner or contracting officer in awarding public contracts whose value exceeds 5 Million francs.

v Ministerial

v Provincial

v Divisional

v Specialized

Councils fall under specialized tender board

 

F)    Composition Of A Council Tenders Board

-A chairman appointed by the Prime Minister upon proposal by the Mayor or Government Delegate;

-Two representatives of the Mayor appointed by the Mayor

-The territorially competent finance controller or one working for the Council

-The territorially competent representative of the Minister in charge of Planning & Regional Development (Divisional Delegate of MINEPAT)

-One Secretary designated by the Mayor

 

G)  Tender Documents

-The Tender Notice

-The Specialized Regulations of the limitation to Tender

v Administrative Documents or Qualifying documents

v The Draft of Administrative Clauses or Draft Contract

v Technical Documents (Technical Specifications)

v Financial Documents

-Miscellaneous Provisions

 

H)  Execution Of Public (Council) Contracts

Execution of Council contracts focuses on 3 main aspects

  1. Constituent Document
  2. The major stakeholders
  3. Execution per se

 

  1. 1.     Constituent Documents include:

–         The Special Administrative Clause

–         The Special Technical Clause

–         The General Administrative Clause

 

  1. 2.     The Major Stakeholders in the execution of Council Contracts include: –

–         The Mayor or Governmental Delegate (Contracting Officer or Project Owner)

–         The Service Head (Administrative Manager of the Contract) .He is in charge of the day to day follow-up of the proper execution of the project; The Secretary General can assume this role

–         The Contract Engineer- He is in charge of the technical follow up of the execution of the contract and ensures that the contractor respects all the technical aspects of the contract. This role is played by the Council Technical Service (Workshop Supervisor) or the territorially competent state technical service.

–         The Control Commission- This is a private engineer (an external expert) who has the same mission as the Contract Engineer

–         The Payment Group

The Stores Accountant

The Finance Controller

The Service of Economic Affairs

The Municipal Revenue Collector or Municipal Treasurer

 

  1. 3.     Execution Per Se

Execution per se involves a series of actions including:

–         Actions to be undertaken just after the signature of the contract

–         Actions to be undertaken before the commencement of the contract

–         Actions to be undertaken during the execution of works

–         Actions in view of amendments or (Additional Clauses)

–         Actions undertaken before provisional reception (commissioning into service) of the project

–         Actions to be undertaken immediately after provisional reception

–         Actions following the final acceptance

PROJECT CYCLE MANAGEMENT

         

          What is the project cycle?

A project is a set of activities aimed at resolving a given problem within a specified time frame. Post implementation measures are necessary to ensure the sustainability of the project. The steps of the project are:

Identification

Monitoring &                                                                                                                   Planning

Evaluation

 

 

 

Implementation

 

            Why implement projects?

Local Councils have as primary mission to bring about the development in the locality. One of the most effective ways of doing this is through the implementation of development projects.

 

              Project Identification

It is a result of a participatory problem and needs identification process involving all potentials stakeholders and leads to feasibility assessment that includes technical, environmental, social and financial issues.

Possible Tools

Participatory planning tools

 

Outputs

Feasibility study (by a consultant)

 

 

                         Project Planning

It is the process of detailed planning of activities based on the feasibility study .It takes into account available human, material and financial resources. It might be necessary for the council to get external support for the preparation of tender and contract documents, contract negotiations, etc.

 

Possible Tools

  • Council operational plan
  • Council Budget
  • Feasibility study
  • Survey instruments
  • Standard drawing etc

 

Output

  • Planning documents
  • Tender documents
  • Contract documents

 

Project Implementation

It is the process of execution of the planned project. It might be necessary to hire a contractor for this service, mainly for infrastructure projects. In this case the contractor is supervised during the whole duration of the works by either a consultant, who acts on behalf of the council as contracting authority, or by Council staff directly, depending on the capacity and knowhow available at the Council level.

 

 Monitoring and Evaluation of Projects (M&E)

This is a yardstick to measure systematically the progress of the project

 

Monitoring means continuous  observation, collection, interpretation and analysis of information on planned activities to ensure progress is made, task fulfilled and problems resolved. Monitoring is made during  implementation and after completion of the project

 

Evaluation is the periodic check on achievements of expected results of activities or project in order to plan corrective or complementary measures.

 

Monitoring and Evaluation have to be an integral part of planning, and should be included in every stage of the action plan.

 

Monitoring and Evaluation enable the Council to:

  • Modify or readjust activities
  • Ensure sustainability
  • Measure the degree of change brought about by the project
  • Inform donors so that they monitor the use of their funds
  • Identify what information to disseminate and to whom
  • Assess achieved results at the end of a project

 

Results

  • Monitoring and evaluation reports ,plans of action
  • Corrective and preventive maintenance
  • Performance improvement in management and planning

 

Possible Tools

  • Monitoring during execution:

Quality control plan and check lists

  • Monitoring after completion:

Monitoring form

  • Evaluation: evaluation forms

 

 

 

Introduction to the Council Budget.

Objectives

         The reader should:

  • Know what the council budget is
  • Know parts of the council budget
  • Discuss the underlying principles of council budget
  • Discuss the processes involved in the council budget
  • Simulate voting as an informed exercise and obligation of a councillor.

 

Definition

The act by which the revenue and expenditure of council is annually estimated and authorized.

Parts of a council budget

Two main parts: Revenue and Expenditure. These parts are subdivided into Titles, Heads, Subheads and paragraphs having specific number codes.

 

Principles (Characteristics) of the Council Budget:

  • Periodic (Principle of annuality);
  • Balance (Principle of Balance Budget);
  • One document (Principle of Singleness);
  • Legality (Has a legal framework);
  • Separateness  (Principle of separate function of Municipal Treasurer and Vote Holder);
  • Specialization of credits (No credit transfer)

 

Sources of Council funds/Resource Mobilisation

Fiscal

  • Additional Council Tax (CAC)
  • Tax on “role” (patent/license/land/livestock)
  • Direct Council Taxes (DCT),-water, electricity, household refuse.

 

Non fiscal

  • Income from exploitation of Council services (fines, discounts etc).
  • Income from exploitation of natural resources
  • Indirect Council taxes (market,MotorPark, park fee, transit etc).
  • Outstanding revenue/expenditure and brought forward
  • Budget heads and codes
  • Potential but sure sources of revenue and expenditure.

 Budget Process (preparation/execution)

§  Administrative account of the previous year.

§  Budget of the previous year

 

 

Process

  • Planning and programming (this is the initial process that prepares projects giving the Mayor a base to the budget)
  • Elaboration and adoption (by 15th November)
  • Execution (January to December)
  • Consolidation.

 

Budget voting execution

§   Justification and rationale behind budget proposal

§   25% investment quota

  • Provision for staff salaries and other recurrent expenditure
  • Trend (what has been the past situation?)
  • How it ties with the development goals of the Council
  • What is happening within the economy and the environment (price increase of essential inputs such as electricity)
  • A golden principle that Councillors should have is to be informed.

 

Importance of Administrative Accounts. (AA)

It serves as a reference document for drawing up the Council budget.

Shows the level of execution of Council projects.

Show revenue heads that need improved collection.

Show the level of execution of the Council budget.

 

Actors in the budget execution exercise.

Taxation service

The Mayor (Secretary General)

Stores Accountant

Municipal Treasurer

 

Impact of 4 Councils Sessions

670100- Session allowances will double

612110- Entertainment fees will double.

670101- Secretarial and Entertainment allowances during Council sessions will       

increase.

670103- Lump sum payments to Council committee members will increase.


 Review of Budget execution/Process

When

Who

How

What

July

Council services

Council related services

Council committees

Municipal Treasurer

Data collection proposals Analysis

August

Secretary General

 

Assembles data collected makes estimates of Revenue and expenditure

Mayor Instructs

Balances part one and part two of the draft

 

Supervises

Defines long and short terms objectives

September

Council committees Arbitrate Make remarks on capital expenditure and on budgetary proposals

By October 15

Municipal Council Votes Votes part by part by accepting or modifying allotments on expenditures and revenues

     

By November 15

Governor Approves Effect a legal and formal control on budget document

January to December Execution (Revenue and Expenditure)

Mayor Ensures the administrative part in the execution Engages, certifies, liquidates, authorises payment and collection orders

By December to January Consolidation (end of year)

Municipal Treasurer Ensures the accounting part Accepts, verifies the regularity of all administrative acts and supporting documents, records revenues and expenditures incurred

 

 

 

In the preparation and voting of the budget, provisions of the law should be strictly respected else it may lead to a rejection by the Supervisory Authority.

On Revenue Matters:

 

  • Consider the human and financial resources for any investment project;
  • Ensure that there is sufficient allotment for compulsory expenditure;
  • Judiciously set your investment priorities to benefit the majority of the population;
  • Allocate enough credit for staff training;
  • Watch out for operation and maintenance of Council equipment and infrastructure

 

On Expenditure Matters:

  • Refer to the minimum provisions of the law when fixing rates and royalties of services rendered;
  • Increase only viable tax that has consistency in collection;
  • Ensure that there is the possibility to generate funds to ensure the reimbursement of any loans contracted;
  • Emphasize on the sources of revenue that are less costly to collect;
  • Collect and keep data on all external funding sources and their funding conditionality.

 

     HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN COUNCILS

Managing people represents one of the biggest challenges of any manager. As Local Councils are being called upon to provide more services (quantitatively/qualitatively), management will need to review its current operations including Human Resource.

In a recent Human Resource and Gender audit of Councils, MUDEC Group observed that the quality of staff is too low with the average education at First School Leaving Certificate and the Ordinary Level of the General Certificate of Education. Several Councils are overstaffed with relatives of previous Mayors.

Few management staff are graduates from the Local Government Training Centre (CEFAM). Some have not been back to school for refresher courses for over 5 years.

Most female workers in the Councils are concentrated in secretariat and housekeeping functions.

The HRM of Councils will require Mayors and SG, to have hands-on know how relating to Employment, Contracts, Terms of Reference or Job Descriptions, Staff Performance Appraisal, Motivation and Promotions to mention a few.

What is Human Resource Management (HRM)?

HRM is the process of planning, organising, recruiting, capacity building, directing, delegating and evaluating human resources in order to accomplish the set of objectives

 

Who is in charge of HRM?

 The 2004 Law, article 74 (1): “The Mayor shall recruit, suspend or dismiss workers governed by labour laws and collective agreements.”

What is human resource planning?

Work planning is the order in which a number of work-related activities have to be performed to fulfil the objectives of the Council.

 

Staff recruitment

Recruitment is the process of obtaining a sufficiently large pool of suitable applicants from which to select the best .This process should follow the steps as stipulated by the labour code.

Some basic planning tools for HRM

 

  • Activity plan: to plan the work (monthly, half yearly or annually)
  • Implementation and responsibility chart: to show the work to be done and the persons responsible for carrying it out.
  • Daily and weekly work plan: to show the activities to be done
  • Things to do/checklist: to list activities to be done on a daily basis

The conditions necessary for staff productivity:

 

  • Work planning must precede action and be maintained during implementation
  • Work planning must be based on specific activities to be carried out.
  • Work planning must be a sustained effort within a vision of his future.
  • Work planning must be realistic and take into account the time factor.

 

Delegation and Team Building

Delegation and team building involve the shifting of responsibility and authority to subordinates to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of Council service delivery.

The Benefit of delegation is:

  • To have things done through other subordinates,
  • Improvement, effectiveness and efficiency,
  • To develop the subordinates,
  • To enable the senior staff to do higher level activities and to develop management skills.

 

Team building is necessary:

  • Mayors realize most of their results through a workforce
  • Motivated work teams create wholesome competition, creativity, innovations and performance.
  • Team maintenance is a means of ensuring long term goals
  • Efficient Councils are characterised by effective and collaborative teams

 

Staff Motivation and Evaluation

Motivation is designed to encourage council workers to act and achieve desired results and give the best of them. Evaluation is carried out periodically to assess the performance of the staff.

 

Staff motivation

The characteristics of a motivating work environment are:

  • The job should offer varieties and opportunity for new skills
  • It should have some degree of discretion
  • It needs a variety of knowledge and skills
  • Clear guidelines and follow up supervision should be insured.
  • The performance of the employee should be known to them through evaluation

 

Evaluation

Evaluation should not only penalise workers, but also serve to:

  • Improve on work output and relationships in the Council
  • Better identify the needs in staff training
  • Justify decisions of transfer, promotion and advancement,
  • Facilitate carrier planning,
  • Provide elements of judgement to the mayor

The assessment criteria include such items as: punctuality, professional knowledge, intelligence, efficiency, output, initiative etc.

 

                             LOCAL GOOD GOVERNANCE

 

Objectives

The reader should become aware of several current issues of the present day political and development debate through the following topics:

  • Participation and Gender (difference between gender and sex, importance of gender consideration in planning and hoe to encourage participation in Council Development Planning)
  • Good Governance inCameroon
  • The importance of communication and holding productive meetings

Participation in Community Leadership

Participation is a matter of people having access to information on policy-making processes as well as to the full range of their society’s decision-making processes.

 

          In local governance this entails:

  • Citizen participation in decision-making and implementation;
  • Involving stakeholders in governance processes;
  • Integrating gender in municipal and community programmes;
  • Delegation in leadership.

 

Principles of Good Local Governance

Involving the public in budgeting and projects through public sessions.

Improving service delivery by reducing delays, giving information etc.

Respect of legislation in the award of contracts by respecting the current legislation e.g. public invitation to tender and decision by commission.

Empowering the community especially disadvantaged groups.

Use of committees to assist executives in the running of affairs.

 

PARTICIPATION

 

 What is participation?

Participation means getting involved (taking part).

 

Why should people participate?

To belong, for ownership, for sharing responsibilities.

 Types of participation

-Inter active participation

-Passive participation

-Participation by information giving

-Participation by consultation

-Functional participation

-Participation for material incentives

 

  Who should participate?

 

Tools encouraging participation:

Workshops

Committees

Public hearings

Participatory planning

Public meetings

Open house

 

  GENDER IN LOCAL LEADERSHIP

In good local governance it is expected that leadership should be participatory as well as consensus seeking. This entails, among others, reaching out to effectively involve the disadvantaged and vulnerable groups such as women, youths and the disabled in decision-making and implementation within the community. These considerations are said to be gender-oriented.

It is necessary here to understand the meaning of gender and its related issues.

             Gender refers to the socially constructed roles of men and women in a given culture and location.

Sex refers to the biological difference between women and men. They are generally permanent and universal.

Gender equality refers to the changing norms and values, attitudes and perceptions in order to obtain equal status, rights and responsibility between women and men.

Gender equity refers to fairness in women and men’s access and control to socio-economic resources as well as political power.

Therefore

It is important for community leaders to be aware of the need for gender balancing in carrying out activities. This is because:

  • Women make up about 51% of the population and therefore are the majority actors for most activities;
  • Women are generally disfavoured in terms of access to and control over resources and power.

 

HOLDING PRODUCTIVE MEETINGS  

 

As the Chairperson

  •  Plan the meeting in advance (consult documents, secretary and others);
  • Draw up and circulate agenda indicating what is for information, discussion or decision;
  •  Ensure proper arrangements (room, furniture, equipment, refreshments);
  •  Make provision for people with disabilities;
  •  Summarize main points and decisions (use visuals where possible);
  •  Encourage reluctant people to talk;
  •  Steer the meeting to arrive at results;
  •  Ensure minutes are circulated to participants after the meeting.

 

 As Participants

  • Learn about the issue to be discussed. Get the agenda. Read previous minutes. Talk to people;
  • Get to the meeting early;
  • Listen to other people during the meeting;
  • Think before you open your mouth;
  • Speak clearly and to the point;
  • Be reasonable. Yours is not the only valid point of view;
  • Be a helper: you may be able to clarify a point that is not clear to save everyone’s time, do it.

You may be able to elaborate on an idea that needs to be                                                       expanded upon so that everyone understands. Do it.

 

MANAGING CONFLICTS IN LOCAL COUNCILS

Within any given community disagreements are bound to occur. Such disagreements may result in more or less serious conflicts, which may hinder the development of the community.

Definition:  

  • Conflict is a form of competitive behaviour between people or groups.

It occurs when two or more people have different ideas about an issue.

  • Its effects are either physical or psychological.

 

Causes of Conflict

Values are different and expressed differently. This difference is the point of conflict.

Ideas are very personal and jealously defended, sometimes to the detriment of an initial objective.

Power  Those who have some power are always thirsty for a little more.

Those who do not have are seeking to have a taste of it.

The way people perceive and use power can either provoke conflicts or solve them.

Interests – People have different interests and when they are frustrated, it can provoke conflicts.

Needs – People have different needs and would go into conflicts when these needs are not met.

The Structure/Working Conditions – The structure and working conditions can be a source of conflict in an organisation or

Council area. The following aspects can cause conflicts if they are not well managed:

  • Communication;
  • Planning;
  • The persons involved;
  • Our stereotypes and prejudices;
  • Our likes and dislikes;
  • Our cultures;
  • Our perceptions;
  • Organization.
  • Good formal and informal communication
  • Regular meetings
  • Regular reporting
  • Participatory consultations
  • Proactive attitudes
    • Precise roles, objectives, resources, evaluation methods etc.
    • Clearly defined vision
    • Clearly defined working methods
    • Clearly defined job descriptions
    • Clear organization chart

 

Ways To Manage/Prevent Conflicts:

Some Tips

Good Internal Organization

Good Planning

­         Allocate enough time and be flexible for constant adjustments

­         Do long and short – term planning

­         Carryout /organize specific planning method

   THE COUNCIL AND TECHNICAL SERVICES

 

Why is it important to collaborate with the local administrative and technical services?

  • To avoid duplication of projects
  • To benefit from the expertise of government technical staff
  • To be able to monitor the implementation of government sponsored projects in the municipality

 

Why is it difficult?

It is sometimes difficult to collaborate with the local administrative and technical services, because of:

  • The distance between Councils and some services
  • The demands by government staff to be paid for services done
  • The ignorance of roles
  • The difficult communication between the government departments and the Councils
  • Unclear legislation in some cases

 

How to facilitate the collaboration

           Good relations between Councils and the technical services can be maintained through

  • Consultative meetings
  • Their involvement in the planning of projects and activities
  • Constant communication (e.g. letters, phone)
  • Trust building (e.g. social events)
  • Proper mastery of relevant legislation on municipal management

Showing transparent and dignified conduct in management

 

THE ROLE OF PARLIAMENTARIANS IN LOCAL GOVERNANCE

 

 

 

      Who are parliamentarians?

 

The members of the National Assembly are Parliamentarians responsible for the legislation.

 

They are citizens elected by the population to represent the interest of the entire nation.

 

The 1996 constitution states that 180 (one hundred and eighty) Parliamentarians shall be elected by direct and secret universal suffrage for a five year term of office.

 

Each year they meet in three ordinary sessions lasting 30 (thirty) days each and may hold one extra-ordinary session lasting 15 (fifteen) days

 

The plenary sessions are open to public except on the request of the President of the Republic or an absolute majority of members to hold in close door. Committees hold in close doors.

 

 

 

The Role of Parliamentarian in Local Governance

 

The activities of Parliamentarians are very important because they touch on the lives of all citizens. The following tasks are assigned to the legislative power according to article 26 of Law No 96-06 0f18 January 1996amending the Constitution of June 1972

 

They debate and pass bills into law tabled either by Members of Parliament or the President of the Republic on the following issues:

 

 

 

a) The fundamental rights, guarantees and obligations of citizens

 

  • Safeguard individual freedom and security
  • The rules governing public reforms
  • Labour legislation, trade unions legislation, rules governing social security and insurance
  • The duties and obligation of the citizen in respect of national defence requirements.

 

 

 

b) The status of persons and property ownership system

 

  • Nationality, status of persons, matrimonial system, succession and gifts
  • Rules governing civil and commercial obligations
  • Movable and immovable  property ownership system

 

c) The political, administrative and judicial organization

 

  • Rules governing election of the president and elections into the national assembly ,the senate, regional and local bodies and referendums
  • Rules governing associations and political parties
  • The organisation, functioning, powers and resources regional and local authorities.
  • General rules governing the organization of national defence
  • Judicial organisation and creation of various courts
  • The definition of felonies and misdemeanours and the institution of penalties of all kinds, criminal procedure, civil procedure, measures of execution and amnesty

 

 

 

d) Financial and patrimonial matters

 

  • Rules governing the issue of currency
  • The budget
  • The creation of duties and the determination of their basis of assessment, rates and methods of collection.
  • Land tenure, state land and mining
  • Natural resources

 

e) Programming the objectives of economic and social actions

 

f) The system of education

 

Some Good practices for Parliamentarians

 

  • Promote participatory planning and implementation of projects financed with parliamentary grants annually.
  • Work closely with their Mayors and Councillors on issues of governance
  • Find out the problems of the population and reflect them in laws they vote
  • Inform their constituencies on decisions deliberated in parliament
  • Operate a regular consultative bureau in the constituency
  • Spearhead development in their constituency
  • Sensitise the population on their rights and obligations
  • Ensure that their constituency is enjoying peace
  • Monitor public investment, performance of civil service, executive, judiciary and non-public sector
  • Be spokesperson of their constituency

 

 

 

                           THE COUNCIL AND THE NON PUBLIC SECTOR

 

         

 

       What is the non public sector?

 

    The non-public sector is made up of businesses (for profit) as well as the non-profit sectors of activities within the municipality. It includes the civil society, which is a third branch of society, separate from both the government and the commercial sector.

 

 

 

The Civil Society

 

It is the sphere between the family, the State and the market, which is bound by civil rules and in which people associate voluntarily to advance common interests. It includes the NGO’s, the Mosques and Churches, the Village Traditional Councils, the Village Development and Cultural Associations (VDCA), the Cooperatives and CIGS, the self help groups, the civic and charitable associations and the individual families.

 

 

 

The roles of the civil society are

 

  • To mobilize the population for the different productive activities,
  • To source funding for development projects,
  • To provide employment,
  • To carry out social projects (care or orphans, micro-credit etc)
  • To serve as agents of civic education, increasing the public’s understanding of issues at stake,
  • To promote culture

 

 

The other non-public actors

 

They are mainly business companies, banks, traders, craftsmen, informal economic activities etc.

 

 

 

The roles of the private sector in municipal development can be

 

  • To invest in order to make profit
  • To provide employment,
  • To be a partner for infrastructure development in the municipality.
  • To manage projects for the Council as joint venture or on lease.

 

 

 

BUILDING PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN  COUNCILS AND NON-PUBLIC ACTORS

 

 

 

Definition of partnership

 

Partnership is any binding relationship between and among more than one institution for a legal common purpose, in which each party contributes and benefits are shared. Partnership presents legally enforceable rights on to each of the parties.

 


National Gender Policy of Cameroon

 

His Excellency PAUL BIYA

                              President of the Republic of Cameroon

“In the area of women’s empowerment, I commit myself to ensuring the preparation and implementation of the special action programme for women’s empowerment (…). I will make sure that your work is recognized and valued everywhere; I will make sure that you are well represented in all governing bodies of the country. I commit myself to making equality between men and women a reality

PREFACE

Improving the living conditions of women by promoting gender equality is part of the national policy of greater achievements steered by the Head of State, His Excellency PAUL BIYA, for a sustainable future. Thus, in most of his addresses to the nation, the President of the Republic resolves to make equality between men and women a reality.

This commitment, which is in line with the 1996 Cameroon Constitution, has not only resulted in the consolidation of the rule of law, but also in the improvement of institutional mechanisms for the promotion and protection of Women’s and Family rights. This vision of the Head of State aims to build a harmonious, strong, and prosperous Cameroonian society, concerned about equality between women and men and the preservation of peace.

Gender inequality and discrimination constitute an obstacle to development and national integration. To remedy this situation, it is necessary to draft a national policy document setting out major guidelines for action by the Government, development partners and civil society in the area of gender promotion in Cameroon.

The National Gender Policy Document (NGPD) is proof of the Government’s will to carry on with the implementation of the Beijing Action Platform (Platform for Action), the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the Additional Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, the Rights of Women in Africa and other relevant international and regional legal instruments which Cameroon has ratified. This document was prepared following a dynamic and open process, with the full participation of grassroots communities, the civil society, the private sector, and development partners. Comparative studies, international and national consultations and national workshops have helped to enrich the document.

The National Gender Policy document is a development tool based on the principles of human rights, social justice, equality between men and women and democracy. Its implementation will help reduce gender inequality with a view to sustainable development. However, the results expected from this implementation will not only depend on the determination of public authorities, but also on inter-sector collaboration and the participatory engagement of all social players.

I wish to express my gratitude to development partners, ministries and public institutions, civil society organizations, and the technical team for actively taking part in the preparation of this document. I am launching a vibrant appeal to all for the effective implementation of the national gender policy so as to make Cameroon a more just and equitable country, where women and men (fully participate in and) participate in and fully enjoy the fruits of growth and development.

 

ACRONYMS AND ABREVIATIONS

AIDS Acquired Immune  Deficiency Syndrome
ANAFOR National Forestry Agency
ATC Appropriate Technology Centre
BC Buildings and Constructions
CAMCCUL Cameroon Cooperative Credit Union League
CBC Communication for Behaviour Change
CECPROM- Coopérative d’Epargne et de Crédit des Promotrices Matures
CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women
CEMAC Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa
CFA Communauté Financière Africaine
CI Clothing Industry
CIDA Canadian International Development Agency
CIMA Inter-African Conference on Insurance Markets
CMPJ Multifunctional Centre for the Promotion of Youth
CNDHL National Commission on Human Rights and Freedoms
CNPS National Social Insurance Fund
COBAC Banking Commission of Central Africa
CSO Civil Society Organization
DHS Demographic and Health Survey
DPNG National Gender Policy Document
ECAM Cameroon Household Survey
EESI Employment and Informal Sector Survey
EFA Education For All
EMF Micro Finance Establishment
EPA Education Priority Area
FGM Female Genital Mutilation
GBV Gender Based Violence
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GE Gender Equality
GESP Growth and Employment Strategy Paper
GPHC General Population and Housing Census
GTZ German Technical Cooperation
HDI Human Development Index
HDR Human Development Report
HIPC Heavily Indebted Poor Country
HIPCI Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
ICPD International Conference on Population and Development
ICT Information and Communication Technology
IEC Information, Education, Communication
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IGA Income Generating Activities
ILO International Labour Office
ILO International Labour Organization
IPES Private Institutes of Higher Education
M Men
MDGs Millennium Development Goals
MFI Micro Finance Institution
MICS Multiple Indicators Clusters Survey
MINADER Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
MINAS Ministry of Social Affairs
MINASCOF Ministry of Social and Women’s Affairs
MINCOF Ministry of Women’s Affairs
MINCOMMERCE Ministry of Trade
MINEDUB Ministry of Basic Education
MINEDUC Ministry of National Education
MINEP Ministry of Environment and Nature Protection
MINESEC Ministry of Secondary Education
MINESUP Ministry of Higher Education
MINFI Ministry of Finance
MINFOF Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife
MINFOPRA Ministry of Public Service and Administrative Reform
MINJUSTICE Ministry of Justice
MINPMEESA Ministry of Small and Medium Size Enterprises, Social Economy and Handicrafts
MINPROFF Ministry of Women’s Empowerment and the Family
MINREX Ministry of External Relations
MINSANTE Ministry of Public Health
MPPF-Cam Productive Micro Projects for Women in Cameroon
MUFFA Mutuelle Financière des Femmes Africaines
NA National Assembly
NAPWID National Action Plan for Women in Development
NEPAD New Partnership for Africa’s Development
NGO Non Governmental Organization
NGP National Governance Programme
NGPD National Gender Policy Document
NIS National Institute OF Statistics
OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
OHADA Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa
OVC Orphans and Vulnerable Children
PADMIR Support Project for the Development of Rural Micro Finance
PAJER-U Support Programme for Rural and Urban Youth
PARFAR Programme for the Improvement of Rural Family Income
PASE Educational Development Capacity Building Project
PIAASI Integrated Support Programme for Actors in the Informal Sector
PIFMAS Socioeconomic Integration Project through the creation of micro enterprises for the Manufacturing of Sporting Equipment
PMTCT Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission
PREPAFEN Poverty Reduction Project and Action in Favour of Women of the Far North
PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
PSFE Forestry and Environment Sector Programme
RENATA National Network of Aunties
RIB Rehabilitation Institute of Buea
RSDSP Rural Sector Development Strategy Paper
SAP Structural Adjustment Programme
SEG Socio-Economic Group
SFE Social and Family Education
SG Secretary General
SI Social Indicator
SOS Save Our Souls
STI Sexually Transmitted Infection(s)
TFR Total Fertility Rate
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNFPA United Nations Fund for Population Activities
UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund
UNIFEM United Nations Development Fund for Women
UPE Universal Primary Education
W Women
WEC Women’s Empowerment Centre
WFP World Food Programme
WID Women in Development

 

 

SUMMARY


PREFACE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. iii

ACRONYMS AND ABREVIATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. iii

SUMMARY……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. iii

INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3

PART ONE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3

GENERAL CONTEXT OF THE NATIONAL GENDER POLICY…………………………………………………………………… 3

1.1.      General characteristics………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

1.1.1     Geographicl situation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3

1.1.2     Socio-demographic situation …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3

1.1.3     Socio-economic situation  ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3

1.1.4     Political situation: administrative, judicial organisation and institutional reforms……………………………………… 3

1.1.5  Potentials and performances………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3

1.2.      Guidelines, priorities and national development prospects…………………………………………………………….

1.2.1 Long term development vision………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3

1.2.2 Growth and employment strategy………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

1.3.      Cameroon’s position within the sub-regional, regional and international context of promoting gender equality and equity

1.3.1. Legal instruments……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

1.3.2. International conferences ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3

1.3.3.    National policies and strategies for women’s empowerment…………………………………………………………………. 3

1.3.3.1.      The Women in Development Policy…………………………………………………………………………………………. 3

1.3.3.2.      The  National Population Policy Declaration……………………………………………………………………………… 3

1.3.3.3.      The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper and sector strategies………………………………………………………… 3

1.3.3.4.      The Growth and Employment Strategy Paper……………………………………………………………………………. 3

PART TWO…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS OF GENDER ISSUES IN CAMEROON…………………………………………………………….. 3

2.1. Situational analysis of  gender issues in the social sector…………………………………………………………………… 3

2.1.1.    Analysis of the status and roles of women and men……………………………………………………………………………. 3

2.1.2.    Women and men in the Cameroonian traditional society………………………………… Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.1.3.    Women and men in the Cameroonian modern society……………………………………. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.1.4.    Analysis of gender issues in the area of education………………………………………………………………………………. 3

2.1.4.1.      Providing education to girls and boys at primary level………………………………………………………………… 3

2.1.4.2.      Providing education to girls and boys in secondary education……………….. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.1.4.3.      Providing education to girls and boys in tertiary education……………………. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.1.4.4.      Literacy among men and women ………………………………………………………. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.1.4.5.      Vocational training………………………………………………………………………….. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.1.5.    Health…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.1.5.1.      Maternal morbidity and mortality ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 3

2.1.5.2.      Family planning and contraceptive prevalence …………………………………………………………………………… 3

2.1.5.3.      HIV infection /STIs ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3

2.1.6.    Gender-based violence……………………………………………………………………………… Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.2.      Situational analysis of gender issues in the area of economy and employment……………………………. 3

2.2.1. Home economics ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3

2.2.2. Employment and work………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3

2.2.2.1. Situation in economic activities, level and conditions of employment……………………….……………..22

2.2.2.2. Domestic employment ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3

2.2.2.3. Formal and informal sectors ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3

2.2.2.3..1 Formal sector ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3

2.2.2.3.2. Informal sector…………………………………………………………………………………………….24

2.2.3. Rural sector…………………………………………………………………………………………………….24

2.2.3.1. Agriculture…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3

2.2.3.2. Livestock and Fisheries……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

2.2.4. Industry, Building and construction………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3

2.2.5. Trade, handicraft and tourism………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3

2.2.6. Factors of production………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

2.2.6.1. Access to land and agricultural inputs…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

2.2.6.2. Access to credit……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

2.2.7. Basic facilities……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3

2.2.7.1. Water and electricity…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

2.2.7.2. Transportation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

2.2.7.3. Information and Communication Technology………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

2.2.8. Social Security ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

2.2.9 Environment and sustainable development……………………………………………………………………………………………… 3

2.3.      Situational analysis of gender issues in the domain of rights and legislation……………………………… 3

2.3.1 International legal instruments for the promotion and protection of women’s rights………………………………………. 3

2.3.1.1.      International instruments of general application………………………………………………………………………….. 3

2.3.1.2.      International legal instruments specific to women………………………………………………………………………. 3

2.3.2 Regional and sub-regional legal instruments …………………………………………………………………………………………… 3

2.3.3. National legal Instruments…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3

2.3.1.3.      Texts of general application………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3

2.3.1.4.      Specific instruments ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3

2.4 Governance……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3

2.4.1. In the family………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3

2.4.2. In the community or in community organizations for self-promotion ………………………………………………………… 3

2.4.3. In public affairs management and policies……………………………………………………………………………………………… 3

2.4.3.1.      Participation of women and men in the executive arm of Government…….. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.4.3.2.      Participation of women and men in the legislative arm of Government………………………………………….. 3

2.4.3.3.      Participation of women and men in the judicial arm of Government……….. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.4.3.4.      Participation of women and men in public and semi-public administration. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.4.3.5.      Participation of women and men in defence and security forces……………………………………………………. 3

2.5 Situational analysis of mechanisms for women’s empowerment ………………………………………………………….. 3

2.5.1. Public institutions ……………………………………………………………………………………….. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.5.1.1. The national mechanism for gender promotion : the ministry in charge of women’s empowerment and gender issues          Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.5.1.2. Other public administrations…………………………………………………………………… Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.5.1.3. Local councils………………………………………………………………………………………. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.5.2. Civil society organizations…………………………………………………………………………….. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.5.3. Development partners…………………………………………………………………………………… Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.6 Measures/actions taken to promote gender equality and gender equity…….. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.6.1. Political measures ……………………………………………………………………………………….. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.6.2. Legal  measures ………………………………………………………………………………………….. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.6.3. Economic measures …………………………………………………………………………………….. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.6.4. Social and cultural measures …………………………………………………………………………. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.7. Results………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.7.1. Education, health and environment…………………………………………………………………. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.7.2. Economy, employment and vocational training…………………………………………………. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.7.3. Decision-making and participation in public life……………………………………………….. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.7.4. Legislation and women’s rights………………………………………………………………………. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.8. Limitations of actions taken………………………………………………………………………… Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.8.1. Development policies……………………………………………………………………………………. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.8.2. Economics………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.8.3. Legal affairs………………………………………………………………………………………………… Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.8.4. Social affairs……………………………………………………………………………………………….. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.8.5. Institutions………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

2.9. Stakes and challenges…………………………………………………………………………………. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

PROFILE OF WOMEN AND MEN IN CAMEROON…………………………………….. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

PART THREE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

FOUNDATION OF THE NATIONAL GENDER POLICY……………………………… Erreur ! Signet non défini.

3.1. Foundatios of the National Gender policy………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

3.2. The National Gender policy vision ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3

3.3.      Values and principles…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

3.4.      Purpose………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

3.5.      General objective………………………………………………………………………………….. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

3.6.      Specific objective………………………………………………………………………………….. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

3.7.      Strategic Aspects of the National Gender Policy………………………………….. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

PART FOUR……………………………………………………………………………………………………. Erreur ! Signet non défini.

INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK AND IMPLEMENTATION MECHANISMS OF THE NATIONAL GENDER POLICY   3

4.1  Institutional framework ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

4.1.1 Inter-ministerial Committee ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

4.1.2 Technical Committee …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3

4.1.3 Technical Secretariat …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3

4.2 Implementation mechanisms………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

4.3 Commitments of the stakeholders …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3

4.4 Monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of the National Gender Policy……………………………… 3

NGPD DRAFTING TEAM AND SPONSORS………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. iii

 

INTRODUCTION

Women form over half the world’s population. In Cameroon, they are nearly 50.5% of the estimated population of 19,406,100 inhabitants, according to the 2005 third General Population and Housing Census (3rd GPHC) results published in 2010. The growth rate of the female population from 1987 to 2005 is 10.1% as against 09.9% for males. Women are socio-economic agents required in all sectors. Although the situation has improved in several areas of national life, women’s participation continues to be a cause for concern, because of persistent gender inequality in key areas such as education, health, economy, employment and environment.

 

In order to eliminate these inequalities, Cameroon has subscribed to international and regional commitments aimed at the full development of women, notably the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women, the International Conference on Population and Development, the Beijing Action Platform, the Millennium Development Goals, the Declaration of Heads of State and Government of the African Union on equality between women and men, the Additional Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights and on the Rights of Women in Africa. All these international and regional legal instruments establish the gender approach as a strategy for sustainable and equal development, leading to the country’s resolve to implement a National Gender Policy.

At the national level, social policy is based on the ideals and principles of social justice, respect for human rights, good governance and democracy to achieve equality and equity between women and men. Efforts by the government have led to significant actions for the empowerment of women. These actions have so far been developed within the framework of the Women in Development Policy, where emphasis has been laid on improving the living conditions of women and not on factors underlying their status.

With a view to creating an environment that is conducive for equality between women and men, Cameroon found it necessary to adopt a National Gender Policy.

 

This National Gender Policy document, which falls within that framework, has four main parts, namely:

 

–          The general context of the National Gender Policy in Cameroon where the country’s characteristics are described, national guidelines and development priorities, and Cameroon’s position on the sub-regional, regional and international scene of promoting gender equality and equity;

–          The situational analysis of gender in Cameroon which highlights these issues in various areas as well as women’s empowerment mechanisms;

–          Foundations of the National Gender policy which revolve around the concept, vision, values and principles, purpose, objectives, and strategic aspects;

–          The institutional framework and implementation mechanisms which define implementation, coordination, consultation, monitoring and evaluation modalities of the Policy.

PART ONE

 

GENERAL CONTEXT OF THE

NATIONAL GENDER POLICY

The general context of the National Gender Policy globally deals with the country’s general characteristics, national guidelines and development priorities, and Cameroon’s position on the sub-regional, regional and international scene of promoting gender equality and equity.

1.1.   General characteristics

1.1.1  . Geographic situation

Cameroon is a Central African country, covering a surface area of 475,650 sq. km. It extends from latitude 2 to 13 degrees North and longitudes 9 to 16 degrees East. It has a triangular shape that stretches from the South to Lake Chad over nearly 1200 km, while the base extends from West to East over 800 km. It has a South-western maritime border of 420 km along the Atlantic Ocean. It is bounded on the West by Nigeria, South by Congo, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea, East by the Central African Republic, and North-East by Chad.

Several types of natural zones contribute to the geographical diversity of the country:

 

–   The forested south located in the maritime and equatorial area is characterized by dense vegetation, a vast river system, a hot and humid climate and abundant rainfall;

–     The high plateaus of the West whose average altitude is above 1100 m, characterized by fertile soils and low temperatures;

–   The sudano-sahelian North which is a region of savannas and steppes: apart from the Adamawa plateau where the climate is more temperate, the rest of this region is characterized by hot, dry climate and rainfall that gradually subsides as one approaches Lake Chad.

Cameroon is called “Africa in miniature” because of the physical, climate, human and cultural diversity of its natural regions, which reflects the main types of regions found elsewhere in the continent.

1.1.2  . Socio-demographic situation

The population of Cameroon in 2010 is characterized by its extreme youthfulness. The median age of the population is 17.7 years and average age stands at 22.1 years. Those under 15 make up 43.6% of the total population while those under 25 years form 64.2%. As for people aged 60 and above, they represent 5.0% of the overall population. Women form about 50.6% of the population as against 49.4% of men. By age group, there are no sharp differences in sex structure at younger ages; they are clearly visible only at older ages.

The population density in 2005 was 37.5 inhabitants per sq km as against 22.5 inhabitants in 1987, being an increase of over 66%. The population is unevenly distributed throughout the country, and this distribution is marked by an urbanization rate estimated at 52%. Thus, on the one hand, there are regions with thick populations such as the Far North and high plateaus of the West and, on the other hand, under-populated regions such as the East and South. The urbanization rate increased from 37.9% to 48.8% from 1987 to 2005. In fact, the number of cities with over 100,000 inhabitants increased from 6 to 9 between 1987 and 2005, with the cities of Douala and Yaounde having about two million inhabitants each.

 

In 2007, the average household size was 4.4 persons and 26% of households were headed by women[1].

 

Fertility is still high but maternal and infant mortality are also high. The overall fertility rate (TFR) is 6.4 children per woman in rural areas as against 4.2 children in urban areas for a national average of 5.2. As for the maternal mortality rate, it rose from 430 deaths per 100,000 live births in 1998 to 669 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2004[2], despite the higher life expectancy of Cameroonian women (57.1 years) as compared to that of men (53.4 years)[3] for a national average of 54.8 years.

 

Migration affects both women and men with male and youth having a slight edge as they search for greener pastures. There is a significant rural exodus. In fact, almost all types of immigrants can be found in major cities of the country (Douala and Yaounde) where there are employment opportunities. International migration is still very poorly documented. A significant part of this migration is clandestine and difficult to capture. The emigration of Cameroonians that was insignificant before the 1990s is increasing at an alarming rate.

Cameroon has over 230 ethnic groups divided into six major groups: the Sudanese, the Hamitic and Semitic living in the Adamawa, North and Far North Regions, the Bantu, the Semi-Bantu and related groups, and Pygmies in the rest of the country.

There are three major religious groups: Catholics 38.4%, Protestants 26.3%, and Muslims 20.9%. They are followed by Animists 5.6%, other Christians 4.0%, free thinkers 3.2%, other religions 1.0%, and Orthodox 0.6%.

The civil status picture of the people aged over 15 is as follows: married people represent 51.2% for women as against 47.1% for men, while the unmarried represent 32.7% for women as against 47.1% for men; consensual unions represent 4.5% for women as against 4.7% for men; the divorced represent 1.2% for women as against 0.6% for men; those who are separated from bed and board represent 1.2% for women as against 0.7% for men[4]; as for widows, they represent 9,2% as against 1,5% of widowers.

The proportion of single women between 35 and 39 years of age is only 2%. Cameroonians marry early, that is 22% of women aged 25 to 49 years engaged in a union at 15 years of age and 50% of women entered their first union at the age of 17.6 years.

Despite the predominance of monogamy (69%), polygamy remains a widespread practice, affecting 30% of married women. It is also noted that the proportion of women with at least one co-wife increases steadily with age, from 20% at 20-24 years to 33% at 30-34 years and 45% at 45-49 years[5].

 

1.1.3  . Socio-economic situation

 

After experiencing steady growth from 1965 to 1985, Cameroon witnessed a deep recession from the 1985/1986 financial year, due to a sharp drop in export revenue, falling prices of major exports (oil, coffee, cocoa, cotton), the dive of the U.S. dollar used as standard currency for pricing of these products on the international market and problems of a structural nature that greatly affected the competitiveness of its economy. Among other manifestations of this serious crisis we can mention: the steady fall in public investment and in credit grants within the economy, the outstanding foreign debt which rose from less than 1/3 to more than 3/4 of the GDP, the interruption of execution of the 6th Five Year Plan, etc. This situation lasted till the 1995/1996 financial year. With the devaluation of the CFA franc in 1994, Cameroon returned to a positive growth rate.

The reduction in public expenditure and burden of public sector enterprises introduced from the outset of the crisis was not sufficient to improve the situation, so much so that the country was forced to drive its economy through the Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) drawn up with the Bretton Woods institutions. Public finances continued to worsen until drastic salary cuts in the public service in 1993.

 

The economic crisis was mainly felt through falling incomes, deteriorating economic and social infrastructure and inadequate provision of social services, as well as lay-offs. The restructuring of public and private sector enterprises, the freezing of recruitment into the public service and workforce reduction measures resulted in a sharp rise in unemployment. This ultimately led to poor living conditions of the population, affecting households and increasing women’s responsibilities, notably with regard to access to social services.

 

In 2003, the adopted PRSP recorded mixed results in the first round of its programming. Reaching the Completion Point of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPCI) on 12 April 2006 enabled Cameroon to benefit from debt remission. To strengthen its means of programming and development efforts, Cameroon designed a vision called “Cameroon’s Vision by 2035” which is the foundation of the Growth and Employment Strategy Paper (GESP), a revised version of the PRSP, henceforth the integrated reference framework for sustainable human development.

1.1.4  . Political situation: administrative, judicial organization and institutional reforms

 

The Republic of Cameroon is a decentralized unitary State. It is a bilingual country with English and French as official languages. The country is divided into 10 Regions, 58 Divisions and 360 Sub-Divisions, respectively placed under the authority of Governors, Prefects and Sub-Prefects. The State authority is exercised by the President of the Republic and the Parliament. The President of the Republic is the Head of the Executive. Legislative power is wielded by the Parliament, which includes the National Assembly with 180 MPs and the Senate which provides for 100 Senators. Judicial power lies with the Supreme Court, Courts of Appeal, Courts and lower law-courts.

 

Since 2004, decentralization has been on course with the adoption of relevant laws. These laws delegate more responsibility to decentralized public authorities in the designing, financing, programming and implementation of development programmes and projects in their area of jurisdiction.

1.1.5. Potentials and performances

 

Cameroon is a country with tremendous potentials, especially arable land suitable for agriculture and development of agribusiness. On a total surface area of 47 million hectares, 9.2 can be used for agro-pastoral activities. Arable lands cover about 7.2 million hectares to which should be added nearly 2 million hectares of pastureland. Currently, only 1.8 million hectares or 26% of the arable land is used.

 

Added to this are:

 

—       A vantage geographical position in the Gulf of Guinea, with a large sea port potential and consumers estimated at over 200 million (Central Africa and Nigeria);

—       A rich subsoil(oil and various minerals);

—       A high potential in factors of production such as energy, and a relatively well trained labour force;

—       A high tourism potential, whose development may lead to several other labour-intensive activities (hotels, restaurants, handicrafts, etc.).

 

Despite all this potential, the situation in Cameroon has improved only marginally since 1985. Currently, the country ranks 144th out of 177 classified countries, with a Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.532[6].

 

1.2. Guidelines, priorities and national development prospects

 

Guidelines, priorities and national development prospects are defined in Cameroon’s Vision by 2035 and the Growth and Employment Strategy Paper.

 

1.2.1 Long term development vision

The shared Vision of Cameroon’s development by 2035 is that of “an emerging, democratic country, united in its diversity”. Achieving this vision, as far as the economy is concerned, means Cameroon is entering the era of sustainable social development with a strong, diversified and competitive economy. The economy will therefore be characterized by the dominance of the industrial sector in general and manufacturing in particular (in GDP and exports) and effective integration into the global economy.

The road to the vision includes four overall objectives, namely: reducing poverty to a socially acceptable level; becoming a middle income country; reaching the stage of a newly industrialized country; and strengthening national unity and consolidating the democratic process. This vision is based on the key role of growth whose pace is expected to be remarkable over a long period, and the rather unequal distribution of income. In this regard, there is need to support growth by diversifying production while fully integrating the different industries. Specifically, the idea is to significantly increase the share of products from the manufacturing industry in the GDP and exports.

The first ten years of implementation of the Vision will focus on accelerating economic growth, creation of employment opportunities and poverty reduction. The Government plans to increase the annual rate of expansion of economic activity from 3.3% to 5.5% over the 2010-2020 period. In that regard, the authorities intend to boost the agricultural sector by raising primary sector growth around 5%, given the great potential likely to be tapped from this sector.

In addition, the authorities are convinced that the creation of wealth, while being an essential pillar of poverty reduction, should be accompanied by multiple employment opportunities as a means of income redistribution. The Government intends to implement the growth and employment strategy paper to create thousands of employment opportunities annually in the formal sector, while addressing, inter alia, the issue of taking informal businesses into the formal sector.

By the end of the first decade of the Vision, the Government intends to reduce income poverty to about 28.7% as against 39.9% in 2007. Globally, it is envisaged to continue achieving the Millennium Development Goals which are clearly anchored in the long-term Vision, and aimed at improving the living conditions of the people.

To achieve the set objectives, the Government has adopted three coherent and integrated strategies, namely a growth strategy, an employment strategy, and a governance and state management strategy, as stated in the Growth and Employment Strategy Paper (GESP).

 

1.2.2. Growth and employment strategy

 

The growth and employment strategy is based on six interrelated key elements, namely: raising from 20 to 30% (by 2020) the share of public investment in the overall public expenditure and supervising this share for use, to a large extent, in the construction of visible infrastructure; allocating significant resources to large public investment projects; easing procurement procedures and budgetary control; diversifying economic policy options by providing the possibilities of implementing the monetary policy; finally controlling the inability to absorb funds; and channelling official development assistance.

 

The implementation of these key elements will depend on strategies, programmes and projects affecting all sectors of the economy to accelerate growth, reduce poverty and make progress towards the MDGs, especially MDG 3, “Promote gender equality and empower women“. In addition, the National Population Policy, updated in 2002, aims to improve people’s standard of living and quality of life through sustainable human development, in accordance with human dignity and fundamental human rights and, in particular, to ensure congruity between population growth and available and accessible resources. This is to give the country a quality human potential. To achieve this, a number of general objectives are set, including “the promotion of gender equality and equity“.

 

1.3.  Cameroon’s position within the sub-regional, regional and international context of

promoting gender equality and equity

 

In Cameroon there is the rule of law. The country is hence bound to respect international, regional and sub-regional guidelines and commitments for the promotion of gender equality and equity. As such, several legal instruments have been ratified. Similarly, resolutions and recommendations of international meetings have been incorporated into pro-gender equity and equality policy and strategy documents.

 

1.3.1. Legal instruments

To ensure respect of the rights of women and men, Cameroon has ratified most international and regional instruments for the promotion and protection of fundamental human rights, notably those specific to women’s rights. Basically, these are treaties, conventions, pacts and statements advocating the principles of equality and non discrimination between women and men in different fields (education, health, economy, employment, participation in public and political life, decision making, etc.).

Apart from international instruments, there are national instruments adopted by Cameroon which generally or specifically take into account the principles and values that underpin gender equality, human rights and social justice: the Constitution, Codes, laws, regulatory instruments, etc.

1.3.2. International conferences

 Cameroon has always taken part in major international gatherings on development issues, most of which have

addressed gender concerns. Among the most important conferences are:

 –      The Mexico Conference (1975), which helped change the way society perceives women, with particular emphasis on their empowerment, their involvement in economic activities and the assumption of their roles;

–   The Copenhagen Conference (1980), which identified as key actions in favour of women: reducing the scope of implementation of the Mexico programme to three priority areas, notably health, education and employment; preparing and adopting a programme to ensure women’s right to ownership and control of land as well as improving their rights to inheritance, child custody and nationality;

–          The Nairobi Conference (1985), which introduced forward-looking action strategies regarded as ways to promote women’s participation in politics and decision-making;

–          The Rio Conference on Environment and Sustainable Development (1992), which recognizes the vital role of women in environmental management and development, and considers their full participation as essential to achieving sustainable development;

–          The Vienna Conference on Human Rights (1993), which recognizes the fundamental rights of women and the girl child as an undeniable, integral and indivisible part of the universal rights of human beings;

–          The Global Summit on Social Development (1993), which brought world leaders to commit themselves to mobilizing their energies and intellects in order to solve pressing problems including poverty and unemployment that primarily affect women;

–          The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD, 1994), which admitted that improving the political, social, economic and health status of women is both an important end in itself and a sine qua non condition in achieving sustainable development;

–     The Beijing Global Conference on Women (1995), which established gender equity and equality and erected the “gender and development” approach as a strategy in achieving this equity and equality. This Conference also identified twelve action areas in lifting obstacles to women’s empowerment, namely: poverty reduction, education and training, health, fighting violence against women, preventing armed conflicts, boosting the economy, opening up decision making and power sharing, introducing institutional mechanisms to promote equality, promoting the human rights of women, the media, environment and the girl child.

–    The United Nations Conference on the 3rd Millennium (2000), where a statement from which the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are drawn was made, namely: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, ensure primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce mortality of children below five years, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other major diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, establish a global partnership for development.

 

1.3.3.    National policies and strategies for women’s empowerment

 

Basically, these include the women in development policy, the national population policy, the poverty reduction strategy and the growth and employment strategy.

 

1.3.3.1.     The Women in Development Policy

 

In 1997, the Cameroon Government designed and adopted its first policy document on women’s empowerment, a document which defined government priorities and strategies in this area. This was the policy statement coupled with the National Action Plan for Women in Development (NAPWID). The seven areas of intervention in this document stem from the twelve points selected within the framework of the Beijing recommendations. The seven areas of intervention include: improving living conditions of women, improving the legal status of women, developing female human resources in all vital sectors, ensuring effective participation of women in decision-making, protecting and promoting the girl child, fighting violence against women, and improving the institutional framework for effective integration of women in development.

1.3.3.2.            The National Population Policy Declaration

 

In 2002, the National Population Policy Declaration (NPPD) was updated following the 1994 ICPD and the Millennium Summit in September 2000. This policy establishes the gender approach as a development approach and notably aims to universalize quality primary education, promote functional literacy for both sexes and reduce gender disparity in all sectors of economic and social development.

 

1.3.3.3.     The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper and sector strategies

 

The Government, in seeking solutions to the well-being of the population, successively prepared, using the participatory approach, a Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) adopted in April 2003, and sector strategies in the areas of health, education, rural development, social development, etc. The PRSP has marked a milestone in the continuation of reforms by authorities since attaining the completion point under the enhanced debt relief initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC). It adopted the following guidelines for gender equality: the improvement of the socio-legal status of women, the improvement of women’s living conditions, the promotion of gender equality and equity, the promotion of family welfare, the strengthening of institutional mechanisms and the promotion of good governance.

 

1.3.3.4.            The Growth and Employment Strategy Paper

 

The Growth and Employment Strategy Paper (GESP) adopted in August 2009, which is a revised version of the PRSP, has set out guidelines for gender equality in the following seven sectors: rural infrastructure, industry and services, governance, education, social and health services.

 

As concerns gender promotion, the Government will continue to educate parents and communities on allowing the young girls to enjoy equal access to education. In the same light, the Government and communities will ensure that girls are represented in all sectors including vocational training, higher education and employment.

 

The GESP is the springboard of all development activities, including the National Gender policy which is based on its guidelines.

 

PART TWO

SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS OF GENDER ISSUES IN CAMEROON

Gender equity and equality, which are real challenges in the search for social justice and respect of human rights, are a major concern to the national and international community. In Cameroon, despite a marked improvement in the situation of women, gender disparities and discrimination persist in many areas of national life.

 

2.1. Situational analysis of gender issues in the social sector

 

This analysis presents the status and roles of women and men, gender disparities in areas such as education (primary, secondary and tertiary), health as well as gender-based violence.  

2.1.1.    Analysis of the status and roles of women and men

 

The status of Cameroonian women depends largely on the perception that society has of their role. This perception is inherent in the traditions of different ethnic groups, which are an expression of cultural patterns internalized in the socialization process. It is worth noting that though declarations and opinions still sustain adherence to these traditional patterns, behaviours gradually distance themselves from them, due to drastic social changes. The traditions of different ethnic groups in Cameroon show that the distribution of roles between men and women includes women’s empowerment, while respecting the man’s authority.

In a strongly patriarchal social context where men very often exert a strong authority, women nevertheless, enjoy some amount of power. Thus, the perception of the woman and the place reserved for her vary from one region to another: a woman knows, so long as she is from the northern, southern or western region, the influence of social perceptions that determine her status. These perceptions also differ, depending on whether we are in the rural area, influenced by traditional beliefs, or in urban areas, inclined to modernity.

2.1.2.    Women and men in the Cameroonian traditional society

 

The different cultures have different treatments for the man and the woman and unequal social consideration. In general, national ethnic groups are meant to establish family links between women and men from a fundamental inequality between the man, who is the family head, and the woman, who is the mother and wife. The fundamental statuses are the basis of the roles of men and women, and relations of power and authority within the family, between spouses, parents and children, seniors and juniors. This differentiation is inculcated in children, girls and boys, in the process of socialization. That is what determines social values and norms to be acquired by women and men through rites, ceremonies, customs and behaviours.

In these societies, which are basically patriarchal, life in households is based on the subordination of women and supremacy of men. Thus, the man embodies the authority in the household, sets the pace, fixes rules, ensures manages and controls the family assets, takes major decisions and provides for the livelihood of the members of the household.

Furthermore, motherhood is the core of family and community life. Fertility is valued by society, the woman is supposed to “bear children for her husband, preferably boys”, failing which she will face social stigma. The cult of high fertility accounts for early marriages and is a factor of polygamy.

In most regions, tradition has remained rooted in people’s behaviours. A woman has value only if she is married, fertile, humble and docile, dignified and a good housewife. Moreover, some religious and traditional beliefs confine women to their homes and will not tolerate their appearing in public places.

2.1.3.          Women and men in the Cameroonian modern society

 

Urban development and access to new forms of information have led to changes in some social values. Both women and men are now exposed to new lifestyles and practices that contrast with traditional habits and thoughts. Faced with the prevailing changes, some women, who have become more aware of issues related to power relations and the influence of the dynamics of organized groups, assert themselves and suffer less male dominance.

The vulnerability of women in society, due to their social and cultural status of the dominated has fostered a remarkable female dynamism. Through their associations, some do achieve their social, economic and cultural inclusion, these groupings being for them a means of promoting personal and collective advancement. Rural and community extension of women’s activities confers on them a social value, that of economic and social promoters of the family. In urban areas, those who have access to think tanks succeed in taking part in debates on developmental issues and decision-making.

For some, this has led to the transformation of their social, legal, economic and political status. For others who form the majority living in rural areas and particularly in some urban areas, relations and relationships with men are still firmly rooted in the traditional values mentioned above. Notwithstanding signs of modernity, women’s social and economic responsibilities have not evolved significantly.

In conclusion, it is important to note that the Cameroonian woman is still a victim of discrimination and oppressive situations. She is still confined to socio-cultural beliefs that hinder her full development. She hardly enjoys her rights in a strongly patriarchal society that leaves her with the sole responsibility of caring for the family and education of children. She is still regarded as a woman, the weaker sex, in a traditional society where men have almost (been naturally gifted with) everything: the family name, the land and children, because religious and cultural values are interpreted to favour them.

2.1.4.                   Analysis of gender issues in the area of education

 

There are two educational systems in Cameroon: the French system and the English system. In addition, there is a non-formal system of education for young girls and boys dropped out of the mainstream school. Moreover, there are denominational and traditional systems of education as well as special education programmes developed for youth with specific needs, notably children with disabilities.

Education is provided by both the public and the private sectors. Women without education exceeded 1.7 times the men in a similar situation and there is growing inequality between girls and boys further up the educational ladder (91 women at primary level, 79 at secondary level and 44 at tertiary level, respectively per 100 men)[7].

The different educational systems are marked by gender disparities in preschool, primary, secondary and higher education. There are also disparities between regions, especially between the highly educated Southern regions where the parity index between girls and boys is close to one, and the less educated northern regions where it is barely 0. 6.

2.1.4.1.            Providing education to girls and boys at primary level

 

Primary education is characterized by a higher number of educated boys as compared to girls’, with differences varying from 8 to 16 percentage points between 1989 and 2009. The net enrolment ratio at the national level is 83.1%, being 88.6% for boys and 69.2% for girls. At the regional level, gender disparities are more noticeable in the Far North and East. In the Far North region, for example, 69.2% of girls are enrolled in school against 98.3% of boys, which shows a differential rate of about 30%. The goal of universal primary education may not be achieved in the Adamawa, East, Far North and North Regions.

Nationally, the rate of primary school completion is 72.6% with 78.8% for boys against 66.4% for girls, a difference of 12 percentage points in favour of boys[8].

 

An analysis of the completion rate, an indicator of progress towards Universal Primary Education (UPE), shows improvement in the overall rate (by 21 %) from 59.1% to 71.5% in the period from 2001 to 2007, including girls (16%) of which the rate rose from 49.8 to 65.3% between 2003 and 2008. However, the attrition rate remains higher for girls than boys.

Although some improvements have been observed in the schooling of girls thanks to the introduction in 2001 of free government primary education[9], as well as to the positive effects of awareness campaigns and advocacy for girls’ education, it remains true that access to and retention of girls in school fall short of targets.

2.1.4.2.            Providing education to girls and boys in secondary education

 

In secondary education, girls are also less noticeable than boys, though with a wider difference than at the primary level. According to the Global Monitoring Report on Education, the enrolment ratio for girls was 22.9% and 32.2% for boys in 1990, making a difference of 10 points. In 2007, these rates were respectively 28% against 32%, with a difference of 5 points, showing improvement in girls’ school enrolment.

2.1.4.3.            Providing education to girls and boys in tertiary education

 

In higher education, disparities in education against girls are more blatant, despite their having been narrowed from 2003 to 2007 when women accounted for 44.2% against 55.7% for men in 2008, 39.2 % in 2003-2004, 39.7% in 2005 and 41.7% in 2006; 43.9% of the 132 101 students enrolled in the six State universities and private institutions of Higher Education (PIHE) in 2007. In addition, women are as under-represented (less than 21% from 2003 to 2007) in science and technology in higher education as they are in secondary education. The number of women doing the sciences in State universities was 6,499 (20.8%) in 2003-2004 and 9742 (19.7%) in 2006/2007.

In private institutions, two facts are noteworthy: firstly, the slight overrepresentation (more than 50%) of female students accounting since 2005 for more than 50%; secondly, the fluctuation of this indicator above the minimum of 50%. It rose from (From) 53% in 2005 to 50.7% in 2006 and 53.1% in 2007 and 51.4% in 2008[10].

2.1.4.4.            Literacy among men and women

 

As for literacy, women are also lagging behind men, with a gap ranging from 31 points to 27 points in nearly 20 years as shown by the parity indexes.

Literacy rates have improved from the older generations to the younger. In fact, the proportion of illiterates decreased from 91% to 27% among women aged 65 and above and girls aged 6-9 years. These proportions are 57% and 25% for men of the same age groups, respectively. The literacy rate among adults (aged 15 years or above) were respectively 82% and 65% among women and men in 2004, against 80.3% and 67% in 1998. While these rates are increasing among men, they are decreasing among women.

2.1.4.5.   Vocational Training

 

There are disparities in vocational training between girls and boys. In fact, in institutions placed under the supervision of the Ministry of Employment and Vocational Training (MINEFOP), girls made up 45.4% of the total enrolment against 54.6% of boys for the 2008/2009 academic year[11]. The dropout rate in the area of vocational training is 14.2% for girls and 10.6% for boys[12].

Girls are mostly enrolled in the Home Economics (ESF), Clothing Industry (HI) and Secretaryship sections, which are meant to perpetrate the roles traditionally assigned to women. They are beginning to enrol in electronics and micromechanical sections for which studies have shown that they have the potential to acquire the skills needed in these trades.

Finally, the negative disparities in education and training for women could be explained by socio-cultural factors, family difficulties in meeting the costs of education and training, with preference given to boys’ education, the assignment of girls to household and productive activities, early marriages and pregnancies, and poor perception of employment and school opportunities. There are also school-related factors such as cosmetic free education, few educational opportunities, girls’ exposure to violence, lack of separate toilets for girls and boys in schools, and the negative influence of stereotypes and discriminatory pictures against women in textbooks.

2.1.5.     Health

 

In health, the level of key indicators has not improved between 1991 and 2006, despite government efforts with the support of development partners. In fact, the general population still suffers from endemic diseases (HIV-AIDS/STDs, malaria, tuberculosis, etc…) and inadequate access to care and medications. This condition is characterized by unfavourable gender disparities to women particularly in reproductive health, and by the consequences of violence[13] towards them.

The inequalities against women are basically three-fold, namely: a persistent and increasing maternal mortality, a higher HIV-AIDS/STDs prevalence rate with more women contracting the infections, and low contraceptive prevalence.

 

2.1.5.1.   Maternal morbidity and mortality

 

Many women still lose their lives in childbirth. Sometimes, they bear the after-effects that can disable them for the rest of their lives, because of difficulties during pregnancy or in labour. This is also true with obstetric fistulas which are a factor of social exclusion, especially in the northern regions. Female cancers such as breast and cervical cancers are also common causes of morbidity and death.

With regard to obstetric fistula, a study on the existence of cases of fistula in two regions of Cameroon (Far North and North) conducted in 2004 showed that obstetric fistula due to the effects of an abnormally prolonged childbirth, often without the assistance of qualified personnel was a real public health problem. A total of 162 women with obstetric fistula were identified. Behind these figures lies the true reality of the problem identified in areas where the persistent practice of early marriage exposes girls to this plague whose consequences are unbearable at the physical and psycho-social levels.

Maternal mortality has worsened over the past decade, increasing from 430 to 669 deaths per 100 000 live births between 1998 and 2004[14], which is far from the goal of 344 deaths per 100 000 live births by 2015.

Maternal mortality is caused by late decisions to seek medical advice, late arrivals to health facilities and late administration of first aid.

This gloomy picture is due to socio-cultural prejudices against seeking medical attention, overdependence of women on the authority of men who decide on reproductive health matters, ignorance, women’s low economic power, the absence of an effective social protection system. Furthermore, there are inadequate and poor health and transportation facilities, remote communities and scarce means of locomotion. Moreover, there is shortage of qualified health personnel, lack of staff motivation, poorly organized services, lack of appropriate equipment, medications and supplies, and costly healthcare.

However, the measures taken by the government to reverse the curve of maternal mortality using a roadmap for reducing maternal and neonatal mortality and the National Programme on Reproductive Health which focuses primarily on maternal and child health, whose mortality rates remain high.

2.1.5.2.    Family planning and contraceptive prevalence 

 

In Africa in general and Cameroon in particular, the child is at the centre of the life of a couple. A formal or consensual union in which the birth of a child is still hypothetical remains precarious and can result at any time in separation. Thus, family planning aims not only at controlling fertility in order to ensure the health of mother and child, but also at helping childless couples to have children. The proportion of childless women aged 35 to 39 years dropped significantly from 12.1% in 1978 to 3.6% in 2004.

An analysis of contraceptive prevalence shows disparities along socio-demographic lines. Thus, it appears that contraceptive prevalence is lower in rural areas (16%) than in urban areas (36%); it is especially higher in the cities of Douala and Yaounde (42%) than in other cities (33%)[15].

 

This prevalence is also as low as the educational level is low or as the poverty level is high. In fact, the rate of contraceptive use is 4% for uneducated women living with a partner, as against 25% for those with primary education and 48% for those with secondary or higher education. This rate is 7% for women from very poor households, as against 46% for those from households of the highest quintile.

The rate of contraceptive use by women living with a partner is virtually identical to that of women not living with a partner. However, the rate of contraceptive use remains low among women living with a partner and aged 15-19 years (49%) and 45 to 49 years (47%) than among other age groups (above 56%). Only 14% of women use modern contraceptive methods. This proportion can drop to 13% among women living with a partner. The modern methods mostly used are the male condom (31%), pills (10%), injections (5%) and the morning pill (3%). In the past, periodic abstinence (43%) and withdrawal (24%) were the most used traditional methods.

The proportion of women whose family planning needs are met is 26%. This accounts for 64% of the total potential demand already met. Demand in family planning is still high: 14% of women aged 15-49 years in 2004, approximately 10% for spacing and control to 4%. Family planning, especially in rural areas, is considered primarily in terms of access to all relevant information, then to relevant products and finally to the possibility of continuous follow-up, because of the taboo nature of sexuality in most cultures.

Despite persistent unwanted pregnancies, abortions and deaths, access by women to contraception is still difficult. The barriers to reproductive health, including contraceptive decisions are due, among other things, to women’s reliance on their husbands’ consent, ignorance of contraceptive methods by both women and men, and reluctance on socio-cultural and religious grounds.

2.1.5.3.  HIV infection/STIs

 

Women and girls pay a heavy price to HIV/STIs with the feminization of the pandemic. In 2004, the prevalence rate of women infected by HIV/STIs [16] (6,8%) was higher than that of men (4.1%), while overall HIV prevalence in the country was estimated at 5,1% for adults aged 15 to 49 years in late 2007[17]. Out of 560 306 infected people, there are 326 278 women and 234,028 men. The average prevalence rate is estimated at 3.3% with a female / male ratio of 3.4, with 4.8% of girls against 1.4% of boys among youths aged 15 to 19 years. The risk of infection is much higher among girls (54.7%) than boys (13%). As for the rate of condom use, it stands at 57% for men and 46% for women, from 1999 to 2005[18], attributable to gaps earlier mentioned.

Moreover, in 2007 HIV prevalence among pregnant women (7.4%) was slightly higher than among other women (6.8%). In 2008, 6.5% of 276 177 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics tested HIV positive.

Actions to fight the pandemic, such as awareness and education campaigns, distribution of condoms, free treatment, especially for pregnant women, mother and child care, have not helped curb the pandemic and reverse the trend of its feminization. The vulnerability of women to HIV/STIs can be explained by biological, economic, socio-cultural and political factors. These include the poor control by women of their sexuality, multiple partners (polygamy and extramarital sex), prostitution, sexual violence, traditional practices (levirate and sororate marriages)[19], beliefs, habits and customs leading to discrimination or differentiation in treatment between men and women, lack of information on sex education for women and men, lack of access to condoms and lack of legal provisions on the protection of people living with HIV-AIDS/STIs.

2.1.6.   Gender-based violence

 

Gender-Based Violence (GBV) is a reality in Cameroon. In fact, 52.0% of women have experienced domestic violence at least once, 53.0% of women have experienced violence since the age of 15, 1.4% of women aged 15 to 49 years have undergone Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)[20].

This confirms the results of the study [21] on violence against women, where in a heterosexual relationship, 99.7% of women have at least been once victims of violence from their partners. Among these abused women, 30.5% experienced physical violence, 30.8% sexual violence, 53.7% emotional violence, 54.7% psychological violence and 50.24% economic violence[22].

Regarding sexual violence, according to a 2008 study[23] on rape and incest, 5.2% of women, that is, 1 woman out of 19, were victims and 33% of them became pregnant while 16% contracted STIs. More than one million girls and women are reported to have suffered an attempted rape, some several times (27%). Rape is becoming widespread in all regions of the country and often includes incest (18% of raped women) committed by a family member.

While most of the violence is perpetrated everywhere, those related to certain customary practices are confined to certain regions. FGM is practised in Cameroon in the Far North and Southwest regions. The rate of circumcised women is 1.4%. As for early marriages, they occur mostly in the northern regions.

Socio-cultural norms, women’s ignorance of their rights and existing remedies, poverty and financial dependence on their husbands are factors of Gender Based Violence (GBV), which, despite their illegality and negative impact on development[24], are still tolerated in the name of culture.

GBV leads to physical and mental trauma on the victims. Economically, significant financial costs and expenses incurred by induced work stoppages result in lower productivity. The violence also prevents female victims from participating in public life and other development activities in the country.

 

2.2.     Situational analysis of gender issues in the area of economy and employment

 

The situation profile of women and men in the economic field will be appreciated at the domestic level and at the level of employment and work in both the formal and modern urban formal sectors. Issues of social security, as well as access to resources and factors of production and control thereof will also be addressed.

 

2.2.1.    Home economics

 

The traditional division of labour confines women to domestic spheres, especially household activities, while men are engaged in public life. Home economics is thus an area reserved for the woman who will derive little value and recognition thereof.[25] . She invests most of her time in it, which significantly reduces her participation in gainful and trading activities which become the preserve of men.

In Cameroon, housewives make up a significant number (946 103 women aged 15 years and above, and 703 577 aged 25 and above[26]). (These figures are totals of what ratio?)

The woman, mother or wife is socially responsible for the household. She prepares meals, handles health care and education of the children, the sick and the elderly, supplies the family with water and domestic energy, takes care of the hygiene and sanitation. She is also responsible for household repairs; she takes an active part in productive activities including food security. The woman also assists her husband in his own social responsibility as family head and, in some communities; she plays an important role in some secret societies. She takes charge of all that helps the man to perform his duty. In case of incapacity of the latter, the woman refers to her husband’s family for possible decisions.

 

The woman is torn between her professional status and her status of woman, wife and mother. She finds it extremely difficult to reconcile the different roles assigned to her by society, as “her administrative functions are simply added to those considered normative and intended for the wife”[27]. But today, she tends to focus on her professional work which somewhat empowers her and give her social visibility. The woman today is a professional whose career has a setback due to her status as mother and wife or even her womanhood. As a mother, her work interruptions due to maternity slow down her career and help jeopardize her evolution unlike that of her male colleagues. As a wife, she carries out activities which must be compatible with her status as a wife, because she must have sufficient time to care for her family. While the man has the right to return home later, the woman must be there earlier to watch over the children and prepare the family meal. As a woman, there are areas that are inaccessible to her because of her upbringing, or because of the gender division of labour. Thus the control of any sphere of decision-making and production are out of her reach.

This is explained not only by sociological and cultural mores, but also by the underestimation of activity rates, which exclude household chores in the system of national accounting.

2.2.2. Employment and work

           

2.2.2.1. Situation in economic activities, level and conditions of employment

 

The economic crisis of the late ‘80s and most especially that of 2008 resulted in the fall in the price of cash crops on the world market, lay-offs in some sectors and reduced purchasing power of households. This went a long way to increasing the vulnerability of families and the burdens of women.

Economic activities are carried out both in urban and rural areas. Two sectors provide employment in Cameroon: the formal and the informal sectors.

The profile of the workforce [28] presented here, is made up of the following: the gainfully employed or unemployed active population, first applicants, pupils, students, pensioners and private income earners with no economic activity, household women and other inactive persons.

Out of the 52.6% of the gainfully employed population, women make up 44.5% against 61.3% of men. Regarding the active temporarily unemployed, out of an estimated population of 3.0%, women form 2.2% against 3.8% of men. As concerns the unemployed active population in search of first-time employment, out of a total population of 6.1%, there are 5.6% of women against 6.5% of men. As regards pupils and students with no gainful employment, who form 17.8% of the population, the proportion of women stands at 16.4% as against 19.3% of men.

As regards private income earners with no gainful employment, they form 0.6% of the population, with 0.5% of women as against 0.7% of men. In the category which consists of pensioners with no gainful employment, i.e. 0.7% of the population, women make up 0.3% as against 1.2% of men. The proportion of other inactive persons without gainful employment, consisting of 7.4% of the total population comprises 7.6% of women and 7.3% of men. As for housewives without gainful employment, they form 11.8% of the population.

2.2.2.2. Domestic employment

 

A household worker is any person hired or not to handle on a regular basis household duties[29] (babysitters, servant boys, gardeners, caretakers, cooks, drivers, laundry workers, etc.). Household work is a profession on its own,   in that 64.7% of household workers are aged between 25 and 59 years. It is becoming increasingly important because of the growing activity of women outside the household.

This activity is performed mainly by women (60.2% as against 39.8% for men). It is common in urban areas because 85% of these workers are city dwellers (not clear). This is because in rural areas, social and family organization is such that one can do without a household servant. Household workers continue to serve beyond the authorized age, because they have not been registered with the social security organization.

Generally, it is assumed that household workers are victims of such abuses as failure to comply with the tasks description, work overload, indecent housing, food deprivation, sexual harassment, insults and humiliations, threats, delays in the payment of wages, wages paid to a third party or below the guaranteed minimum wage (minimum wage), failure to respect the work contract, non-payment of overtime, absence of leave or leave without pay, non-registration at the NSIF, human trafficking, etc.. All these work against the women who are more exposed than the men.

Also, there are few household workers most of whom are not trained at all for the tasks assigned to them. They are not allowed to join trade associations or unions under the Labour Code which regulates all professional activities.

Finally, more women than men face many difficulties that prevent them from expressing themselves on the job market. These include: overload of household tasks, lack of education and vocational training, and difficult access to funding.

2.2.2.3.   Formal and informal sectors

 

The formal sector has instruments governing gainful employment, while the informal sector lacks a normative framework despite its productivity.

2.2.2.3.1.   Formal sector

 

In the formal public sector, the Public Service General Rules and Regulations establish the principle of equality and access for all in the labour market, without gender discrimination, and to accruing benefits. However, it appears that the rate of promotion of women to senior positions, with equal qualifications, is still low, regardless of the grade required. According to statistics from the Public Service, the percentage of women drops sharply as one rises in scale such as from category D to category A2, where the rate is respectively 44% and 16.5%.

Although the Labour Code is democratic, the situation of women in the formal private sector, like in the formal public sector, women are on the disadvantage with an imbalance which favours men in the distribution of positions held according to socio-economic groups. Thus, in the category of executive officer / manager, 0.7% are women as against 1.6 of men[30]. This gap becomes wider in the other categories (supervisors, secretaries, office staff) where women are 1.1 as against 4.9 of men.

In urban areas, there is a higher percentage of people gainfully employed in the formal sector being 19. 5%.

2.2.2.3.2.   Informal sector

 

The informal sector, both agricultural and non-agricultural, has the bulk of the active population (92.0%), nearly 55.2% of women as against 8.0% in the formal sector (both public and private). More women than men perform activities in the informal sector. These informal activities are more dominant in rural areas. Women participate in all kinds of income or profit generating activities for their families. The proportion of women involved with income generating activities rose from 42% in 1987 to 63% in 1996 and to 77.5% in 2001[31]. The female participation rate is 68.9% as against 74.8% for men[32].

 

Child labour refers to young children’s productive activities carried out outside the home with or without payment, on a part or full time basis, be it casual or regular, legal or illegal. It does not include work done at home or at school[33]. The rate of activities by children aged 6 to 14 years is 8.6% and is higher among girls, 9.1%, than among boys, 8.0%. According to place of residence, child labour stood at 12.6% in rural areas as against 2.4% in urban areas[34].

 

2.2.3. Rural sector

 

It covers all production activities related to agriculture, livestock, fisheries, aquaculture, hunting and logging.

2.2.3.1.   Agriculture

 

Agriculture plays a key role in the nation’s economy. It contributes 20% to the Gross Domestic Product[35]. This sub-sector employs 70% of the Cameroonian labour force, which is also the population group most exposed to poverty. In fact, the incidence of rural poverty is the most striking with 80% of the poor forming approximately 55.0% of the population. This population is predominantly female[36].

 

The agricultural sector encompasses two groups of activity, food crop and cash crop cultivation. Food crops (maize, cassava, millet, sorghum, banana, groundnuts, rice, tubers, etc…) are grown mostly by women. However, many men do grow crops such as sorghum and millet in the Far North. As for cash crops (cocoa, coffee, cotton, etc…), which for many years were very profitable and grown mostly by men, women also grow them now.

Women are more involved in growing, processing and marketing food crops. This has been hijacked by men in recent years because of the falling prices of some cash crops.

In the cash crop sector, women tend to face enormous difficulties, including access to land and land ownership, agricultural inputs, financial resources (credit, subsidies, grants, etc.) and modern agricultural techniques.

2.2.3.2.    Livestock and fisheries

 

Stockbreeding is a major activity. One household out of every three carries out that activity which is more developed in rural (48.7%) than in urban areas (9.1%). This involves mainly cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, donkeys, camels, poultry farms as well as unconventional animals (cane rats, quails, snails, guinea pigs, rabbits, frogs etc…)

Women invest in small scale farms (poultry, sheep and goats, etc…), while cattle breeding is carried out mostly by men. This sub-sector is hence deeply influenced by the patriarchal organization marked by control of inputs (land, pasture resources) by the men.

As regards fisheries, this includes: inland, marine and industrial fishing, inland small scale fishing and aquaculture.

While inland, marine and industrial fisheries are the prerogative of men who use modern efficient and expensive equipment; small scale fishing is restricted to women who use traps, canoes and other basic equipment. Women process, preserve and market of fishery products, but the proceeds of the sales often slip out of their hands.

With regard to aquaculture, it is a new activity, still at an emerging stage, handled mostly by men because this requires huge investments.

Regarding fish farming, this is becoming more popular especially in wetlands. It is done by creating and managing individual and collective fish ponds run by women and/or men.

Finally, in the rural sector, women still face many obstacles including: socio-cultural bias, the gender division of labour, illiteracy, lack of facilitation mechanisms for women’s access to funding, the absence of agricultural banks, high interest rates in commercial banks, an unsuitable system for the mobilization of women’s savings, the timid development of decentralized rural credit, ignorance of credit and negotiation schemes for successful partnerships at national and international level, absence of alternative energy sources, etc.

2.2.4. Industry, building and construction

 

The industrial sector seems to be reserved for men. Among the few women involved in this activity, very few are business owners or managers. The majority of them are just employees in certain sectors. They are almost excluded from industries such as mining and textiles and construction, which generally employ only men, and are much more active in industries that require less physical strength and time (and income). This is especially the food industry (processing of local produce in fruit juice or jam, etc…), with small production units, usually informal, whose average size in terms of employment is very low, made up mostly of self-employed workers.

Women are also scarce in the Building and Construction sector where they remain on the fringes in subordinate and related activities. At the level of professional training, there is the gradual emergence of women in the building sector where the number of female technicians, public works and civil engineers is increasing.

This is due to very few trained women, (structure) with access to credit and capable of setting up a business.

2.2.5.   Trade, handicraft and tourism

 

As regards the tertiary sector, it can be noted that there are very many women in trade (10.3% as against 9.3% for men) who are very active in this sector (it can be noted that women are very active in this sector especially in trade). Their strong presence in the cross-border trade is also noticeable.

Trading appears to be the main activity of urban women (“bayam sellam “) where they are mostly active in small business and retail (sale of fresh food, manufactured goods of primary necessity, used clothing, etc…). They spend long hours carrying out these activities. These activities are characterized by low profitability, small capital and precariousness. Wholesale trade and large-scale distribution (supermarkets, big stores, import-export) which are more profitable are controlled by men, with an increasing number of women engaged in import (cars, clothing).

With regard to crafts and tourism, there are many women and men working in that sector, especially in the informal sector.

In the domain of handicrafts, more women sell snacks, small scale agro-processing equipment, tailoring, hairdressing, basket weaving and pottery products, etc.., while there are more men in activities such as shoemaking, etc. These activities appear to be more of subsistence than business in the economic sense of the word, because investment is low.

In tourism, women and men are all active at different degrees and at various stages. While men own and run the majority of classified hotels, women are more involved in travel agencies and unclassified hotels. The majority of staff in these hotels is composed of women.

Women in tourist towns are confined to catering activities and marketing of various food products, especially prostitution which seriously exposes them to STIs and HIV / AIDS.

2.2.6. Factors of production

2.2.6.1. Access to land and agricultural inputs

 

The prevention of women from land ownership, especially through inheritance is due to socio-cultural practices resulting from the patriarchal system that governs the Cameroonian society. Though women use land to grow food crops, they do not control and cannot own it.

This hinders the creation of mortgages, which is the necessary guarantee for the extension of women’s agricultural activities.

As for access to inputs, techniques, technologies and equipment necessary for agricultural production, things are not always easy, especially for women. They face such difficulties as low level of education, inadequate information and training and low economic power. (what about low female representation in critical decision-making roles?)

2.2.6.2. Access to credit

In Cameroon, like in most African countries, tremendous efforts are being made by various stakeholders to promote women’s access to financial services offered by microfinance institutions located primarily in urban areas and in some rural and suburban areas.

The area of micro-finance which has, in recent years, experienced a relatively high growth has nearly 426 establishments operating under Cameroon law and gradually set up as community initiatives and with the support of development projects and programmes. About 224 micro finance institutions have formed a network and nearly 202 carry out their activities independently. In the governance of the accredited 426 microfinance institutions, women are said to form only 11.5% whereas they make up the bulk of members in all customer categories counted. They play important roles as shareholders or members, or even customers of local credit unions. Approved micro-finance institutions owned and managed exclusively by women form only 1.4% of the total. However, they make up the bulk of owners of informal savings and credit unions operating outside regulation.

Micro finance institutions are governed by several regulatory instruments, among which is Regulation No.  01/02/CEMAC/UMAC/COBAC of 13 April 2002 to lay down the conditions for carrying out micro finance activity in the CEMAC zone, and Law No. 92/6 of 14 August 1992 relating to credit unions and common initiative groups and its implementation decree that regulates the operation of micro finance institutions established as credit unions. These two instruments, together with the OHADA Uniform Act on the law of commercial companies and EIGs, although binding in some respects, provide women with a framework of association for the creating microfinance establishments and networks.

In 2007, there were about 1111 service points established throughout the ten regions providing services to 962,627 members and individual customers or grouped in associations, especially among women. That is why in some networks and basic cash points, there are few women while they are many in associations recognized as legal entities.

In the same period (2007), the microfinance sector has been able to collect nearly CFAF 198.8 billion, that is 10% of the outstanding deposits mobilized by the banking sector. Women’s contribution to this is significant, whether individually or through their cooperatives and associations. The outstanding amount of credit available to customers amounted in 2007 to 117.2 billion CFA francs. The amount of credit granted to women is deemed to have remained low, that is loans contracted individually or through associations where the members have to share loan granted.

The conditions for granting loans especially to women are not always favourable. Interest rates in this respect range between 1% and 5% monthly. That is, respectively 12% and 60% per annum in accredited institutions. In the informal micro finance sector which is largely dominated by women, the interest rates recorded are said to vary between 1% and 7.5% monthly, i.e. respectively 12% and 90% per annum. These rates are very high if one refers to the internal output from the activities performed by women. Such practices, noticeable in urban and rural areas, are encouraged by the liberalization of interest rates with the induced effect which is the absence of a ceiling interest rate in this sector. Furthermore, there is the increasing demand for tangible guarantees where the required loan is considered high or too risky. In addition, the repayment terms which are binding and, particularly, the lack of grace period, while the reimbursement of initial funds invested is well beyond the first deadlines. As a consequence, some women and organizations are compelled to resort to other means to cope with the debt burden, exposing them in most cases to loss.

Despite these hurdles, the microfinance sector in Cameroon is still a means for women to support their self-promotion and create micro and small enterprises, but also a support for solidarity and contribution to recorded capital.

2.2.7. Basic Facilities

2.2.7.1. Water and electricity

 

Access by households to basic facilities such as water and electricity depends on a number of factors.

Regarding access to water, 53% of households have access to safe water nationwide. However, the situation differs depending on whether one is in an urban or rural area. In urban areas, people live at about 800 metres away from water points. About 3/4 of the population consume safe water, that is 35% from taps and 6% from pumped wells. In rural areas where distances are longer, sometimes up to kilometres to water points, only 3 out of 10 households have access to safe water. These distances make domestic work such as fetching water, which is done by women, more difficult both in urban and rural areas.

The situation is no better for electricity, with a disparate power distribution to households in both urban and rural areas. Less than one out of two households has electricity. Despite the efforts made, there is disparity between residential areas: in rural areas, only 16% of households have electricity, against 77% in urban areas[37].

 

Concerning living standards, the majority of households (64%) do not have adequate toilet facilities (57% use very basic sanitary facilities and 7% have no toilets at all). Moreover, differences between residential areas are outstanding: in rural areas, 73% of households have only rudimentary latrines and 13% do not have any at all; in urban areas, 42% of households have improved latrines and 14% have flushing toilets[38].

 

As far as housing is concerned, there is also disparity in convenience between urban and rural areas. Poor households are on the disadvantage in terms of comfort and the building materials used. This makes such homes vulnerable and sometimes exposed to disease[39].

2.2.7.2. Transportation

 

Transportation is a key factor in economic development. Rural areas generally lack good roads or have none at all. Motorcars and cycles are obsolete, inadequate or even nonexistent in some areas with high transport costs. The flow of agricultural produce from rural to urban areas is thus hampered and women are unable to market their produce. They are compelled to carry their crops over long distances or cram them onto vehicles in poor conditions endangering their lives. In so doing, they record heavy post-harvest losses and the country’s food security is undermined. (What about women’s health especially on issues relating to maternal and child mortality)

2.2.7.3. Information and Communication Technology

 

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) helps in opening women and men up to the modern world. This openness depends on the availability of electricity, educational level and economic power. The digital divide between women and men, which disfavours women, is all the more acute in rural areas.

As regards radio and television, the existence of shadow areas does not facilitate access by all to information, especially to the rural population. The case is the same for the telephone and Internet, where access is unequal to the disadvantage of women because of their low educational level and lack of financial means, among other things.

It can be noted that in urban areas, women have appropriated ICT through such social programmes as Operation 100 000 women by 2012. The establishment of multipurpose community e-centres in rural areas and media centres in schools and universities across the country helps to reduce the digital divide. (what is the degree of access that women have to these centres?)

However, more women than men still face many barriers such as language, illiteracy, lack of time due to family responsibilities, low propensity to learn.

2.2.8. Social security

 

Like the vast majority of the world’s population, the majority of Cameroon’s population lives in social insecurity. Social Security is restricted to formal sector employees (public and private) and covers 10% of the workforce. This social security is inaccessible to the majority of the population. It has limited possibility of guaranteeing a good standard of living to families, groups or communities.

Out of the nine social services recommended by the International Labour Organization (ILO)[40], only seven are provided in Cameroon. These are: family benefits, maternity allowances, old age pension, disability, death, occupational diseases and industrial accidents benefits. Sickness and unemployment benefits are not provided. As for the available services o, only 10% of the population benefits from them. This service is provided to insured persons from the National Social Insurance Fund (NSIF) and public sector employees.

As regards women, those employed enjoy the same rights as the men. The services offered fall short of their needs. The NSIF refunds 300 CFAF on consultation fees. Family allowances per child range between CFAF 1 200 and CFAF 1 800. There are disparities depending on whether one is in the public or private sector, on the number of children and on the amount.

The treatment of women and men is unequal when it comes to compiling pension documents. This causes delays in the payment of pension rights to women and children.

The lack of a health insurance policy framework leads to the marginalization of workers in the informal sector, and specifically women, who form the bulk of the rural workforce (both agricultural and non-agricultural) that is 68%, and 91.3% in urban areas and only about 1/3 of formal sector employees. However, community and private initiatives are underway to fill the gap. These are mutual aid companies and micro social insurance organizations (tontines, mutual health organizations, and associations) and private insurance companies.

Women work in precarious conditions. In the public sector, there is no labour control mechanism, including maternity leave. In the private sector, inadequate means for labour inspectors deprives women of their rights to decent treatment. In addition, ignorance of the Labour Code, the indifference of some employers, the little participation of women in trade unions and gender advocacy worsen their situation.

 

2.2.9. Environment and Sustainable Development

 

According to studies by the Ministry of Environment and Nature Protection (MINEP) and the Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife (MINFOF), women and men play different roles both in forestry development, production enhancement, and the community management of forests and wildlife resources. While they are both involved in forestry, the men are mostly involved in logging, timber and rare species exploitation, this being a personal source of income over which they have total control. As for women, they sell logs, manage and exploit community forests and non-timber products for the daily subsistence of the household. However, the high returns on the marketing of non-timber products (okok / eru, etc.),[41] encourages men to be highly involved in this activity. Men are also greatly involved in small scale mining and petroleum industries.

Despite laws regulating the environmental sector, illegal and improper exploitation leads to the destruction of forests, biodiversity degradation, air and water pollution, reduced fallow and risks of soil erosion, which are all responsible for the imbalance in cycle regeneration of natural resources.

It is clear that women and men alike contribute to environmental destruction and conservation. Women’s activities such as the production of plastic waste and other household garbage, disorderly fetching of firewood etc, are likely to contribute to environmental pollution and undermine the balance of ecosystems.

As regards environmental preservation, women like men are engaged in reforestation and collection of non-toxic household and industrial waste (malt, cattle-dung, etc.). As concerns sanitation, women and children are at the forefront of joint initiatives devoted to sorting and reprocessing of household waste, in associations and NGOs. This activity, characterized by the collection of plastic waste, is growing fast in the informal sector and could be an enticing source of income for women (manufacture and marketing of pillowcase, environment-friendly cushions etc.).

It should also be noted that climate change, which affects the entire population, has a stronger impact on women who are compelled to travel over long distances to get household water, firewood, etc.

In conclusion, although the combined action of women and men undermine the environment, the absence of alternatives such as use of cooking gas, persistence of socio-cultural prejudices, inadequate resources, social distribution of roles between women and men still hinder its sustainable management.

2.3.    Situational Analysis of Gender Issues in the Domain of Rights and Legislation

 

The rights of individuals and the family in Cameroon are governed by two legal systems. English-speaking regions of the country are governed by Common Law and French-speaking regions by the Civil Code of 1804. However, in order to administer justice in an equal manner nationwide, a process to harmonize these two systems was embarked on. This consisted in revising the Criminal Procedure Code and reforming the civil law to develop a civil code applicable to all.

Cameroon’s legislation is enshrined in a normative framework that contributes to the promotion and protection of the women’s rights. Although this framework contains many relevant international, regional and national legal instruments, it does not necessarily guarantee effective enjoyment by women of all their rights.

2.3.1.      International Legal Instruments for the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of the Woman

 

There are instruments of general application which provide for gender equality, and instruments that are gender sensitive to enable women to fully enjoy their rights.

 

2.3.1.1.            International Instruments of General Application

 

The most important are:

 

– The Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 10 December 1948, which emphasizes the principle of equal human rights without discrimination;

– The International Covenants of 16 December 1966, on Civil and Political Rights and on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which provide opportunities for men and women to fully exercise their rights in the relevant areas;

– ILO Convention No. 100 on Equal Remuneration of 29 June 1951, which advocates the principle of equal pay for male and female employees for services of equal value;

– ILO Convention No. 111 on discrimination in employment on 25 June 1958, which aims to eliminate discrimination based on race, colour, sex, religion, politics, national or social origin, in access to employment, training and working conditions. It also intends to promote equal opportunity and treatment;

– The Convention against Torture and Other Forms of Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment of 10 December 1984, which protects men and women against torture;

– The Convention on Biological Diversity of 1992, which gives women opportunities to enjoy the benefits of their traditional knowledge;

– The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child of 20 December 1989, which grants equal rights to both girls and boys;

– ILO Convention No. 182 on the Worst Forms of Child Labour of 17 June 1999 focusing on urgent prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour; it promotes an international legal standard to protect children from the worst forms of exploitation such as slavery, child prostitution and pornography; using children for unlawful activities (drug trafficking); all work described as dangerous by their nature or conditions under which if it is carried out may endanger the health (physical or mental), safety or morals of children (mining, agriculture, use of pesticides or chemicals, etc …);

– The UN Convention of 2000 on Transnational Organized Crime and its two additional protocols to prevent, abolish and punish trafficking in humans, especially women and children;

– ILO Convention No. 87 on Freedom of Association and Protection of the Trade Union Right of 9 July 1948, which guarantees employees and employers the right to establish organizations of their choice to promote and defend their interests, or to join organizations without prior authorization.

2.3.1.2.            International Legal Instruments specific to women

 

Among the most relevant are the following:

 

– The Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict adopted in December 1974, which outlaws all forms of repression and cruel and inhuman treatment of women and children, including imprisonment, torture, shootings, mass arrests, collective punishments;

– The Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women of 20 December 1993, which commits countries or State Parties to take all suitable measures to eliminate violence against women;

– ILO Convention No. 3 adopted in 1919 and ratified by Cameroon on 25 May 1970 on maternity protection;

– ILO Convention No. 89 on Night Work of Women, revised on 9 June 1948;

– The Convention on the Political Rights of Women adopted by the UN General Assembly on 7 July 1954, which guarantees women the right to vote and to be eligible in all elections without discrimination;

– The 1957 Convention on Nationality of Married Women, which grants the latter the power to take her husband’s nationality without losing her own;

– The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), adopted on 18 December 1979 and its Additional Protocol of 6 October 1999. The Convention obliges States to promote women in all domains: political, legal, economic, social and cultural development;

– Resolution 1325 of the UN Security Council which provides an opportunity for women to participate in the preservation of peace and conflict resolution. This Resolution was supplemented by Resolution 1820 of 19 June 2008 which recognizes rape as a crime against humanity, whose perpetrators are prosecuted at the International Criminal Court.

 

2.3.2. Regional and Sub Regional Instruments

 

In this context one can cite:

 

– The Treaty of 17 October 1993 on the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA), which provides guarantees to all, with regard to the exercise of commercial activity in Africa: Article 7 of this text recognizes the woman’s full capacity to carry out business;

– The 1993 Treaty establishing the Inter-African Conference of Social Welfare (ICSW);

– NEPAD, which is a mechanism put in place on 23 October 2001 to promote the eradication of poverty, position African countries towards sustainable development and promotion of women in all areas with, among others, emphasis on an increase in gender equality, reducing maternal mortality, access to reproductive health services for all concerned;

– Constitutive Act of the African Union (July 2000), which promotes parity of representation in the various elective offices of the Union;

– The African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights of 27 June 1981, which protects human rights in general and minorities in particular regardless of gender;

– Solemn Declaration on Equality between Men and Women in Africa adopted in July 2004 by the Heads of State and Government of Member States of the African Union (AU), which calls for the promotion and full protection of women’s rights at national and regional levels, focusing on topics such as HIV / AIDS, the recruitment of child soldiers and the setting up of economic, social and legal gender specific measures.

– The Additional Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women, adopted on 11 July 2003, which protects the specific rights of women in various areas of national life, including reproductive health, and emphasizes the need to eliminate all forms of traditional practices harmful to women;

– The CIMA Code entered into force on 15 February 1995, which allows women living in common-law marriage with the victim of an accident to seek compensation for damages.[42]

 

One may also mention, within the CEMAC framework, the Convention on trafficking in women and children, which protects these vulnerable groups against acts such as trafficking, exploitation for prostitution, etc.

All these international, regional and sub regional legal instruments, reinforce the legal arsenal of Cameroon.

2.3.3. National Legal Instruments

 

The national legal arsenal includes both general texts and those expressly protecting women in specific situations.

2.3.3.1.            Texts of General Application

 

They include, among others:

 

– The Constitution of 18 January 1996 which, in its preamble, sets forth the basic human rights and promotes equality between women and men;

– The Civil Code of 1804, which contains several provisions that protect the rights of women and men within the family and the household and supplemented by Ordinance No. 81/02 of 29 June 1981 introducing the civil legislation, rules relating to the socio-cultural context of Cameroon, which guarantees the principle of equality between men and women with regard to both marriage and divorce;

– The Penal Code of 1967 which provides that criminal law is binding on all without gender distinction;

– The Labour Code dated 14 August 1992, which recognizes the right of women and men to work as a fundamental right;

– The Criminal Procedure Code of 2006, which establishes the principle of equality between women and men in recognition of their rights in the proceedings initiated against them for committing an offence;

– Ordinance 74 / 1, of 6 June 1974 to establish land tenure; Decree No. 76/165 of 27 April 1976 laying down the conditions for obtaining land title and Decree No. 2005/481 of 16 December 2005 amending and supplementing certain provisions of the foregoing Decree; these texts allow women and men to acquire land;

– Law No. 90/053 of 19 December 1990 on freedom of association which establishes freedom of association, in general, and for women, freedom to form and join any association of their choice in the same way as men;

– Law No. 92/006 of 14 August 1992 relating to credit unions and common initiative groups (CIGs), which encourages groups without discrimination;

– Law No. 2004/016 of 22 July 2004 establishing a subcommittee on the rights of vulnerable groups including women within the National Commission on Human Rights and Freedoms, which takes into account the specific problems of women;

– Law of 29 December 2005 on the fight against trafficking and child trafficking, which also protects the girl child;

– Electoral laws that deal with electoral capacity and eligibility requirements, which are the same for women and men;

– Legislation on the creation of political parties and their financing, which offers women and men equal opportunities;

– Law No. 96/03 of 4 January 1996 on the framework legislation in the field of health, which puts forward the idea of streamlining the system of health management and financing of the health sector;

– Law No. 2009/004 of 14 April 2009 on the organization of judicial assistance, giving the benefit of such assistance to the spouse left without resources, allows women to enjoy the related benefits;

– Law No. 2010/002 of 13 April 2010 on the protection and promotion of disabled persons, which provides a package of measures for persons with disabilities;

– Ordinance of 1973 on the organization of social welfare, which organizes the management of social welfare in Cameroon;

– Ordinance No. 81-02 of 29 June 1981 on the organization of civil status and various provisions relating to the status of individuals and marriage, which offers women the opportunity to exercise a separate profession;

– Decree of 1968 revised in 1976 on employment of servants and domestic workers, which protects domestic workers irrespective of gender;

– The public service General Rules and Regulations, which guarantee equal rights to men and women as regards employment in the civil service and career management (access to public service, compensation, leave, increment, promotion, etc.. ).

2.3.3.2.            Specific Instruments

 

These include:

 

– Law on the profession of pharmacist of 1990 authorizing the sale of contraceptives, which was adopted with the aim to protect women against STIs, unwanted pregnancies, and allow them to freely decide on the timing, number and spacing of births ;

– Law of 19 December 1999 which establishes, inter alia, the abolition of husband’s authorization for the movement of women;

– Decree of 1994 relating to civilian pension scheme, which recognizes that, the widow is entitled to survivor’s pension;

– Circular No. 10-7-562/MINEDUC that allows female students suspended due to pregnancy to be readmitted to school after childbirth.

New regulations are being developed, including bills on the Code of Individuals and Family, Civil Procedure Code, Civil and Commercial Code, Code on Child Protection, General Framework for Social Security, Organization of Social Security and Health Protection Insurance.

It is worthwhile to note the ongoing revision of the Criminal Code, which incorporates the bill on the prevention and punishment of violence and gender-based discrimination. It is also worth recalling that the overall objective of these instruments on reform of the legislation is to harmonize the domestic legal texts with international and regional human rights that Cameroon has ratified.
Consequently, it can be observed that there is an arsenal of legal instruments whose judicious implementation would promote and protect the rights of women. But several factors hinder the impact of these texts, namely: their limited dissemination, lack of harmonization of domestic legislation with the specific international legal instruments to protect women’s rights, selected implementation of the laws and regulations in force, the coexistence of written laws and customs, the reluctance of some judicial stakeholders to implement the instruments, etc.

 

2.4. Governance

 

The involvement of women in decision-making is at three levels, namely: the family, the community, and public affairs and politics. Women are generally underrepresented in these different spheres of decision-making.

 

2.4.1. In the Family Level

 

Decision making in households depends on the issues at stake, even though for important matters (family plans, revenue management), the decision is taken by men. With regard to cooking, the final decision frequently comes from women (64.0%). But for other aspects of life (health care, major purchases) 21.0% of women ultimately decide and in 58.0% of cases, the husbands do. [43].

 

It can however be noted that many are single women or from broken homes who make decisions by themselves (be noted that many women who take decisions by themselves are either single or from broken homes) (52.0%), and women who perform paid work are more quick to have the final word. In most cases, men fully and totally enjoy their status as family heads and are central in all major decisions.

At the family level, gender disparities are the result of the burden of traditions, the low educational level of most women, their low economic power and ignorance leading to their lack of self-confidence.

2.4.2. In the community or community organizations for self-promotion

In Cameroon, women and families are increasingly being promoted through women’s associations, a lever for self-promotion at the community level. Taking advantage of Law No. 90/053 of 19 December 1990, in which is enshrined freedom of association and Law No. 92/006 of 14 August 1992 relating to credit unions and common initiative groups (CIG), many associations, credit unions, CIGs, EIGs and NGOs emerged, including many women’s organizations, as well as mixed organizations. Moreover, democracy enabled civil society organizations to assert themselves and play an active role in various sectors of national life.

All these organizations have a common will to work towards the fulfilment of their members and improving the living conditions of their population or beneficiaries in the social, economic and political domains, and thereby conduct activities that contribute most significantly to the sustainable development of Cameroon.

Existing associations of active women in several sectors intervene, mostly, in the areas of health and the fight against discrimination against women based on gender equality and equity in all sectors of public life, with emphasis on increasing opportunities for women in elected positions, improving their access to factors of production, and fostering harmony and stability within families, etc.

Associations are undeniable relays to women at the grassroots, on which MINPROFF relies to carry out its mission of empowering the woman. So this Government Department has embarked on an extensive programme of structural and functional improvement of women’s groups, to revitalize women’s associations, through networking according to sector of activity. The first step of this operation was the identification of all women support structures, which led to a list of 10 784 groups and associations, grouped in 249 networks [44] i.e. a total of 263 725 women.

 

These groups, which nurture all categories of women, contribute, by their modus operandi, to the emergence of women leaders in all categories: locally elected officials, entrepreneurs, opinion leaders, etc. who are able to represent women and defend their views in national, sub regional and regional decision-making bodies at somewhat higher levels.

However, these organizations face many challenges, including: at the individual level, the difficulty for their female members to ensure their strategic interests are taken into consideration, lack of self-confidence, low empowerment and low decision-making power. And at the institutional level, lack of accurate planning, poor extension and leadership skills, lack of training in planning, difficult access to information, leadership conflicts, etc. These are all an impediment to a true fulfilment of the woman.

In mixed associations, men occupy key positions, while women’s participation is usually limited to lesser positions. Generally, the income of these associations is controlled by men. Moreover, with respect to community work, women often make up the majority but remain mere underlings.

 

2.4.3. Public affairs management and politics

 

The decentralization process advocates that public affairs and politics should be run at the base. Decentralized communities (municipalities) will become the prime contractors for projects and programmes that communities have approved and selected according to the specific needs of women and men. Women participate in their numbers in the life of political parties but are not involved in management because they have lesser access to elective posts and are poorly represented in decision-making bodies.

2.4.3.1.Participation of women and men in the Executive Arm of Government

 

These include the government, territorial administration and the council executive.

The Cameroon government today (30 June 2009) has 60 members, including 6 women and 54 men, a percentage of 10% for women and 90% for men. Women, underrepresented in this cabinet, are generally assigned portfolios of a social nature. Only one of them holds a position in the research domain.

In territorial administration, disparities are still very noticeable with: over 360 Divisional Officers, 4 women and 356 men, or 1.1% of women against 98.9% of men, 0 woman Senior Divisional Officer of all the 58, i.e. 0 % against 100% of men, 0 female Regional Governor of all the 10, i.e. 0% against 100% of men, 0 female Government Delegate of all the 11, i.e. 0% against 100% of men[45].

The council executive (2007-2012), which is also unfavourable to women, includes: 339 mayors, including 23 women against 316 men, a percentage of 6.8% for women and 93.2% for men, and 15.5% of female councillors against 84.5% of men.

2.4.3.2.Participation of women and men in the Legislative Arm of Government

 

Out of 180 Members of Parliament in the National Assembly for the 2007-2012 legislature, there are 24 women and 155 men, i.e. 13.3% and 86.7% respectively. As regards the administration of this institution, the House Bureau for the 2010 legislative year comprises: 5 Vice-Presidents, including 1 woman and 4 men, 4 Questors, including 1 woman and 3 men, 12 Secretaries, including 5 women and 7 men. With regard to the nine (9) Committees, there is only one (01) female Chairperson as against 8 for men.

The low representation of women in the National Assembly does not enable them to influence national decisions on developmental and gender equality issues. The recent establishment of the Parliamentarian Thematic Group on Gender issues is a god-sent opportunity, and its ability to influence decisions in favour of better integration of the gender dimension into development activities is a challenge.

2.4.3.3.Participation of women and men in the Judicial Arm of Government

The Judiciary is largely held by men[46]. In 2010, of 994 magistrates, 242 were women as against 752 men, i.e. 24.3% of women and 75.7% of men; of 75 High and First Instance Courts, 11 are headed by women and 64 by men, i.e. 14.7% of female Presidents and 85.3% of men. There is only one female Attorney General out of 10, i.e. 10% women and 90% of men, 2 female Prosecutors out of 70 since independence, i.e. 2.9% of women and 97.1% of men; 1 female President of Court of Appeal out of 10 Courts, i.e. 10% of women and 90% of men; no female Attorney General at the Supreme Court out of 10; 6 female Advisers at the Supreme Court out of 51 positions, i.e. 11.8% of women and 88.2% of men.

2.4.3.4.Participation of women and men in Public and Semi Public Administration

 

In public administration, statistics provided by MINFOPRA in 2008 profile the representation as follows: 16.7% of female Secretaries General and officials of similar status in Ministries  as against 83.3% of men; 15.9% of female Directors and officials of similar status, as against 84.1% of men; 21.2% of female Sub-Directors and officials of similar status as against 78.8% of men; 27.8% of female Service Heads as against 72.2% of men; 34.9% of female Bureau Heads as against 65.1% of men and no (0) female Rector of the 7 Universities; out of 21 Vice-Rectors, three are women and 18 are men, i.e. 14.3% of women as against 85.7% of men.

 

In semi-public administration, out of 71 directors general of state corporations, 4 are women and 67 men, being 5.6% women as against 94.4% men.

 

In diplomatic services abroad, only one (1) woman is Ambassador and Head of a Diplomatic Mission out of 36 ambassadors; there is one (1) female judge at the International Criminal Court and one (1) female commissioner for Trade and Industry in the African Union.

 

2.4.3.5.Participation of men and women in Defence and Security Forces

 

The number of female senior military and security officers is on the increase, though our statistics are not exhaustive.

 

In conclusion, the above statistics roughly indicate that there are very few women in decision-making positions. In fact, we are far from achieving the 30% rate advocated at the Beijing Conference.

 

The little presence of women in the management of public affairs and politics, as well as in the family and the community, is due to a number of factors. These include the patriarchal system of society which restricts the woman’s access to some decision-making spheres in the family and in the community in favour of the man, persistent sexist prejudices and socio-cultural values, the woman’s lack of independence, the lack of a woman/man quota policy in the choice of representatives for elections and appointments. The contribution of a large segment of the population is thus neglected, causing a negative impact on national labour productivity and undermining the country’s development.

 

2.5. Situational Analysis of mechanisms for women’s empowerment

 

Mechanisms for women’s empowerment include: public institutions, civil society organizations and development partners.

 

2.5.1. Public Institutions

2.5.1.1. National Mechanism for gender promotion: the ministry in charge of women’s empowerment and gender issues

 

This department was established in 1975 with the creation of a department in charge of women’s affairs. This was later transformed into a ministry in 1984 called the Ministry of Women’s Affairs (MINCOF), the first government ministry with a mandate pertaining to women’s empowerment. After several changes, the latter became the Ministry Women’s Empowerment and Family (MINPROFF) on 8 December 2004.

 

Organized by Decree No. 2005/088 of 29 March 2005, the Ministry of Women’s Empowerment and the Family is responsible for the drafting, implementation and evaluation of measures relating to respect of women’s rights and the protection of the family. To this end, it ensures the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women and the increase in equality guarantees in favour of women in political, economic, social and cultural domains; studies and submits to the Government, conditions facilitating the employment of women in the administration, agriculture, trade and industry; liaising with the relevant national and international policy organizations of women’s empowerment; supervising organizations training women, excluding institutions under the supervisory authority of the Ministries in charge of Education and; studies and proposes strategies and measures aimed at enhancing harmony in families.

 

This mission is carried out through diverse and multifaceted activities such as: advocacy, interpersonal communication, studies and research on the protection of the rights of women and gender issues, the granting of micro-credits, the capacity-building of women, men and families in the economic, social and political domains.

 

However, it should be noted that the appropriate conditions for the coverage of the practical needs and strategic interests of women are not always met.

 

At the organizational level, we note a lack of visibility of gender issues in the very name of the mechanism, which appear on the organization chart under a mere Sub-Department. This poor strategic position of the service in charge of gender is prejudicial to its capacity for coordination, advocacy and leadership required by the multifaceted nature of gender.

 

Such a situation undermines the results of gender mainstreaming in all the sectors concerned. Moreover, the instability of ministers, that is four (4) ministers since 2000, is a factor that destabilizes the mechanism.

 

As concerns human resources allocated to gender, the staff of MINPROFF and its specialized technical units are insufficient in both quantity and quality. Furthermore, they have no proven expertise in gender issues, which makes it difficult for gender to be integrated into policies and programmes.
Equally, infrastructure for socio-economic empowerment and the promotion of women’s rights are proving to be quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient in view of their missions to protect women and the family.

 

Regarding financial resources, those allocated by the State to MINPROFF, despite a slight increase noted since 2006, remain very insignificant compared to the general State budget (0.26% in 2010). The insufficient mastery of Results Based Management (RBM) leads to a low consumption of financial and material resources made available by development partners and the government.

2.5.1.2. Other public administrations

The Presidency of the Republic and the Prime Minister’s Office do not have an official in charge of gender issues. Other ministries, public and semi-public organizations each have a gender focal point responsible for ensuring the operational relay in gender mainstreaming, monitoring systems and advocacy aimed at guaranteeing the consideration of women’s interests in the drafting, implementation and monitoring-evaluation of sector policies.

 

Some ministries and organizations have, within them, services or committees dealing with gender issues, notably: the Ministry of Economy, Planning and Regional Development (Population Policy Unit), the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (Women’s Activities Service), the Ministry of Public Health (Gender Approach Promotion Bureau), the Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Animal Industries (Gender Committee), the National School of Administration and Magistracy (Gender Committee) and the National Commission on Human Rights and Freedoms (Sub-Commission on the Rights of Vulnerable Groups in which MINPROFF is represented).

 

It is also important to note the development, in some universities and other institutions, of gender departments and/or courses leading to the award of certificates in the domain concerned.

 

That notwithstanding, gender focal points established at the level of public administrations do not have the capacity to really influence decisions within their administrations, due to their profiles, their poor strategic position and their lack of institutionalization. These focal points, though benefiting from capacity-building activities on gender issues, do not yet have the means and technical tools to fully play their roles for effective gender mainstreaming and its institutionalization. Where they exist, they continue to suffer from staff shortage where there is just one official, lack of financial resources and their compartmentalization. Moreover, existing gender committees are sporadic and small bodies that have not yet been integrated into organization charts, with limited momentum and advocacy.

 

Focal points and committees do not always fall under services in charge of gender issues in the public, semi-public and private administrations that have them, thus hindering effective action.

 

2.5.1.3. Local Councils

 

Since the adoption of the orientation law on decentralization, Local Councils (LC) are responsible, among other things, for the management and maintenance of Women’s Empowerment Centres (WECs), which are MINPROFF Specialized Technical Units providing local technical and vocational supervision, as well as financial support to women and youth. They face infrastructural difficulties (lack of suitable premises for the services they have to provide), technical difficulties (lack of skilled human resources) and organizational problems (difficulty to collaborate with officials of the Ministries in charge of social affairs).
The contribution expected from Local Councils and Women’s Empowerment Centres (WECs) as Specialized Technical Units of MINPROFF, with regard to reducing inequalities between the sexes, is seriously limited by the lack of qualified and adequate resources to ensure women’s empowerment.

 

2.5.2. Civil society organizations

 

These are nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), associations for the defence of women’s rights, consulting firms, training institutions, research institutes, networks of associations and religious or faith-based organizations as well as the private sector.

 

Cameroon currently has a significant number of women’s groups and institutions for the promotion of women’s rights which help realize the government objective of gender equality and equity

 

For the private sector, the gender-promotion actions developed still have limited visibility. As for CSOs, they have limited capacity due to lack of appropriate human, technical and financial resources. They also lack managerial skills, energy and the government does not coordinate their contributions and some of their actions. They are most often contented with the residual means of their sponsors, the meagre contributions of their members and the sporadic and sometimes highly oriented support of a few development partners.

 

2.5.3. Development Partners

 

Development partners support government efforts by facilitating the attainment of setobjectives for women’s empowerment. Their multifaceted support is consistent with national priorities in the area and focuses on four main aspects, namely: improvement of the living conditions of women; improvement of the socio-legal status of women; promotion of equality and equity between the sexes in all sectors of national life and strengthening of the institutional framework for gender promotion and women’s empowerment.

 

Although deeply committed to the promotion of gender equality, most development partners working in the domain operate in a dispersed and uncoordinated manner. But in 2006, thanks to the Paris Declaration on effective aid, some of them are now grouped into a consultation platform, the Working Group on Gender Equality (WGGE). This has helped to reduce problems of internal collaboration and harmonization of actions between the Government and Civil Society. This group has thus become the Government’s privileged interlocutor.

 

However, the absence of technical and financial partners or their representatives in this group causes the problem of harmonization and synergy of actions to persist. Moreover, dispersed and duplicated interventions remain frequent due to lack of coordination between the ministry in charge of women and gender issues, the other ministries and development partners.

 

The lack of harmonized of procedures between the development partners and between the latter and the Government has resulted in the low consumption of mobilized resources. Furthermore, some representatives of development partners in this group do not monitor only gender in their portfolio, which limits the time devoted to this theme.

 

Finally, the different mechanisms cannot work smoothly, thus slowing progress towards gender equality and women’s empowerment. These difficulties are greatly linked to insufficient human, financial, physical, technical, informational, and organizational resources.

 

2.6. Measures/actions taken to promote gender equality and gender equity

 

Measures relating to the promotion of gender equality are political, legal, economic and socio cultural.

 

2.6.1. Political Measures

 

Political measures for the promotion of gender equality concern the gradual integration of women in the decision-making process especially in Government, Public Administration, state corporations and Diplomacy (Ambassador, Plenipotentiary Ministers). Women have started entering sectors that were once reserved exclusively for men such as territorial command as well as international and regional bodies. Equally, their access to defence forces and the penitentiary administration started taking place gradually from 1984.

 

2.6.2. Legal Measures

Cameroon has ratified almost all international and regional legal instruments on the protection of human rights. These texts have permitted her to carry out actions with positive effects in some social sectors like the education of the girl child, women’s literacy, health (specifically reproductive health) and the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV-AIDS/STI.

 

The beginning of the process to revise national laws with legal vacuums and loopholes as well as discriminatory provisions against women, aims to internalize the texts adopted at international and regional level on gender equity and gender equality.

 

2.6.3. Economic Measures

 

Economic measures for the promotion of gender equality and equity are translated by the development of programmes and projects aimed at the economic empowerment of women and their participation in development. These measures include:

 

–          the  Project for the setting up of a support mechanism for poor women in Women’s Empowerment Centres which, in addition to the various training courses for their self-employment, grants women revolving credits to promote income-generating activities;

–          the Programme for the Improvement of the Rural Family Income (PARFAR), which has resulted in the construction of several Women’s Empowerment Centres and has also improved the ways women are supervised at the local level.

–          the Project for Poverty Reduction and Action in favour of  Women executed in the Far North (PREPAFEN) through which loans have been granted to women’s groups and infrastructure has been provided to improve their living conditions;

–          the Project for the Capacity-Building of Women’s Networks to fight against poverty in the Republic of Cameroon (CAREF) which has helped professionalize networks of women’s organizations through technical and institutional capacity-building actions;

–          the Project to Support the Integration of Women in Micro-Enterprise which, by granting various materials, supports women organized in Common Initiative Groups (CIG) and associations for the realization of their projects in the domains of agriculture, livestock, food processing, handicrafts, etc..

–          the Support Project for Women Entrepreneurs in Rural Areas (PAEFMIR) which helps in the carrying on of income-generating activities for rural women, through actions to enhance the organizational and managerial capacities of rural women’s groups and financing their micro-projects;

–          the National Programme for Participatory Development (NPPD) has put in place mechanisms and fora for participatory planning that promotes the participation of communities in their development, and more especially rural communities;

–          Pilot Centres for Business Development Formalities (CPFC);

–          the  Bank for the  financing of SMEs (MINPMEESA) ;

–          the Support Programme for the creation of processing companies (MINPMEESA);

–          the Support Fund for women’s entrepreneurship (MINPMEESA);

–          the job incubator initiated as a pilot project by MINPMEESA;

–          Actions carried out to guarantee women’s participation in the management of community forests.

 

2.6.4. Socio-cultural Measures

 

In the area of education and training, we can note:

 

–          the Project “Operation 100 000 women by 2012”, which aims to train women in ICT;

–          improved educational services for girls and women;

–          the Cameroon Education Development Capacity-building Project (PASE), which promotes academic excellence for young Muslim girls;

–          the Basic Education Programme;

–          the Support Programme for Girls in Scientific Fields of Study;

–          the Education for All Programme;

–          the provision of free primary education;

–          the National Literacy Programme;

–          Supporting vocational training through scholarships;

–          Facilitating access and retaining girls in fields considered “reserved” for boys;

–          Continuing education for women in employment without qualifications.

 

In the health domain, the health sector strategy focuses on women within the context of reproductive health, whose priority areas are: mother and child health, family planning, the fight against STIs / HIV-AIDS, the fight against breast and genital cancers, care for the reproductive health of adolescents and elderly persons, and the fight against practices that are harmful to women’s health.

 

The Malaria Control Programme responds to a need to care for pregnant women of whom 37.0% suffer from malaria, especially by providing treated mosquito nets and subsidizing generic drugs for the treatment of this disease.

 

The Women-Families Sector Plan for the Fight against STI / HIV-AIDS promotes the social mobilization of women and women’s associations for the fight against STIs and HIV-AIDS as well as the capacity-building of staff and leaders of women’s groups in the domain of communication for behaviour change on the prevention of STI / HIV / AIDS.

 

In the domain of culture, it is important to note the creation of a special allocation account to support cultural policy and encourage excellence in the creation, production and dissemination of intellectual works.

 

2.7. Results

 

The steps taken to promote gender equality and equity have yielded significant results in the areas of education, health and environment, economy, employment and vocational training, decision-making and participation in public life, law and women’s rights.

 

2.7.1. Education, health and environment

 

In the area of education, families and communities now see the advantages of girl education thanks to increased awareness campaigns, advocacy, social mobilization and encouragement from development partners. School enrolment ratios have improved, apart from pockets of resistance in the northern and East regions and in the cities of Douala and Yaounde.

 

In health, the implementation of the government’s public health strategy has had poor results with health indicators pointing to an increase in the prevalence of HIV-AIDS/STI and maternal mortality as well as low penetration of modern contraceptive methods.

 

In the area of the environment, efforts for increased consideration of the gender dimension in the sector by MINEP and MINFOF have resulted since 2008, in the organization of many capacity-building activities for their staff and the incorporation of gender in some programmes such as the Forest and Environment Sector Programme (FESP).

 2.7.2. Economy, employment and vocational training

 

Despite the feminization of poverty, certain actions carried out to promote female entrepreneurship and fight poverty have contributed in improving the situation of women. We note that women are better informed on credit and investment opportunities thanks to the periodic publication of a guide for the female entrepreneur and other specialized journals, and the organization of many training workshops to encourage cross-border trade and partnerships with socio-professional sectors abroad.

 

Local vocational training institutions have been set up nationwide.: 84 Women’s Empowerment Centres and 1 Appropriate Technology Centre (ATC), home-workshops and Rural Artisan Sections / Home Economics Sections (RAS / HEC) that help the social rehabilitation and professional integration of women and girls who dropped out of the formal school system. The number of beneficiary women and girls increased from 13 000 to 450 000 between 2005 and 2010, and 2930 women’s micro-projects were financed between 2006 and 2009.

 

Other initiatives in the area of vocational training and employment also benefit youth of both sexes. These are mainly: multimedia centres, vocational training centres, functional literacy centres and programmes like the Support Programme for Rural and Urban Youth (U-PAJER), the Integrated Support Project for Stakeholders of the Informal Sector (PIAS), the Project for the Socio-Economic Integration of youth through the creation of micro-enterprises for the Production of Sport Materials (PIFMAS), the Multifunctional Centre for the Promotion of Youth (CMPJ).

 

In addition, there are the results achieved thanks to initiatives developed by civil society organizations and the private sector.

 

However, as concerns micro-credits granted to women to develop their income-generating activities, they had rather poor results. In most cases, these aids did not create the desired impact which is the economic empowerment of the beneficiaries. Women still have limited access to funding and continue to depend on financing with interest, short repayment periods, no grace periods, small credits and the difficulties in selling products.

 

Although the impact is still insignificant, the actions carried out  within the context of vocational training have provided girls with access to the following fields of study in 2009-2010: boiler work (1); industrial electricity (2); metal work construction (15), coastal shipping (2), welding / piping (2), etc..

 

Furthermore, the difficulties women face in obtaining bank loans, unlike men, stem from the problems they face in meeting the eligibility requirements (guarantees) and their low propensity to incur debt or take risks.

 

2.7.3. Decision making and participation in public life

 

Government efforts over the past decade have culminated in the entry of women in territorial command, an option that breaks with the past where the administrative authority was embodied exclusively by men. In the municipal executive and parliament, we also note a slight increase in the number of women. They are increasingly numerous in the Defence and Security Forces, where they sometimes hold high level decision-making positions. Also, they are now in the traditional command as rulers or paramount chiefs.

 

2.7.4. Legislation and Women’s Rights

 

The legal status of women has gradually improved thanks to the ratification of international and regional instruments on the protection of their rights and the promulgation of specific laws in their favour.

 

The legal aid system, established within the framework of Law No. 2009/4 of 14 April 2009 on the organization of legal aid grants, among others, legal assistance to any unemployed and destitute person abandoned by their spouse. It offers the woman, most often destitute, the possibility to avail herself of her rights. To this end, the involvement of the ministry in charge of gender issues within legal aid commissions set up in the different jurisdictions is a step forward in the protection of the rights of the woman and the family.

 

Civil society organizations also provide assistance to women by setting up legal clinics, counselling and support centres and carrying out public awareness activities on women’s rights.

 

2.8. Limitations of actions taken

 

Despite the multifaceted actions taken to promote gender equity and equality, we notice limitations at the political, economic, legal, and socio-cultural levels.

 

2.8.1. Development policies

 

At the economic level, the factors that limit actions to promote gender equality and equity are: the conditions and criteria for access to means of production which are an obstacle for women (access to credit, access to land, (access to specialised education) appropriate techniques and technology) and a poorly organized informal sector where women are most active. This increases the feminization of poverty.

 

2.8.2. Economics

 

At the economic level, the factors that limit actions to promote gender equality and equity are: the conditions and criteria for access to means of production which are an obstacle for women (access to credit, access to land, appropriate techniques and technology, unsustainable management of limited resources, lack of control over means of production) and the lack of organization in the informal sector where women are most active. This fosters the
feminization of poverty.

 

2.8.3. Legal Affairs

 

Limitations in the implementation of the law deprive women of their legal rights, resulting in a negative impact on their development on all fronts. The main limitations identified are:

 

The non-ratification by Cameroon of certain legal instruments in favour of women: the Convention on the Rights of Disabled Persons, the Convention on the Rights of All Migrant Workers and their Families, the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, etc.

 

Lack of harmonization of internal legislation with international legal instruments: the internal legislation in force in several of its provisions does not conform to international legal instruments ratified by Cameroon on the promotion and protection of human rights in general, and women’s rights in particular. Indeed, there are not only discriminatory provisions against women (marriage age, administration and property management, practice of a separate profession by the woman, repression of adultery, possibility given to the rape perpetrator to marry his victim), but also legal loopholes (no definition of the concept of discrimination against women, non-repression of  the specific forms of violence they suffer, no regulation on engagement, and the non-clarification of the effects of matrimonial systems);

the insufficient dissemination of legal instruments on the promotion and protection of women’s rights: legal instruments, both national and international, are not sufficiently known by women. In addition, personnel responsible for the implementation of the rights contained in these instruments do not always take into account the decisions made. This not only poses a problem for the applicability of the texts, but also limits the enjoyment by women of their recognized fundamental human rights;

 

poor implementation of the legal and statutory provisions in force: legal practice is not always favourable to the recognition of women’s rights. This is partly due to the resistance of judges to implement international legal instruments, whereas the Constitution and ratified international treaties and conventions have prevalence over national legislation in matters of human rights. In principle, the clear and unequivocal provisions of international instruments are implemented immediately upon the entry into force of these texts. The latter must therefore be applied where there is conflict with national law or a legal vacuum. This is not always the case in practice;

 

the coexistence of written law and custom: the judicial system in force provides for customary courts and modern law courts. Cases in traditional courts are tried using customs which vary from one region to another. Cases before modern courts are tried under written law. This differentiation has repercussions for women, in the sense that the customs referred to do not favour them in most cases.

 the reluctance of some legal actors: the attitude of some stakeholders in the legal world, notably judicial police officers and medical staff, does not always encourage women to have recourse to justice in case of violations of their rights. For instance, it was noted that these officers and medical staff take lightly problems of domestic and family violence as well as sexual assaults;

 

the difficulties for women to assert their rights: women generally have difficulties in mastering the provisions of instruments in their favour. Even when they know these laws, they have trouble enforcing them for fear of being shunned in the society, leading to their resignation. Hence, many women who suffer violations of their rights do not dare denounce them, let alone take legal action.

 

2.8.4. Social Affairs

 

Despite measures taken to advance women, several factors compromise their social welfare and worsen their vulnerability, notably:

 

–          early and forced marriages;

–          the persistence of customs and cultural values contributing to the school drop out of girls;

–          failure to control the sexuality and the woman’s body (the woman’s body and sexuality) by the woman herself ;

–          the lack of interest by families, communities and the girls themselves in scientific fields of study; (the unfavourable playground for promoting women and girls in scientific fields of study);

–          the feminization of HIV-AIDS/STI;

–          the insufficient provision of reproductive health services, early motherhood, close and excessive births due to false beliefs,  the poor knowledge of modern contraception techniques, the lack of information on sex education for women and men, girls and boys, unassisted childbirths, illegal abortions;

–          the low (inadequate- in terms of beneficiaries and amount) social insurance coverage;

–          the pressures (demands) on women when looking for employment and negotiating a labour contract exposes them to different forms of abuse traditionally recognized in the workplace, thereby increasing their vulnerability to gender-based violence.

 

2.8.5. Institutions

 

Cameroon has ratified almost all international conventions on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, but their application is still timid for the following reasons:

 

–          the lack of comparative analysis strategies and tools for gender equality (GE) or assessment of differential impacts in terms of GE in national programmes, projects, policies and budgets;

–          the lack of synergy and coordination of actions between the Ministry (MINPROFF), development partners and civil society;

–          the unclear overall gender institutional and regulatory framework in Cameroon, a situation attributable to the absence of a national policy on gender, leading to disorderly interventions;

–          the absence of a gender component in policies and its unenviable place in the organization chart of MINPROFF;

–          the lack of consideration for gender in the Medium-Term Expenditure Frameworks of government programmes;

–          weak institutional memory systems which cannot sustainably capitalize achievements.

 

Institutionalizing the gender approach by removing the difficulties mentioned above would enable Cameroon to achieve a sustainable, effective and equitable human development.

 

2.9. Stakes and Challenges

 

From the situational analysis of gender issues in Cameroon, it emerges that the status of women is not sufficiently valued at all levels. The NGP focuses on key issues and challenges to be considered as levers for the establishment of an egalitarian society between women and men.

 

The stakes to consider are:

 

–          the development of women’s resources;

–          the equal participation of women and men in governance at all levels;

–          the economic empowerment of women in urban and rural areas;

–          the extension of social protection to segments of the population that are not covered;

–          the effective enjoyment and exercise by women of their rights;

–          the equal access of women and men, girls and boys to education;

–          access to basic social services;

–          the improvement of mother and child health;

–          the existence of a sustainable and healthy environment.

The challenges to be met include:

 

–          the eradication of socio-cultural constraints that are unfavourable to the establishment of an egalitarian society;

–          the eradication of gender-based violence;

–          the provision of adequate basic social services;

–          the eradication of the feminization of HIV-AIDS/STI;

–          the elimination of poverty among women;

–          the education, training and information of women, especially those in rural areas;

–          (the education and training of women in specialised scientific and technology fields of study)

–          the reduction of maternal and child mortality;

–          the implementation of legal instruments for the promotion and protection of women’s rights;

–          the eradication of practices that destroy the environment.


[1]               NIS/ECAM 3 (2006)

[2]               NIS/HDS 3 (2004)

[3]               BUCREP/GPHC 3 (2010)

[4]

[5]               NIS/HDS 3, 2004

[6]               UNDP, Global Report on Human Development (GRHD), 2007/2008.

[7]               NIS/DHS III (2004)

[8]               MINEDUB, statistical yearbook 2008/2009

[9]               MINEDUC /DPRD/SDP and MINEDUB

[10]             MINESUP and NIS, Higher Education statistical yearbook,

 

[11]             MINEFOP,  Vocational Training Report 2009

[12]             MINEFOP, Vocational Training Report

[13]             NIS/DHS II and III

[14]             NIS/DHS II and III

[15]             NIS/DHS III 2004

[16]             NIS/DHS III, 2004

[17]             MINSANTE, National Strategic Plan for the fight against HIV-AIDS/STIs 2010/2011

[18]             UNDP, National Report on Human Development 2007-2008

[19]             Levirate consists in forcing a brother-in-law to marry the widow of his deceased brother, whereas sororate enables a widower to marry the sister of his deceased wife.

[20]             NIS/DHS III 2004

[21]             UNESCO/UNFPA, Violences à l’égard des femmes au Cameroun : Connaissance, attitudes et pratiques, Mai 2001

[22]             UNESCO/UNFPA,  « La violence à l’égard des femmes au Cameroun, Connaissances, attitudes et pratiques»,

Rapport final, Mai 2001, P. 5

[23]             RENATA/ GTZ,  Etude sur le viol et l’inceste au Cameroun, 2008

[24]             UN/Programme of action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)

 

[25]             ILO

[26]             BUCREP/3rd GPHC 2010

[27]             MINCOF, Women’s empowerment sector strategy, Working document, 2004

[28]             BUCREP/3rd GPHC -2010

[29]             IOM,  booklet prepared within the framework of the Project «  Promoting the protection of domestic workers and victims of trafficking in Cameroon »

[30]             NIS/ECAM III

[31]             NIS /ECAM I and II

[32]             NIS/ECAM III

[33]             According to UN Convention on the Rights of Children

[34]             BUCREP, GPHC – 2005

[35]             NIS/EESI-2005

[36]             BUCREP/ 3rd GPHC- 2010

[37]             NIS/DHS 3, 2004

[38]             NIS/DHS 3, 2004

[39]             NIS/DHS 3, 2004

[40]             Convention No. 102 of ILO, minimum standards for social security, 1952

[41]             Gnetum africanum

[42]             Article 229, CIMA Code

[43]             NIS/ECAM III-2006

[44] MINPROFF/SG/DEPC/December 2004

[45]             MINATD 2010

[46]             MINJUSTICE/Higher Judicial Council, July 2010

PART THREE

FOUNDATION OF THE NATIONAL GENDER POLICY

 3.1. Foundation of the National Gender Policy

The National Gender Policy is founded on various international, regional and sub-regional commitments advocating gender equality and the protection of women’s rights.

At the international level, the National Gender Policy is based on legal instruments that have been ratified by Cameroon (treaties and conventions relating to basic human rights and gender equality) but also on resolutions and recommendations from international conferences.

At the regional level, it derives mainly from the constituent act of the African Union and the Declaration of African Head of States of the African Union on equality between women and men.

 

At the national level, the National Gender Policy is sustained by the fundamental Law, programme-oriented speeches of the Head of State and guidelines from reference documents such as the 2035 Vision and the GESP.

 

 3.2. The National Gender Policy vision

 

The National Gender Policy vision stems from Cameroon’s long term vision by 2035 which reads as follows : “ Cameroon: an emerging, democratic country, united in its diversity”.

 

It is couched as follows: Cameroon an emerging country, built on the principles of good governance, where women and men enjoy the same rights and participate in development in an equitable and equal manner.

 

3.3.  Values and principles

 

The National Gender Policy is based on values such as: equality, equity, social justice and good governance which result in the following guiding principles:

 

–          Gender equality should be a constituent element of all policies, all programmes and projects;

–          achieving gender equality does not imply that women and men are identical;

–          empowering women is essential for the achievement of gender equality;

–     promoting the participation of women as agents of change in economic, social and political processes is indispensable for the achievement of gender equality;

–          men /women partnership as well as measures to eliminate gender-based discriminationcontribute in achieving equality between women and men.

 

3.4: Purpose

The purpose of the National Gender Policy is to promote an impartial and egalitarian society for women and men in order to ensure sustainable development.

 

  

    3.5: General Objective

The general objective of the National Gender Policy is to contribute to the systematic elimination of inequalities between women and men at all levels.

 

    3.6: Specific Objectives

The following specific objectives will contribute to achieving the general objective mentioned above:

  1. Create a favourable environment for the social (economic and political) protection of women and men and their equal access to social (public) services;
  2. Ensure equal rights and opportunities to men and women regarding access and control of resources;
  3. Create favourable conditions for equal participation of women and men in development activities;
  4. Ensure effective institutionalization of gender.

3.4.         Strategic Aspects of the National Gender policy

 

The objectives of the National Gender Policy are aimed at solving major problems identified in the sectors selected. Six (6) strategic aspects have been identified in these problems and broken down into intervention objectives and strategies in the matrix as follows:

 

  1. Strategic Aspect No 1: Promot(e) ion of equal access of girls and boys, women and men to education, training and information.
  2. Strategic Aspect No 2: Improvement of women’s access to health services, particularly with regard to reproductive health.
  3. Strategic Aspect No 3: Promot(e) ion of equal opportunities for women and men in the economic and employment sectors.
  4. Strategic Aspect No 4: Promot(e) ion of a favourable socio-cultural environment for the respect of women’s rights.
  5. Strategic Aspect No 5: Enhancement of women’s participation and representation in public life and decision making.
  6. Strategic Aspect No 6: Strengthening the institutional framework for gender promotion.

 

Domain : EducationMain Problem: Unequal access of girls/women and boys/men to educationStrategic Aspect No 1: Promotion of equal access of girls and boys, women and men to education, training and information.
Expected outcome General Objective Specific Objectives (in 10 years)  Strategies
 

 

 

 

 

Girls and boys, women and men gain equal access to education, training and information.

 

 

 

 

 

Ensure equal access of girls and boys, women and men to education, vocational training and information.

  • Improve the perception of girl’s education and schooling at the level of families and communities, especially in Education Priority Areas (EPAs) and rural areas.

 

  • Reduce the rate of school dropout affecting girls.

 

  • Reduce the illiteracy rate among women from 35% to 10%.

 

  • Encourage girls’ and women’s access to ICTs
  • I.E.C/C.B.C. in communities and families on the importance of girls’ education.

 

  • Strengthening of partnership between the school, families, communities, and opinion leaders for better management of girls’ education.

 

  • Inclusion of the gender approach in training curricula at all levels.

 

  • Fight against sexist stereotypes in textbooks and practices.

 

  • Encouragement of girls’ school attendance.

 

  • Functional literacy.

 

  • Training in ICTs.

 

  • Partner with NGOs and other stakeholders to develop and implement strategies that enhance girls/womens participation in scientific endeavours

 

  • The valorisation of women’s specific educational orientation

 

 

 

 

 

 

Domain : HealthMain Problem: Poor access of women to quality health services Strategic Aspect No 2: Improvement of women’s access to health services, particularly with regard to reproductive health.

Expected outcome

General Objective

Specific Objectives (in 10 years)

Strategies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Better  women’s access to health services, particularly reproductive health

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Improve women’s access to health services, particularly reproductive health

  • Reduce the maternal mortality rate to at least 50%.

 

  • Reduce HIV / AIDS prevalence among women from 6.8% to 3%.

 

  • Ensure comprehensive management of infected pregnant women and young girls.

 

  • Ensure health and nutritional education for women and young girls.

 

  • Reduce 1/3 of maternal mortality due to malaria.

 

  • Improve the contraceptive use prevalence of women of child bearing age.

 

  • Ensure the involvement of men and boys in the management of reproductive health and HIV/ AIDS / STI issues.
  • IEC/CBC on reproductive health and nutrition

 

  • Socialization of medical care for women and young girls, especially pregnant women.

 

  • Intensification of campaigns to roll back malaria, HIV and other illnesses.

 

  • Advocate for appropriate road infrastructure to medical units in all areas

 

  • Cooperate with NGOs that address maternal mortality including the provision of health units to rural communities

 

  • Target the special gender needs of men in relation HIV/AIDS and male responsibility in reproductive health

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sector : Economy / EmploymentMain Problem : Unequal access of women and men to economic opportunities and productive resourcesStrategic Aspect No 3: Promotion of equal opportunities for women and men in the economic and employment sectors.

Expected outcome

General Objectives

Specific Objectives (in 10 years)

Strategies

 

 

 

 

Women gain access to means of production and economic opportunities and control these means in much the same manner as men

 

 

 

 

Ensure equal opportunities for men and women in the economic and employment sectors

  • Bring the poverty rate among women to 28.7%, down from 40.2%. (what are the measures of poverty?  If none;  how can they be measured)

 

  • Ensure access to and control of means of production by women even in rural areas.

 

  • Reduce inequality between women and men in employment and vocational training.

 

  • Build women’s entrepreneurship capacities.

 

 

 

 

  • Institutional support (training courses, various donations, promotion of female savings, promotion of MFI for women).

 

  • Partnership development to empower women economically.

 

  • Positive discrimination in favour of women in employment and recruitment (in both public and private enterprises/institutions).

 

  • Promotion of female entrepreneurship.

 

  • Setting up of an aid and support fund for women’s activities.

 

  • Ensure that issues of particular need to women and girls are addressed in economic planning including infrastructure, electrification and ICTs

 

  • Transform women’s empowerment and family centres to appropriately target women’s productive work

 

 

 

 

Sector: LawMain Problem : Unfavourable socio-cultural environment for the respect of women’s rights Strategic Aspect No 4:  Promotion of a favourable socio-cultural environment for the respect of women’s right.

Desired situation

General Objective

Specific Objectives (in 10 years)

Strategies

 

 

 

 

 

 

Women’s rights are better known and respected

 

 

 

 

 

 

Create a favourable socio-cultural environment for the protection and promotion of  the rights of women and young girls

 

  • Popularize women’s rights and related legal instruments.

 

  • Reduce by half the prevalence rate of violence against women including FGM.

 

  • Ensure the management of victims and (proprose appropriate penalty measures for) GBV perpetrators even during periods of humanitarian crisis.

 

  • Harmonize national legislation with international and regional legal instruments for the protection of women’s rights.

 

  • Ensure effective implementation of texts relating to the protection of women’s rights.

 

  • Ensure the management of specific problems encountered by rural women and widows.
  • IEC/CBC for the consideration of women’s and girls’ rights within families and communities.
  • Capacity building for men and women on the rights and the means of prevention of gender based violence (GBV).

 

  • Popularization of legal instruments for the protection of women’s rights.

 

  • Propose and promote appropriate penalties for perpetrators of GBV

 

  • Review of legal provisions that are discriminatory to women.

 

  • Drafting of more egalitarian laws.

 

  • Advocacy among administrative, traditional and religious authorities for the elimination of discrimination and GBV.

 

  • Capacity building for social workers on gender.

 

  • Varied assistance to rural women and widows.

 

  • Implementation of relevant observations and resolutions, treaties and special procedures.

 

  • Data collection on gender based violence within public and private spheres

 

 

Sector: GovernanceMain Problem: Unequal participation and representation of men and women in public life and decision making Strategic Aspect No 5 : Enhancement of women’s participation and representation in public life and decision making spheres

Expected outcome

General Objective

Specific Objectives (in 10 years)

Strategies

 

 

 

 

Women are better represented and they fully participate in the public and political life of the nation.

 

 

 

 

Ensure women’s participation and representation in public life and decision making spheres.

  • Systematize the 30% minimum   quota principle  for women at the level of:

 

–          The National Assembly

–          The Government

–          Council Executives

–          Diplomatic services

–          Defence and security forces

–          Territorial command (administration)

–          Judicial administration

–          Strategic positions in the administration

–          State enterprises

 

  • Capacity building for women in leadership.

 

  • Advocacy among leaders and decision makers for the application of the minimum 30% quota system for the participation of women in decision making.

 

  • Positive discrimination for women to fill 30% quota

 

  • IEC/CBC among women for their involvement in public and political life.

 

  • Training of women on political issues.

 

  • Partner with NGOs for capacity building

 

 

 

Sector: Gender promotionMain Problem :  Poor impact of intervention in favour of equality and equity between men and womenStrategic Aspect No 6 : Institutional Reinforcement 

Expected outcome

General Objective

Specific Objectives (in 10 years)

Strategies

 

 

Taking into account the different needs of men and women becomes a reality in all sectors of national life.

 

 

 

Improve the institutional framework for the promotion of gender and governance

  • Ensure the consideration of gender specificities in sector policies and budgets.

 

  • Reinforce national expertise on gender.

 

  • Reinforce efficiency in monitoring the implementation of international and regional recommendations on gender.

 

  • Ensure the consideration of gender in policies, programmes and projects.

 

  • Increase resources allocated to gender programmes and projects.

 

  • Capacity building for institutions on gender.

( not clear)

 

  • Advocacy among decision makers for the consideration of gender in policies, strategies, programmes and projects.

 

  • Partnership development and capacity building.

 

  • Promotion of Gender budgeting.

 

  • Advocate for policies and laws that promote women’s ownership of land and provide equitable treatment for women in obtaining credit

 

 

                                                           PART FOUR

 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK AND IMPLEMENTATION

MECHANISMS OF THE NATIONAL GENDER POLICY

 

 

4.1.1. Inter-ministerial Committee

 

The inter-ministerial committee, which is the steering committee, shall be responsible for the general coordination, orientation and management of the National Gender Policy. Presided over by the Prime Minister Head of Government, it shall be made up of all sector ministries. It shall meet once a year depending on the report on gender issues presented by the National Mechanism for the promotion of equality between women and men.

                                                                                                                                              

 

4.1.2. Technical Committee

 

A Technical Committee shall be created to support the Ministry in charge of women’s empowerment and gender in implementing the National Gender Policy. More specifically, it shall have to:

 

·         Ensure proper communication between the various actors involved in the implementation of the National Gender Policy by convening quarterly meetings;

·         Assist MINPROFF in drafting documents of the Steering Committee;

·         Assist in research and  mobilization of internal and external financial resources as well as in creating data banks on the various stakes of the National Gender Policy;

·         Participate in the monitoring/evaluation of the National Gender Policy;

·         Ensure implementation of Steering Committee directives.

 

Presided over by the Ministry in charge of promoting equality between women and men, in conjunction with the Ministry in charge of planning, development and international technical cooperation, the Technical Committee shall be made up of representatives of the various ministries, having at least the rank of Director in the central administration, social partners (employees and employers) and civil society organizations. It shall meet twice a year. 

 

The Technical Committee shall execute its tasks on the basis of a multi-sectorial plan of action earlier drafted using the participatory approach. Priority actions shall be identified in this multi-sectorial plan to serve as sequential and yearly working programmes. 

Gender Focal points from the various sector ministries shall also represent their respective ministries on the Committee.

 

The Technical Committee shall be relayed on the field by regional, divisional and sub-divisional committees which, like the Technical Committee, shall be made up of representatives of decentralized services of the sector ministries, decentralized public authorities and the civil society.

 

4.1.3. Technical Secretariat

 

Placed under the supervision of the ministry in charge of women’s empowerment and gender promotion, the Technical Secretariat shall be presided over by the Secretary General of the said ministry and shall hold quarterly meetings. It shall be responsible, inter alia, for:

 

·         Coordinating interventions within the framework of the implementation of the National Gender Policy;

·         Maintaining dialogue with stakeholders in the implementation of the National Gender Policy;

·         Preparing supporting documentation for the  mobilization of resources to fund the National Gender Policy programmes;

·         Participating in programming with the State and development partners;

·         Drafting evaluation reports on implementation of the National Gender Policy as well as annual reports on the situation of gender equality and equity in Cameroon;

·         Ensuring the creation of a data base on the situation of women and men and its regular updating;

·         Proposing legislative and statutory measures to the Inter-ministerial Committee on gender equality and equity, in conjunction with the Ministry in charge of women’s empowerment;

·         Carrying out mid-term and annual evaluation of the implementation of the National Gender Policy, together with the partners;

·         Organizing the Steering Committee’s meetings;

·         Organizing the Steering Committee’s Secretariat.

 

For an effective coordination of activities, the Technical Secretariat shall establish collaboration protocols with the various stakeholders.

 

4.2. Implementation mechanisms

 

In the regions, general coordination will be overseenby Governors while the Regional Delegates in charge of women’s empowerment and gender promotion will be responsible for technical coordination.

 

Regional Committees in charge of the policy’s implementation and follow-up shall be created. They shall operate along the lines of the multi-sectorial plan of action, under the coordination of the Governors.

 

Regional committee reports shall be submitted to the technical coordination committee, which shall in turn submit a quarterly report to the inter-ministerial committee, on the recommendation of the Technical Committee.

4.3. Commitments of the stakeholders

 

The success of this Policy will depend on the firm commitment of all the stakeholders, notably: political, administrative, traditional, religious and moral authorities, NGOs, the civil society, the private sector and development partners.

 

 NGOs and other associations or groups will most often be solicited, especially local development committees and village committees. The population, especially women and young girls who are the actors and main beneficiaries of this policy will be involved in the design and implementation of the multi-sectorial action plan.

 

 

1.1 Monitoring and evaluation of implementation of the National Gender Policy

The Government will put in place a mechanism to monitor the activities to ensure continuous evaluation which is useful for the improvement of plans and programmes that have been designed from the National Gender Policy strategies at the national, regional and sector levels. Monitoring and evaluation will also contribute to building and improving the managerial capacities of all the institutions engaged in the implementation of drawn up plans and programmes.

 

The overall evaluation will consist in measuring the results on the basis of each sector’s general and specific objectives. This evaluation will be done within a given period, on a specific domain and with fixed objectives, so as to facilitate the evaluation of programmes going on and make possible adjustments. Small scale sample surveys will be carried out regularly as a major part of this evaluation. 

 

Monitoring/ evaluation activities will be carried on regularly as decided by the Technical Committee.  The principles of Results-Based Management and programming based on human rights will guide the monitoring/evaluation of this policy.

 

The following monitoring /evaluation mechanisms are proposed to support the organs thus defined:

 

          Collaboration protocols between the national mechanism and other partners;

 

          An information system on gender issues at the national level;

 

          Monitoring/evaluation reports on implementation of the National Gender Policy by stakeholders;

 

          Annual situational report to be submitted to the Prime Minister;

 

          Thematic arguments on gender issues in all aspects of political, economic, social and cultural  life, to support advocacy for the creation of an institutional environment favourable to gender promotion and its integration into development;

 

          Periodic review, follow-up assignments, control and auditing.

 

 

 

NGPD DRAFTING TEAM ANDSPONSORS


DRAFTING TEAM

 

General supervision:

Technical secretariat:

Consultants:

Reading/proofreading committee:

PARTNERS


REFERENCES

 

ILO, Étude sur Genre et Marché de l’emploi au Cameroun, 2007

United Nations/Cameroon Committee for the Elimination of Discrimination against Women,  A single report (counting as second and third progress reports) of State parties, Examination of reports presented by State parties according to article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women, 2007

National Institute of Statistics, Information on the three Surveys on Cameroonian Households (ECAM) 1996, 2001, 2007, Yaoundé, Cameroon

National Institute of Statistics, Demography and Health Survey in Cameroon (EDS III), 2004Yaoundé, Cameroon

National Institute of Statistics, 2008 Statistics Directory

GTZ – RENATA, Rape and incest in Cameroon, Yaounde, 2009

Ministry of Economy, Planning and Regional Development, National Institute of Statistics of Cameroon/UNDP, National Progress Report on the Millennium Development Goals, 2008

Ministry of Women’s Empowerment and the Family, Strategy of the Ministry of Women’s Empowerment and the Family II, Strategy of the domain, 2008 draft

Ministry of Women’s Empowerment and the Family/ACBF, CAREF Projet, Étude sur la participation des femmes à la vie publique au Cameroun, 2010

UNDP, Rapport national sur le développement humain 2008/2009 Cameroun : le défi de la réalisation des objectifs du millénaire pour le développement, 2009

Republic of Cameroon, Cameroon Vision by 2035, Ministry of Economy, Planning and Regional Development of the  Republic of Cameroon, Yaounde, Cameroon, 2009

Republic of Cameroon, Growth and Employment Strategy Paper (GESP), Yaounde, Cameroon, 2009

Republic of Cameroon, Matrices sectorielles, Yaounde, Cameroon, 2009

Republic of Cameroon, Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), Yaounde, Cameroon, 2004

Republic of Cameroon; Sectorial Strategy Document on Health, Ministry of Public Health, Yaounde, Cameroon, 2008

Republic of Cameroon, MINADER, Strategy Document on Rural Sector Development (SDRSD), Yaounde, Cameroon, 2005

Republic of Cameroon (MINEDUB-MINESEC-MINEFOP-MINESUP), Education-wide Sector Strategy, Yaounde, Cameroon, 2006

Republic of Cameroon, Social Sector Strategy Document, Yaounde, Cameroon, 2006

Republic of Cameroon, 3rd Report on the presentation of final results of the  GPHC, 2010

UNFPA, Analyse du cadre juridique régissant les droits de la femme et de la fille au Cameroun,  2009  (draft report)

UNFPA, État des lieux de la prise en compte du genre dans les politiques, programmes et projets du Cameroun, 2009 (draft report)

UNFPA, État des lieux des violences basées sur le genre au Cameroun, 2009 (draft report)

UNFPA, L’étude sur l’état des lieux des mutilations génitales féminines au Cameroun, 2009 (draft report)

 

 

 

 

4.1 Institutional framework

 

The institutional framework for implementing the national gender policy is described in the diagram below:

PARTNERS

        Sector Ministries

        Gender focal points

        Civil Society Organizations

        Development Partners

 

 

     INTERMINISTERIAL COMMITTEE

 

Presided over by the Prime Minister,

Head of Government

TECHNICAL COMMITTEE

·         Presided over by the Ministry in charge of women’s empowerment and gender promotion

 

·          In conjunction with the Ministry in charge of planning,  regional development and international technical cooperation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                    

                             

TECHNICAL SECRETARIAT

Presided over by the Secretary General of the Ministry in charge of women’s empowerment and gender promotion

 

 

 

                                                                                                               

REGIONAL GENDER COMMITTEES

Presided over by the Regional Governors

Regional Delegates in charge of women’s empowerment and gender promotion are responsible for the technical coordination

Sector  Regional Delegates Régionaux sectoriels

·         Decentralized      Public

Authorities

 

·         Civil Society Organizations

 DIVISIONAL GENDER COMMITTEES

Presided over by Divisional Officers

  Divisional

  Delegates 

SUB-DIVISIONAL             GENDER COMMITTEES

Presided over by Sub-Divisional Officers

 

Sub-Divisional Delegates

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                

TARGET POPULATION:

(Communities, families, women, the youth, vulnerable groups)

 

 

 

 

 

               


Law on Decentralisation

REPUBLIC OF CAMEROON                                                                                                                                    PEACE – WORK –FATHERLAND

 

 

LAW No 2004/017 OF 22 JULY 2004

ON THE ORIENTATION OF DECENTRALISATION

 

 

The National Assembly deliberated and adopted,

The President of the Republic hereby enacts the

Law set out below: 

PART 1

 

GENERAL PROVISION

 

Section 1: this law on the orientation of decentralization lays down general rules applicable to decentralization

Section 2:

(1)   Decentralization shall consist of devolution by the state of special powers and appropriate resource to regional and local authorities

(2)    Decentralization shall constitute the basic driving force for promotion of development, democracy and good governance and local level

Section 3:

(1)   The regional and local authorities of  the Republic shall be the regions and councils

(2)    They shall carryout their activities with due respect for national unity. Territorial integrity and the primacy of the state

(3)   Any other such authority  shall be created by law

 

Section 4:

(1)   Regional and local authorities shall be corporate bodies governed by public law. They shall be endowed with administrative and financial autonomy for the management of regional and local interests. In that financial autonomy for the management of regional and local interests. In that capacity, the mission of their councils or boards shall be to promote economic social; health; educational; cultural and sports development in their respective areas of jurisdiction.

(2)   Regional and local authorities shall administered freely by elected boards under condition lad down by law

(3)   They shall comprise executive elected from within the boards preferred to n paragraph (2) above, except otherwise provided by law

(4)   The region and the council shall settle matters falling within their jurisdiction by deliberation

 

Section 5: Regional and local authorities may, within the framework of the missions defined in Section 4 (1) above, carry out projects in partnership with one another with the State public establishments, public and semi-public enterprises, non-governmental organizations, and civil society or foreign  partners under and conditions laid down by their specific regulations.

Section 6: The President of the Republic may as and when necessary:

  1. Modify the names and geographical boundaries of regions
  2. Set up other regions. In such a case, he shall name them and set their geographical boundaries

 

Section 7: Any devolution of power to a regional or local authority shall be accompanied by the transfer by the State to the former, of the necessary resources and means for the normal exercise of the power so devolved

 

Section 8: The devolution of power provided for by this law shall not authorize a regional or local authority to establish or exercise supervisory power over another

 

Section 9:

(1)The devolution and sharing of power between regional or local authorities shall distinguish between the power devolving upon regions and those devolving upon councils

(2) The devolution and sharing of powers provided for in Section 9 (1) above   shall be consistent with the principles of subsidiarity, progressiveness and complementarity’s

 

Section 10:

(1)   The State shall exercise supervisory powers over regional and local authorities.

(2)   The State shall ensure the harmonious development of all regional and local authorities on the basis of national solidarity, regional and council potentials and inter-regional and inter-council balance.

 

Section 11: The regional or local authorities shall not be liable where the representative of the State substitutes for the chief executive of the region or council under conditions laid down by law.

Section 12: Regional and local authorities may set up or join various groupings within the framework of their missions, in accordance with the laws applicable in each case

 

Section 13:

(1)   Any natural person or corporate body may propose to the regional or local authority executive any measures aimed at fostering the development ad or improving the functioning of the regional or local authority concerned.

(2)   Any inhabitant or taxpayer of a regional or local authority may, at his expense, request the communication or obtain a complete or partial copy of the report of the regional council or municipal council, the budget, accounts or statutory, under the conditions laid down by regulation.

 

Section 14:

(1)   No regional or local authority shall deliberate outside its Statutory meetings, or on matters outside its jurisdiction or which undermine state security , law and order , national unity or territorial integrity

(2)   Where a regional or local authority acts in violation of the preceding subsection, the nullity of its decision or act shall be established by other of the minister in charge of regional and local authorities, without prejudice to the penalties provided for by the laws and regulations in force

(3)   The representative of the State may, where necessary, take appropriate safeguard measures.

 

PART II

PRINCIPLE OF DEVOLUTION OF POWERS

 

CHAPTER I

DEFINITION OF DEVOLUTION OF POWERS

 

Section 15:

(1)    The State shall devolve upon regional and local authorities under conditions laid down by law, the power necessary for their economic, social, educational, cultural and sports development

(2)    The power devolved upon regional and local authorities by the State shall not be exclusive. They shall be exercised concurrently by the State and the authorities, under terms and conditions provided for by law.

 

Section 16:

(1)   Regional and local authorities may freely maintain operational and cooperation ties between them in accordance with the laws and regulations enforce. To that end, regional and local authorities may form groupings to exercise joint power by settings up public co operations bodies through agreements.

(2)   Where a grouping of regional and local authorities jointly exercise powers over an area that is subject to devolution, such devolution shall benefit the entire grouping concerned on the strength of a decision by the deliberative body of each regional or local authority concerned. In such case, the regional and local authorities concerned shall establish, among themselves, agreements by which each authority

Section 17:

(1)   Regional and local authorities shall exercise their own powers within the bounds of national defense interests

(2)   The devolution of powers envisaged by the law shall not bar State authorities from taking with regards to regional or local authorities, groups of authorities, or their public establishments and enterprises, measures necessary for theses state authorities to exercise their duties in matters of security, civil or military defense, in accordance with the laws and regulations in force.

Sections 18: Regional and local authorities may as and when necessary, enter into contractual arrangements:

 

–          With the State;

–          With one or more public law cooperate bodies set up under State control or with state participation;

–          With one or more civil society organizations, for the purpose of accomplishing public utility objective or projects.

 

CHAPTER II

 

HUMAN AND MATERIAL RESOURCES

INHERENT IN DEVOLUTION OF POWERS

 Section 19:

(1)   Regional and local authorities shall freely recruit  and manage staff needed for the accomplishment of their mission, in accordance with the laws and regulations in force

(2)   The rules and regulations governing the staff referred to in the preceding subsection shall be laid down by decree of the President of the Republic

(3)   However, civil servants and other government employees may be transferred or seconded to regional and local authorities upon request. In such a case, the request shall be forwarded to the minister concerned, through the representative of the State, who shall give an opinion on the matter. Civil servants and Government employees thus placed at the disposal of regional and local authorities shall continue to be governed by the General Rules and Regulations of the Public Service or the Labour Code, as the case may be

(4)   The conditions of implementation of section 19 (3) above shall be laid down by regulation.

Section 20: Devolution of power shall automatically entail a hand over to the beneficiary regional or local authority of all movable and immovable property used at the transfer date to exercise that power. The property hand over shall be  duly established by a devolution decree signed by the President on the strength of an official report jointly drawn up by the Representative of the State and executive of the regional or local authority concerned.

Section 21: Civil servants or employees of deconcentrated government services. Who directly and personally lend assistance to a regional or local authority in an operation, may not, in any manner whatsoever, be involved in related oversight actions.

 

CHAPTER III

 

FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF DEVOLUTION OF POWER

 

Section 22: Resources required by regional and local authorities to exercise their power shall be devolved upon them either through a system of tax transfer, or ceded revenge or both methods concurrently

Section 23:

(1)    A common Decentralization Fund for the partial financing of the decentralization process is hereby instituted

(2)    Each year, the Finance Law shall fix, on the recommendation of the Government the portion of the state revenue to be allocate to the Common decentralization Fund referred to in the preceding subsection

 Section 24:

(1)   Expenditure corresponding to the exercise of devolved powers shall be assessed prior to devolution

(2)   All the new expenditure devolving upon regional and local authorities subsequent to amendments by the State of rules on the exercise of devolved power must be offset by an equivalent allocation to the Common Decentralization Fund provided for I Section (23) or by other tax revenue, in accordance with modalities defined by law.

(3)   The statutory instrument referred to in Subsection (2) above shall clearly state the allocation source. Where a shortage of funds by regional and local authorities may jeopardize the execution of public service missions, the State may intervene through special allocation to the regional and local authority concerned.

Section 25:

(1)   Expenditure arising from the devolution of power shall entail and allocation by the State, to each region or council, of resources of an amount equivalent at least to the said expenditures.

(2)   Resources to be allocated shall be at least equivalent to the amount incurred by the State during the financial year immediately preceding the date of devolution of power

 

Section 26: Deconcentrated government services, whose materials and human resources are placed under the authority of the representative of the State who, as   and when necessary makes them available to regional and local authorities to enable them exercise their power shall also receive a portion of the resources referred to in Section 25(2) above

Section 27: At each state of the devolution process, the amounts in expenditure  resulting from increases or decreases in workload shall duly established  for both the authority and the state , by joint order of the minister in charge of regional and local  authorities concerned

Section 25:

(1)    Expenditure arising from the devolution of powers hall entail an allocation by the State, to each or council, of resources of an amount equivalent at least to the said expenditures.

(2)    Resources to be so allocated shall be at least equivalent to the amount incurred by the sate during the financial year immediately preceding the date of devolution of power

Section 26: Deconcentrated government service, whose materials and human resource are placed under the authority of the representative of the State who, as and when necessary, makes them available to regional and local authorities to enable the exercise their new powers, shall also receive a portion of the resources referred to in Section 25(2) above.

Section 27: At each stage of the devolution process, the amounts in expenditure resulting from increases or decreases in workload shall be duly established, for both the authorities and the State , by joint order of the ministers in charge of regional and local authorities and of finance

Section 28: Judges of the Audit Bench shall audit all accounts kept by public accountants of regional and local authorities, as well as those kept by de facto accountants appointed by theses same authorities.

 

PART III

 

ORGNASIATION AND FUNCTIONING OF REGIONAL

AND LOCAL AUTHORITIES

 

CHAPTER 1

ORGNASIATION

 

Section 29:

(1)   Regional and local authorities shall have an elected deliberative organ

(2)   The deliberative organ referred to in the preceding subsection shall the executive bureau shall be defined by law

(3)   The system of election of members of the deliberative organ and the executive bureau shall be defined by law

Section 30: Regional and local authorities shall have their own budgets, resources, patrimony, public and private property, as well as staff

Section 31: Regional and local authorities shall have their own services and, as and when necessary, receive assistance from deconcentrated government services

Section 32: The public and private property of a regional or local authority shall comprise all movable and immovable property acquired either free of charge or against payment.

Section 33: Local public services of regional and local authorities may be run under council supervision, as concessions or leases.

Section 34: Regional and local authorities may set up local establishments or enterprises, in accordance with laws in force governing public establishments, enterprises or firms with State participation and corporate bodies under private law, which receive financial assistance from public authorities

Section 35:

(1)   Regional and local authorities may, upon a resolution of their council or board, either purchase shares or bonds issued by companies which run local services, or be issued shares for consideration other than cash or equity shares by the said companies. However, this shall require prior approval by the supervisory authority and shall be subject to the shareholding ceiling stipulated in Section 65 below.

(2)   In such case, the articles of association of the companies referred to in the preceding subsection shall define , on behalf of the regional or local authority concerned

where, it holds the statutory duties of one or several representatives on the board of directors outside the general meeting;

where it holds bonds, the right for it to have a special delegate defend its interest before the company

(3)   Amendments to the articles of association of such a company concerning regional and local authorities shall be subject to prior approval by the representative of the State.

CHAPTER II

 

FUNCTIONING

 

  1. I.                   PROPERTY OF REGIONAL AND LOCAL AUTHORITIES

Section 36: The council or board of a regional or local authority shall deliberate on the management of property and on real estate transactions made by the authority concerned

Section37: Leases, information agreements and any conventions relating to the renting or acquisition of building or real state rights shall be concluded in accordance with standard procedures laid down by regulation

Section 38: The cost of real estate acquired by regional and local authorities shall be paid according to conditions laid down by regulation for similar transactions made by the State

Section 39:

(1)   The sale of property belongs to regional and local authorities shall be subject to the same rules as for State property

(2)   The proceeds of such sale shall be paid to the regional or local authority’s revenue collector

Section 40:

(1)    Regional and local authorities may hold government stock acquired participatory through the purchase of securities, with capital derived from payment by individuals, transfers, balances from exchange, gifts and legacies.

(2)    The council or Bureau of the regional or local authority concerned shall deliberate on investment in government stock

(3)    Funds kept by the regional or local authority’s revenue collector may be used for the purchased of stock or shares. In such case, he shall register them and keep the certificates

(4)    The registered stock held by regional and local authorities shall be considered as immovable.

 

  1. II.                CONTRACTS CONCLUDED BY REGIONAL AND LOCAL  AUTHORITIES

 Section 41: members of the executive and the revenue collector of regional and local authorities may not, in any form, either directly or indirectly, bid for or be awarded contracts; otherwise such contracts shall be annulled by the representative of the State.

Section 42: Private law contract of regional and local authorities shall be awarded in accordance with ordinary law

 

  1. III.             GRIFTS AND LEGACIES TO REGIONAL AND LOCAL AUTHORITIES

Section 43:

(1)   Deliberations of a council or bureau of a regional or local authority relating to the acceptance of gifts and legacies that entail expenses or conditions may not be enforced without the approval of the minister in charge of regional and local authorities

(2)   Whatever the amount and nature of the gift or legacy, where there are claims by heirs, the authorization of acceptance may be granted only by order of the minister in charge of regional ad local authorities

Section 44:

(1)   The regional or local authority executive may, as a safeguard measure accepts the gift or legacy and apply for delivery thereof before the authorization is issued.

(2)   The order referred to in Section 43 (2) or the subsequent deliberation of the council or board shall take effect from the date of acceptance

(3)   The acceptance shall be made forthwith and, as much as possible, form part of the donation act. Failing this it shall be made by separation act, which shall equally be authentic, and be notified to the donor in accordance with the legal provision in force governing  civil and commercial obligations,

Section 45:

(1)    Regional and local authorities or groupings thereof shall freely accept donations or legacies made to them without expenses, conditions or real estate entailments.

(2)    In any case, where gifts and legacies give rise to claims by families , the authorization to accept such gifts and legacies shall be granted by order pursuant to the provision of Section 43(2)

(3)    Where the proceeds of the gifts can no longer defray its expenses , the minister in charge of regional and local authorities may, buy order ,authorize the regional or local authority concerned to assign the proceeds to other uses that comply with the donor’s or legator’s purpose. Otherwise the heirs may reclaim the gift. Under no circumstance may the members of the regional or local authority executive acquire the gift.

 

  1. IV.             PROPERTY AND RIGHT JOINTLY HELD BY SEVERAL REGIONAL AND LOCAL AUTHORITIES

Section 46:

(1)   Where several regional and local authorities jointly hold property or rights, an order of the minister in charge of regional and local authorities shall set up a committee comprising representative’s councils or boards concerned.

(2)   Each council or bureau shall, be secret ballot, elect from among its members the numbers of representatives fixed by the order referred to in the preceding subsection

(3)   The deliberation shall be consistent with all rules governing the deliberation of councils or bureau of regional and local authorities

Section 47:

(1)    The duties of the committee and its chairperson shall be to administer the joint property and rights and carry out all related works. These duties shall correspond to those of councils or board of regional and local authorities and their executive organs in similar circumstances

(2)    Notwithstanding the provisions of the proceeding subsection, the sale exchange , sharing acquisition or transaction in property shall remain the  reserve of council or board which may authorize the chairperson of the committee to conclude the relevant deeds

 

  1. V.    WORKS OF REGIONAL AND LOCAL AUTHORITIES

Section 48: Plans and estimate shall be submitted to the council or board of the regional or local authority before any new construction or reconstruction work is executed on behalf of the regional or local authority concern.

 

  1. VI.  LEGAL ACTION

Section 49:

(1)   The president of the regional council or mayor shall represent them in court

(2)   He may take or cause to be taken any safeguard measures or measures to interrupt the forfeiture of rights

Section 50:

(1)   the council or board shall deliberate on action to be taken or defended on behalf of the regional or local authority

(2)   however , at the beginning of the financial year, the councilor board may empower the mayor or the president of the regional council to defend the interest of the regional or local authority concerned in all matters

Section 51: Appeal against decision of regional or local authorities shall comply with the rules governing administrative disputes or ordinary law disputes as the case may be.

 

  1. VII.          FUNCTIONING OF LOCAL SERVICES

 

Section 52:

(1)   Local public services managed under council supervision shall operate according to the ordinary law provision applicable to State public Services of a similar nature

(2)   However, regional and local authorities may operate services of an industrial or commercial nature where public interest so requires, especially where private initiative is lacking or inadequate.

Section 53: The councils and boards of regional and local authorities shall draw up the list and provisions which shall be set out in the by-laws of service which they intend to run as local industrial or commercial establishments, herein after referred to as “sub-national public undertakings”.

Section 54:

(1)         Where several regional and local authorities are involved, the management of such a sub-national public undertaking may be effected through one of the following ways:

a)      Under the supervision of a regional or local authority representing other regional and local authorities as trustee; or

b)      Under the supervision of a group formed by the said regional and local authorities

(2)    Where the group is formed for the sole purpose of running an industrial or commercial undertaking, the regional or local authorities may request that management of the body so established to merge with that of the rules of sub-national public undertaking. In such case, the articles of association of the group shall be amended in compliance with the provision of this law

Section 55:

(1)   An implementation decree of this law shall  define which service provided by sub-national public undertakings set up by regional and local authorities may be subject to technical supervision by the State

(2)   The standard rules and regulations of the bodies referred to above shall be approved by law

(3)   The statutory approval instruments all outline the measures to be taken where a sub-national public undertakings is unable to carry out its mission

Section 56: Unless otherwise provided for by the law in force, contracts on the concession of local public commercial and industrial services shall be approved by the minister in charge of regional and local authorities under conditions set out in the implementation decree of this law

Section 57: The terms of public service concession contracts concluded by regional and local authorities may not contain any clause that requires the concessionaire to provide service outside those set out in the concession.

Section 58: Public works contracts concluded by regional and local authorities may not provide for the leasing of public revenue-generating activities except for revenue derived from the exploitation of the utility under concession.

Section 59:Enterprise running public services under council supervision shall be bound in all matters of management and preliminary works they may carry out on behalf of the conceding party to respect all control measures and produce all supporting documents in compliance with the law in force.

Section 60: Groupings of regional and local authorities may, through a concession mange services which are of interest to each of the members’ regional or local authority

Section 61:

(1)   Regional and local authorities that have conceded or leased a public utility or service of public interest may amend or terminate a concession or leased contract where the concessionaire defaults due to persistent contingent economic or technical reasons that interrupt the normal provision of the said services

(2)   The provisions of the preceding subsection shall apply mutatis mutandis to the concessionaire or operator

(3)   The regional or local authority concerned must either stop providing the said service or reorganized it on such sound economic grounds

 

  1. VIII.       STTING UP OF PUBLIC CORPORAT ENTITIES AND ACQUISITIN OF SHARES IN PUBLIC SEMI-PUBLIC AND PRIVATE BODIES

 

Section 62:

(1)   Securities acquired by regional and local authorities at the floating of corporations or through shareholding in State enterprises or private companies shall be issue either in the form of registered shared or certificates

(2)   They shall be acquired upon deliberation of the council or board of the regional or local authority concerned and kept by the revenue collector of the said authority; even when they have been used as collateral in management by the board of directors.

Section 63:

(1)   Securities used as collateral by the board of directors shall be non-transferable

(2)   The securities referred to in Section 62(1) may only be transferred upon deliberation and approval under the same condition as for their acquisition

Section 64:

(1)   The regional or local authority shall be liable for as done by its representative on the Board of Directors of a company in which it holds share, without prejudice to a personal liability claim against the said representative

(2)   The personal liability claim referred to in the preceding subsection shall be applicable only in cases of personal error or serious misdemeanor that undermines the interests of the regional or local authority concerned

Section 65: Regional and local authorities or groupings thereof shall not require more than 33% (thirty-three percent) of the share capital of administrative public establishments, local public companies  and other public semi- public private entities.

 

PART IV

 

SUPERVISION OF REGIONAL AND LOCAL AUTHORITIES

 

Section 66:

(1)   The State shall ensure the supervision of regional and local authorities in accordance with the provisions of the law

(2)   Under the authority of the President of the republic, the minister in charge or regional and local authorities and the representative of the state in the regional and local authority shall the supervision of such authorities

Section 67:

(1)   The Governor shall be delegate of the State in the region, in this capacity; he shall safeguard national interest, ensure administrative control, respect of rules and regulations in force and maintain law and order. He shall supervise and coordinate, under the authority of the government, the running of state civilian administrative services in the region

(2)   The Senior Divisional Officer shall exercise supervisory authority of the state over councils

(3)   The Governor and Senior Divisional Officer shall represent the President of the Republic in their administrative units

(4)   They shall also represent the Governor and each minister and shall have authority over deconcentrated government service in their administrative units barring exemptions set out by decree of the President of the Republic

(5)   The Governor and Senior Divisional Officer shall be sole authorities’ empowered to speak on behalf of the State before councils or boards of the regional and local authorities of their administrative units. However they are unavoidably absent and upon a reasoned notification to the minister in charge of regional and local authorities , they may delegate an official from the Governor’s or divisional office , in accordance with the rules of protocol laid down by the always in force

Section 68:

(1)     Instruments issued by regional and local authorities shall be forwarded to the representative of the State in the said regional or local authority who issued a receipt forthwith.

(2)     Proof of receipt of instruments by the representative of the State referred to above may be produced in any form

(3)     The instrument referred to in subsection (1) above shall be fully binding with 15 (fifteen) days from the day of issue of the receipt and upon publication and notification to the persons concern. The representative of the State may shorten this 15 (fifteen ) day period

(4)     Notwithstanding the provision of subsection (1) and (20, the representative of the State may, within 15 (fifteen) days from the date of reception, request a second reading of the said instruments. Such a request shall defer the enforcement of the instrument and statutory deadlines applicable in case of litigation in accordance with the law in force

Section 69: Statutory and individual decision taken by the president of the regional council or mayor in the exercise of their supervisory powers and routine management duties shall become fully binding upon publication or notification to the persons concerned. Such decisions shall be forward to the representative of the State.

Section 70; 

Notwithstanding the provision of Section 68 and 69 above, instruments adopted in the following areas, in additional to special provisions set out in this law, shall be subject to prior approval by the representative of the State

Initial and annex budgets, below-the-line accounts and special expenditure authorizations;

Loans and loan guarantees;

International cooperation agreements;

Land matters;

Securities and shares;

Agreements on the execution and control of public contracts , subject to the thresholds of jurisdiction provided for by the regulation in force;

Awarding public service contracts beyond the term of office of the board;

Recruitment of certain personal according to procedures laid down by regulation.

Regional and council development plans as well as regional land development plans shall be drawn up as much as possible in keeping with the national development plans. Consequently, they shall be submitted for the approval of the representative of the State prior to adoption.

Decisions taken in pursuance of subsection (1) above shall be forwarded to the representative of the State, according to the procedure set out in Section 68(1). The approval of the representative of the State shall be deemed to be tacit, where such approval is not notified to the regional or local authority concerned within a period of 30 (thirty) days from the date of acknowledgement of receipt, by any written medium

The period provided for in subsection (3) may be reduced by the representative of the State at the request of the president of the regional council or the mayor. Such request shall stay the enforcement of the act as well as the calculation of the deadlines applicable in case of litigation, in accordance with the law in force.

Section 71:

(1)   The representative of the State shall inform the president of the regional council or the mayor by any written medium of the illegalities noted in instruments forwarded to him.

(2)   The representative of the State refer to the appropriate administrative court, all instrument provided  for in Sections 68 and 69 that he considers illegal, within a maximum period of 1 (one) month with effect fro the date of their reception

(3)   The administrative court referred to shall be bound to deliver its decision within a maximum period of one month

(4)   Notwithstanding the provision of subsection (2), the representative of the State may cancel instruments issued by local and regional authorities that are grossly unlawful, notably cases of expropriation of trespass, provided that the regional or local authority concern shall have the right to refer the matter to the competent administrative court.

Section 72:

(1)   The representative of the State may append a petition for a stay of execution to his appeal. Such petition shall be granted where on of the ground raised is deemed upon examination, to be serious and warrants the quashing of the of the challenged instrument

(2)   Where the contentious instrument is likely to undermine the exercise of a public or individual freedom, the president of the administrative court to which the matter is referred or one of its members delegated for that purpose, shall order a stay of execution of no more than 48 (forty –eight) hours

(3)   The administrative court may, on its own motion order a stay of execution of any public contract referred to it by the representative of the State for quashing

Section 73:

(1)   The president of the regional council or the mayor may on ground of abuse of power, challenge before the competent administrate court the rejection by the representative of the State pursuant to the provision of Section 70 9(1), in accordance with the procedure provided for by the law in force

(2)   The quashing of the rejection decision by the administrative court concerned ,shall be tantamount to an approval once the decision is notified to the local or regional authority

Section 74: Any natural person or corporate body with an interest may challenge, before the competent administrative court, the instrument referred to in Section 68, 69 and 70, in accordance with the procedure laid down by the law on litigation, from the date on which the contentious instrument became enforceable

Section 75:

(1)     Any general instrument issued by a regional or local authority that becomes enforceable as well as any petition by the representative of the State against such act involving a stay of execution shall be given wide publicity notably by posting it at the chief town of the regional or local authority and the service of the administrative unit concerned

(2)     The procedure laid down in the preceding subsection shall be by notification , where it involves an individual instrument

Section 76: Any request for annulment of an instrument issued by a regional or local authority addressed to the representative of the State by any interested person prior to the date when such act becomes enforcement, shall have no effect on the litigation procedure

Section 77:

(1)   Upon request:

a)      The president of the regional or the mayor shall received from the representative of the state the information required for the performance of his duties

b)      The representative of the state shall received from the president of the regional council of the mayor the information required for the performance  of his duties

(2)   The president of the regional council or the mayor shall inform his council or board of the content of nay correspondence that the representative of the State may address to them.

 

PART V

 

MONITORING ORGANS

 

Section 78:

(1)      A National decentralization Board is hereby set up. Its organization and functioning shall be laid down by decree of the President of the republic

(2)      The National Decentralization Board shall be responsible for the monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of decentralization

 

Section 79: A Local Service Inter-Ministerial Committee is hereby set up. Its organization and functioning shall be laid down by the implementation decree of this law.

 

PART VI

 

MISCELLANEOUS, TRANSITIONAL AND FINAL PROVISIONS

 

Section 80:

(1)   Until such time that regional and local authorities have their own resource , deconcentrated government services parts therefore affected by the devolution of powers shall progressively be transferred to theses authorities on the recommendation of the National Decentralization Board

(2)   Before the effective transfer of the service provided for in the proceeding subsection, the conditions for the use of each government services by the regional and local authorities shall be determine by agreement signed between the representative of the State and the president of the regional council for the mayor, according to models laid down by regulation.

As apart of the agreement referred to in the preceding paragraph, the president of the regional council or mayor shall issued all necessary instructions for the performance of the duties assigned to the said service. He shall control the execution of the said duties

Section 81: Standard specification and regulation concerning local public service shall be rendered enforceable by regulation

Section 82: Within a maximum period of one year from the date of publication of regulations provided for in Section 55, concession contracts and regulations on state –controlled projects in force shall be revised, where current operating conditions are observed to be more costly and more disadvantageous to the regional an local authorities or members of the public, than those resulting from the application of provisions laid down in the standard specifications and /or regulation

Section 83: In case of disagreement between the regional or local authority concerned and the concession holder or controller, the minister in charge of regional and local authorities shall decide on the revision of the contract or on the condition for its termination

Section 84:

(1)   The standard specifications and regulations nay be waived only by order of the mister concerned, under special circumstance so established

(2)   The order referred to in the preceding subsection shall be issued on the proposal of the minister in charge or regional ,  and local authorities

 

Sections 85: The regional and local authorities may establish cooperation ties with regional and local authorities of foreign countries, with the approval of the minister in charge of regional and local authorities, following the procedure laid down by the implementation decree of this law

Section 86: Other instruments shall, inter alia, lay down

Rules applicable to regions;

Rules applicable to councils;

The financial regulations governing regional and local authorities

Conditions for the election of regional councilors;

Section 87: One or more bodies shall be set up, as and when necessary, by decree of the President of the Republic, to ensure harmonious development within all local and regional council area on the basis of national solidarities, regional potentials and inter-regional balance

Section 88: The provisions of Law No 74/2 of 5 December 1974 to organize councils and subsequent amendment thereto, as well as those of Law No. 87 /15 of 15 July 1987 to set up and organize city councils are hereby repealed and replaced by the provisions of this law, subject to the enactment of separate instrument provided for in Section 86 and 87 above

Section 89: This law shall be registered, published according to the procedure urgency and inserted-in the Official Gazette in English and French

 

REPUBIC OFCAMEROON                                    PEACE – WORK – FATHERLAND

 

LAW No.    2004/018 OF 22 JUIL 2004

 

TO LAY DOWN RULES APPLICABLE TO COUNCILS

 

The National Assembly deliberated and adopted,

The President of the Republic hereby enacts the

Law set out below:

 PART I

 

GENERAL PROVISION

 

Section 1: This law lays down the rules applicable to councils, in accordance with the provision of the law on the orientation of decentralization

 

Section 2:

(1)   The council shall be a basic decentralization local authority

(2)   The council shall be set up by decree of the President of the Republic

(3)   A decree  to set up a council shall determine its name, its area of jurisdiction and its chief town

(4)   A change of name, chide town or the boundaries of a council may be effected by decree of the President of the Republic

 

Section 3:

(1)      Councils shall have a general mission  of promoting local development and improving the living condition of their inhabitants

(2)      Councils may, to supplement their own resource, request assistance from the population, civil society organization, other regional and local authorities, the State and international partners ,in accordance with the laws and regulation in force

(3)      Resource to the forms of assistance referred to in the preceding subsection shall decided after deliberation by the council concerned and shall, as and when necessary, take into account the relevant draft agreement.

 

Section 4:

(1)   The President of the Republic may, by decree, temporarily group a number of councils together , on the proposal of the Minister in charge of region and local authorities

(2)   A temporary grouping of councils may be consequently upon:

–          The adoption of identical draft agreement by each council concerned. such draft agreement shall enter into force in accordance with the procedure stipulated in the preceding subsection ;

–          A grouping plan drawn up by the Minister in charge of regional and local authorities. in this case , the draft agreement may, as and when necessary, be submitted for ratification to the council concerned

(3)   The decree to institute the temporary grouping of councils shall lay down the condition Therefore.

 

Section 5:

(1)   Property belonging to a council that is attached to another or to part of a council that has been raised to the status of an autonomous council shall becomes the property of the council of attachment or the new council.

(2)   The decree to attach or split up councils shall define all other condition, including the devolution of property

 

Section 6: The decree of the president of the Republic to attached or split councils shall be issued upon the recommendation of a committee appointed by order of the representative of the State to examine issued on the sharing of assets and liabilities between the State and the Council of attachment or part of a council involved. The committee shall consist of representative of deliberative organs of the councils concerned

Section 7: Where councils are grouped, councils and executives of the council concern shall remain in office until the expiry of their term

 

Section 8: Certain urban centers, because of their special nature, may be granted a special status, in accordance with the provisions of this law

 

PART II

 

MANAGEMENT AND USE OF PRIVATE PROPETY

 OF THE STATE PUBLIC PROPERTY AND NATIONAL LAND

 

CHAPTER I

PRIVATE STATE LAND

 

Section 9:

  1. The State may transfer to councils all or part of its movable or immovable private property, or enter agreement with the said councils on the sue of such property
  2. The transfer by the state of movable and immovable property provided for in the preceding subsection, may be effected, either on the initiative of such councils or of the State

 

Section  10: In accordance with the provisions of Section 12 of this law, the State may either facilitate the freehold by councils to all or part of the State’s manageable and immovable private property, or simply grant theses regional and local authorities user rights over of its movable and immovable property.

 

CHAPTER II

 

MANAGEMENT AND USE OF PUBLIC

COASTLAND AND WATERWAYS

 

Section 11:

(1)    The council shall be bound to seek the authorization of the regional council after deliberation for local projects initiated on public coastland and waterways

(2)    The deliberation referred to in the preceding subsection shall be subject approval by the representative of the State

 

Section 12:

(1)      In zones falling under public coastlands and waterways for which  special development plans have been approved by the state , Management committees shall be delegated by the latter to the councils concerned, for areas of which have been devolved upon them in the above mentioned plans

(2)      The royalties  accruing there from shall be paid to the councils concerned

(3)      Management instruments   issued by the mayor  shall be submitted for approval by the representative of the State and then forwarded to the council for information 

 

CHAPTER III

 

NATIONAL LAND

 Section 13:

(1)   Projects  or operations initiated by a council shall be executed in accordance with the land tenure laws and regulations in force

(2)    For the use projects or operations which it initiate on national land, the State shall take a decision after consultation with the council concerned, where national defense or public policy requirements dictate otherwise.

(3)   The decision referred to in the preceding subsection shall be submitted  for information , to the council concerned

 

Section 14: Lands considered as national land may, as and when necessary, be entered in the name of the council, especially to serve as a basis for public projects

 

PART III

POWERS DEVOLVED UPON COUNCILS

 

CHAPTER I

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

 

  1. I.   ECONOMIC

 

Section 15: The following power shall be devolved upon councils

Development of local agricultural ,pastoral, handicraft and fish farming activities;

Development of local tourist attractions;

Building ,equipment, management and Maintainace of markets , bus stations and slaughter-house;

Organization of local trade fairs

Provision of support to income and job generating micro projects

 

 

  1. II. ENVIRONMENETAL AND NATURAL

RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Section 16: The following powers shall be devolved upon councils:

Drinking water supply

Cleaning up of council streets, roads and public parks;

Monitoring and control of the management of industrial waste;

Reforestation and creation of council  forest;

Combating insanitation, pollution and nuisance ;

Protection of underground and surface water resources

Preparation of council environment action plans

Creation, maintenance and management of council lawns ,parks and garden

Local management of household waste

 

 

  1. III.             PLANNING ,RURAL DEVELOPMENT,

                                   URBAN DEVELOPMENT AND HOUSING

Section 17: The following powers shall be devolved upon councils

Developing and managing public urban parks;

Drawing up and executing council investment plans;

Awarding in association with the state or the region ,contract-plan for the achievement of development objectives;

Preparing land tenure plans town planning ,documents and concert development, urban rehabilitation and land consolidation plans;

Organization and managing public urban transport;

Carrying outland development operation;

Issuing town planning certificates, authorizations to subdivided real estate, authorizations to settle, building and demolition permits;

Building and maintaining council roads and conducting similar activities;

Developing and servicing housing estate;

Lighting public highways;

Addressing and naming streets, public squares and edified;

Constructing and maintaining unclassified rural roads and ferry-boats;

Setting up industrial zones;

Contributing to the electrification of areas inhabited by the poor;

Granting authorizations for temporary settlement and other works

 

Section 18: The Council shall give its opinion on regional development plans their approval, under condition laid down by regulation.

 

 

CHAPTER II

 

HEALTH AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Section 19: The following power shall be devolved upon councils;

Health and Population

 

Civil status registered ;

Setting up, equipping, managing and maintaining council health centers in keeping with the health map;

Assisting health and social centers;

Ensuring sanitary inspection in establishments that manufacture, package, store and distribute food products as well as in plans that treat solid and liquid waste produced by individual by individual or enterprises

 

Social Welfare

Participating in the upkeep and management ,where necessary of social advancement and integration centre;

Constructing ,maintaining and management public cemeteries;

Organizing and coordinating relief operations for needy persons.

 

 

CHAPTER III

EDUCATIONAL, SPORTS

AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

 

  1. I.                   EDUCATION, LITERACY EDUCATION

                                      AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING

Section 20: The following power shall be devolved upon councils:

 

(a)    Education

–    In keeping with the school map, setting up, managing, equipping, tending and maintaining council nursery and primary schools and pre-school establishment;

–    Recruiting and managing back-up staff for the schools;

–    participating in the procurement of school supplies and equipment;

–    Participating in the management and administration of State high schools and college in the region through dialogue and consultation structures.

 

(b)   Literacy education

–    Executing plans to eradicate illiteracy, in conjunction with the regional administration;

–    Participating in the setting up and management of educational infrastructure and equipment

 

(c)    Technical and vocational training

–    Preparing a local forward-looking plan for training and retraining

–    Drawing up a council plan for vocation integration and reintegration;

–    Participating in the setting up, maintenance and management of training centers.

 

  1. II.                YOUTH, SPORT AND LEISURE

Section 21: The following powers shall be devolved upon the councils

–          Promoting and coordinating sports and youth activities;

–          Supporting sports associations;

–          Constructing and managing municipal stadium, sports centers and courses, swimming pools, playgrounds and arenas;

–          Identifying and participating in the equipment of sports associations;

–          Participating in the organization of competitions.

 

  1. III.             CULTURE AND DEVELOPMENT

                                            OF NATIONAL LANGAUGE

Section 22: The following powers shall be devolved upon councils:

(a)    Culture

–       Organizing cultural weeks ,traditional cultural events and literary and artistic competitions at the local level;

–       Setting up at the local level, orchestras ,traditional opera ensembles, ballets groups and theaters troops;

–       Setting up and managing socio-cultural centers and public libraries;

–       Providing support to culture associations

 

(b)   Development of national languages

–       participating in regional programmes for the development of national languages;

–       participating in the setting up and maintenance of infrastructure and equipment

PART IV

 

COUNCIL ORGANS

Section 23: Councils shall have the following organs

–       The Council;

–       The Council Executive

 

CHAPTER 1

 

COUNCIL

 

  1.                                                                                                                                                             I.      COMPOSITION

Section 24: The council shall comprise elected councilors in accordance with terms and conditions laid down by the law.

 

Section 25:

(1)   The number of councilors shall be fixed as follows:

 

–       less than 50.000 (fifty thousand) inhabitants: 25 (twenty-five councilors);

–       from 50.000 (fifty thousand) t0 100.000(one hundred thousand) inhabitants: 31 (thirty-one) councilors;

–       from 100.001(one hundred thousand and one) to 200.000 (two hundred thousand0 inhabitants: 35: (thirty-five) councilors

–       from 200.001(two hundred thousand and one) to 300.000(three hundred thousand) inhabitants: 41 9forty-one) councilors

–       over 300.000(three hundred thousand) inhabitants: 61 (sixty-one) councilors;

 

(2)   The official population census immediately preceding the municipal elections shall serve as the basis for determining the number of councilors per council area, pursuant to the provisions of the statutory instruments.

 

  1.  II.DUTIES

Section 26:

(1)   The council shall be the deliberate organ of the council area.

(2)   It shall settle council matters by deliberation

 

Section 27: The council shall decide on matters under the law on the orientation of decentralization as well as those under this law

 

Section 28:

(1)   The council may delegate the exercise of apart of its duties to the councilors save for those mentioned in Section 41(1) below

(2)   The decision to delegate duties shall be specific in a resolution explaining out the extent of the duties so delegated

(3)   At the expiry of the delegation , the council shall be informed

 

 III.   FUNCTIONING

Section 29:

(1)   The council shall hold its meetings in the council hall or in the surrounding used as council premises. However, the mayor may, exceptionally, convene the council in any other appropriate venue situated within the council area, where circumstances so warrant. In such case, he shall inform the representative of the State and the councilors no less than 7 (seven) days before xxxx of the meeting

(2)   The council shall be chaired by the mayor or where he is avoidably absent, by a deputy mayor in order of precedence

 

Section 30:

(1)   The council shall meet in ordinary session once every quarterly period not exceeding 7 (seven) days

(2)   During ordinary sessions, the council may deliberate only on matters falling within its ambit

 

Section 31:

(1)   The major may convene an extraordinary session of the council whenever he deems it appropriate. He shall also be bound to convene such a session when a reasoned request is made by two-thirds of the current members of the council.

(2)   The representative of the State may request the mayor to convene an extraordinary session of the council

(3)   Convening notices shall be signed by the mayor and shall xxx a specific agenda. The council shall not examine any other business… the addenda

(4)   Where the mayor fails to perform the duties set out in subsections(1),92) and (30 above, after due notification, the representative of the State sign the convening notices for the holding of the council meetings

 

Section 32: The  convening of the council shall be in writing addressed to the municipal councilors , entered in the record of proceedings posted at the town hall or council office, within 15 (fifteen) clear days before the meeting . In case of emergency, this period shall be reduced to 3 (three) days

 

Section 33:

(1)   The council may validly conduct business only where 2/3 (two-thirds of its members are present.

(2)   Where the quorum is not met after a session has been duly convened, any decision taken after the convening of a second session within a  one-day interval shall be enforceable  if  half of the councilors are present

(3)   Where the country is under general mobilization, the council should validly conduct business at the first meeting where the majority of its non-mobilized members are in attendance.

 

Section 34:

(1)   Decision shall be taken by a simple majority of votes

(2)   Councilor who is unable to attend a meeting may give a localized proxy to a peer of his choice to vote on his behalf. A councilor may have only one proxy. Except in the case of duly ascertained illness, a proxy may be used during more than 2(two) consecutive sessions.

(3)   Voting shall be by open ballot. In case of a tie, the chairman xxx have the casting vote. The full names of voters and their ballots shall be included in the minutes

(4)   Notwithstanding subsection (3) above, voting by secret ballot xxxx apply at the behest of 1/3 (one-third) of the councilors present or in case of inclination or representative. In the latter case, and after two rounds of voting, where no candidate scores an absolute majority, a third round shall be conducted and the election shall be won by a relative majority. In case of tie, the first candidate shall be declare a winner.

 

Section 35:

(1)   During sessions to examine the administrative account of the mayor the council shall elect a pro tem chairman. In this case, the mayor may hand the proceedings but shall be bound to retire in case of elections.

(2)   The pro tem chairman shall be directly forward the decision by way of a report to the representative of the State

 

Section 36:

(1)   At the beginning of and throughout each session, the council shall appoint one or more members to assist the secretary general throughout the meeting in his secretarial duties

(2)   The secretary-general may also requisition support staff from the council personnel. Such  support  staff  shall attend  the proceedings without voting rights

(3)   The representative of the State or his duly authorized representative shall attend sessions ex officio. He shall take the floor as and when necessary but may not vote or chair the council. His statement shall be accorded in the minutes.

(4)   The council may, if so deems necessary, seek the authorization of the representative of the State to consult, in session, civil servants or State employees. It may also consult any other persons on account of their expertise, allowing the same procedures.

 

Section 37:

(1)   Sessions of the council shall open. However, at the request of the mayor or 1/3 (one-third) of its members , the council may conduct business in by-camera

(2)   The council shall meet in camera as of right where it is required give its opinion on the following specific and general matters:

–       school grants;

–       free medical care;

–       assistance to elder persons, families ,poor persons and disaster victims;

–       consideration of matter outline in Section 51 and 53 below

 

Section 38:

(1)   The pro tem chairman shall steer the meeting.

(2)   The conditions for the implementation of the preceding subsection shall defined in the rules of procedure

 

Section 39: Any contempt or insult to the mayor or pro tem chairman during the discharge of their duties shall be punishable under the Penal Code

 

Section 40:

(1)   Extracts of proceedings of the session shall be posted at the town hall or council office within 8 (eight) days

(2)   The mayor shall approve the posting of the proceedings and each approval shall be recorded in the record of proceedings

(3)   Proceedings shall be recorded chronologically in a registered numbered and signed by the representative of the State. They shall be signed by the councilors in attendance. Where some councilors abstain from signing, the record shall state the reasons thereof.

 

Section 41:

(1)   The council may, during the first annual, set up committees to study matters falling within its powers. Each committee shall have a chairperson and secretary.

(2)   Committees may meet during and in-between sessions. Membership of the committees shall be honorary. However, any cost incurred by  their running  shall be borne by the council budget

(3)   Committees shall be convened by the chairperson with 8 (eight) days of their established. During the first meeting, each committee shall designate a vice-chairperson who shall deputise if the chairperson is duly unavoidably absent. Thereafter, they may be convened within a shorter time-frame at the request of the majority of their members.

(4)   The chairperson invites any person on account of his expertise to xxxx. Committee meetings in an advisory capacity. Such attendance may be remunerated by decision of the council

 

Section 42:

(1)   The council may, at the request of the majority  if its members, invite any person to attend proceedings on account of his expertise

(2)   Persons invited to attend proceedings in an advisory capacity be remunerated in keeping with Section 41 (4) above

 

Section 43: Council may allocate allowance or special benefits to civil servants or State employees assigned to perform secondary activities in councils in accordance with the law on the orientation of decentralization.

 

Section 44: Decisions by the council to grant council personnel wages and xxxx otherwise intended for personal referred to in the proceeding Section, the purpose of granting to the said personnel a status better than that sided for by the regulations in force, shall be deemed illegal

 

Section 45: The provisions of the preceding Section shall be applicable to decision taken by state–controlled bodies running a public utility under council supervision for their personnel.

 

  1.   IV.      SUSPENSION,DISSOLUTION,TERMINATION OF DUTIES AND REPLACEMENT OF THE COUNCIL

Section 46:

(1)   The council may be suspended by reasoned order of the minister in charge of regional and local authorities where it:

a)      Acts unconstitutionally;

b)      Undermines the security of the State or public law and order;

c)      Threatens the country’s territorial integrity;

d)     Cannot sustainable perform its normal duties

 

(2)   Suspension provided for under the preceding subsection may not exceed two months.

 

Section 47: (1) The President of the Republic may dissolve the council by decree under the following circumstances;

 

a)      In any of the cases referred to in Section 46(1);

b)      Where there is a persistent breakdown or inability to restore normalcy after the period set out in Section 46(2)

 

Section 48:

(1)    Any member of the council duly convened who, without just cause has failed to attend three successive may, after a request by the mayor to furnish explanations, be deem upon the recommendation of the council to have resigned by the minister in charge of regional and local authorities.

(2)    The decision, which shall be notified to the member concerned and to the representative of the State, may be appealed before a competent court.

(3)    The councilor deem to have resigned in accordance with the provisions of subsection (1) above  may run for the council by or general council election immediately following such resignation.

 

Section 49:

(1)   Employers shall be bound to allow their employees who are councilors the necessary time to attend plenary sessions of the council or of its committees

(2)   Suspension from duly as provided in the preceding subsection shall not give rise to the termination of an employment contract by an employer under pain of damages and compensation paid to the employee

 

Section 50:

(1)   Any member of the council, who, without good ground fails to perform his duties under the rules and regulation in force may upon the recommendation of the Council, is deemed to have resigned by the minister in charge of regional and local authorities.

(2)   Failure to perform the duties referred to in the preceding subsection shall be ascertained either by a written notification addressed to the competent authority or made public by such member, or persistent abstention after warning by the minister in charge of regional  and local authorities

(3)   The ensuring decision may be appealed before a competent court

 

Section 51: Resignations shall be sent by registered mail to the mayor with a copy to the representative of the State. Resignation shall be considered definitive with effect from the date of acknowledgement of receipt by the mayor or failing that, within a maximum period of one month from the date of forwarding of a new resignation by registration mail

 

Section 52:

(1)   In time of war, the President of the Republic may, by decree suspend the activities of the council for the purpose of maintaining law and order or safeguarding the general interest until the end of hostilities

(2)   The same decree shall appoint an ad hoc body empowered to take decisions on behalf of the council. It shall  define the composition of the body and appoint its chairman and his vice

 

Section 53:

(1)   In case of dissolution of the council or resignation of all its current members and where a new council cannot be established, a special body shall performed its duties.

(2)   Within 8(eight) days following the dissolution or acceptance of the resignation, such  special body shall be appointed by order of the minister in charge of regional and local authorities who shall appoint the chairman and his  vice

(3)   The special body shall comprise 3(three) members in council with a population of no more than 50.000 inhabitants. The number may be increased to 7(seven) in councils with a higher population.

 

Section 54:

(1)   The special body shall perform the duties of the council

(2)   However, it shall not:

–       transfer or exchange council property;

–       increase budget provision;

–       set-up public services

–       vote loans

 

Section 55:

(1)     Where council elections are postponed on account of mobilization, the special delegation shall be empowered to take the same decision as the council.

(2)     In case of dissolution of the council, or where, in pursuance of the provision of Section 53 (2) above, a special body is appointed , council reelection shall be held within 6(six) months as from the date of dissolution or of the last resignation

(3)     The time frame referred to in the preceding subsection may be attended by decree of the Present of the Republic for a period of 6(six) months, renewable not more than 3(three) times

 

Section 56: The reconstitution of the council shall automatically terminate the ties of the special body

 

Section 57:

(1)   Pursuant to Section 53 above, the chairman shall perform the ties of mayor and the vice-chairman those of deputy mayor.

(2)   Their powers shall be terminated in accordance with the provision of Section 56 above.

 

CHAPTER II

 

COUNCIL EXECUTIVE

  

  1. I.                   REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE MAYOR

AND DEPUTY MAYOR

Section 58:

(1)   The mayor and his deputies shall be the executive organ of the council

(2)   The mayor shall be the head of the council executive. he shall be  assisted by deputy mayors in order of their election

(3)   The mayor and deputy mayors shall reside within the council area

(4)   Depending on the number of councilors, the number of deputy mayors shall be determined as follows:

–       Council with from twenty-five(25) to thirty-one (31) councilors: 2 (two) deputy mayors

–       Council with from thirty-five(35) to forty-one (41) councilors: 4 (four) deputy mayors;

–       Council with sixty-one (61) councilors: 6(six) deputy mayors.

 

Section 59:

(1)   Where  any obstacle or remoteness makes it difficult, hazardous, momentarily impossible to communicate between the chief town and a part of the council, the position of special deputy mayor may be instituted in the council decision of the council which shall state the reason therefore

(2)   The special deputy provided for in the preceding subsection shall be elected from among the councilors resident in that part of the council the special assistant:

–       shall act as civil status registered

–       may enforce policing laws and regulation in that part of the council area

(3)   The duties of special deputy mayor shall cease as soon as the situation returns to normal. A decision of the council shall established such accusation

(4)   The decision referred to in subsection (1) above shall be subject prior approval by the representative of the State

 

Section 60:

(1)   The representative of the State convenes the first session of the council on the second Tuesday following the date of proclamation of results of the council elections. The said session shall be devoted to the election of the mayor and deputy mayors. The distribution of positions of deputy mayors shall, much as possible, reflect the configuration of the council

(2)   The mayor shall be elected by majority vote under the double ballot single-candidate system. The election shall be won in case of absolute majority of the votes cast during the first ballot. Where an absolute majority is not obtained after the first ballot, a second ballot shall be conducted. The candidate who obtains a relative majority of the votes shall then be declared elected. Incase of a tie, the eldest candidate shall be the winner of the election.

(3)   After the election of the mayor, the deputy mayor shall be elected by proportional representation under the list system following the principle of the highest average. only ballot paper bearing a number of names corresponding to the number of candidates to be elected shall be valid

(4)   The elections referred to in subsection (2) and (3) above shall be by secret ballot.

 

Section 61: The council session devoted to the election of the mayor shall be chaired by the eldest member who shall be assisted by the youngest member.

 

Section 62: The chairman of the said council session shall publish the list of elected candidate within a period not exceeding 24 (twenty-four) hours following the proclamation of results by posting it at the town hall or at the council office. The said list shall, within the same time frame, be forwarded to the representative of the State.

 

Section 63: (1) The election of the mayor and deputy mayor shall be elected for a term of office corresponding to that of the council.

 

Section 64:

(1)    The election of the mayor and deputy mayors may be subject to an appeal for cancellation, in keeping with the laws in force governing the cancellation of election of councilors.

(2)    In case of cancellation of the election or where for any other reason, the mayor or deputy mayors cease to discharge their duties, the council shall be convene to replace them within a maximum period of one month.

 

Section 65: The office of mayor shall be incompatible with that of:

–       member of government of persons ranking as such;

–       member of parliament and senator;

–       administrative authority;

–       ambassador or official of a diplomatic mission;

–       secretary-general of a ministry or persons ranking as such;

–       director in the central administration;

–       law enforcement office;

–       staff of the council concerned;

–       financial official having to handle the finance or accounts of the council concerned

 

Section 66:

(1)   The mayor, deputy mayor, councilor, chairman and member of the special body shall be entitled to a session allowance or to reimbursement of expenses incurred in the discharge of the duties assigned to them

(2)   The allowance referred to in the preceding subsection shall be fixed by decision of the council and following modalities determine by order of the minister in charge of regional and local authorities.

Section 67:

(1)     Mayor and their deputies shall be entitle to remuneration, duty and entertainment allowance the amounts of which shall be fixed following a scale determine by statutory instruments.

(2)     A deliberate of the council concerned ,approved by the Minister in charge of regional and local authorities  shall determine , for each council, the amounts of the remuneration and allowance referred to in subsection (1) above.

(3)     In case of dissolution of the council, the said allowance shall be paid to the chairman and vice –chairman of the special body, in the same proportions and under the same condition as for the mayor and deputy mayor.

 

Section 68:

(1)    Payment of damages as a result of an accident in the performance of duty of mayor, deputy mayor, chairperson and vice-chairperson of the special body shall be borne by the council.

(2)    Councilors and members of the special body shall be entitle to the protection provided for the preceding subsection, in the discharge of a special duty

 

Section 69: Mayor, deputy mayors, chairperson and vice-chairman of special bodies shall be protected in accordance with the criminal and special laws in force against threats, contempt, violence, insults or defamation to which they may be subject in the discharge of their duties

Section 70:

(1)   In the event of death, resignation or dismissal of a mayor or a deputy mayor, the council shall be convened to elect a new mayor or deputy mayor, within 60(sixty) days following such death, resignation or dismissal.

(2)   The council shall designate a deputy mayor, according to the order of precedence or, failing that, one of the 5 (five) eldest councilors to act during the interim period provided for in Subsection (1) above.

(3)   In case of vacancy of the position of deputy mayor, the deputy mayors in active service shall have a pre-emptive right over the replacement candidates, according to the order of precedence established during the previous election

 

  1. II.                DUTIES OF THE MAYOR

Section 71:

(1)   The mayor shall represent the council in all civil matters and before the law courts. To that end, the mayor under the supervision of the council, shall be responsible for:

–       Preserving ,maintaining and administering council property and assets and safeguarding them;

–       Managing council revenue and supervising council service and accounts’

–       Issuing building or demolition permits and land tenure authorization;

–       Preparing and submitting the budget, authorizing expenditure and prescribing revenue collection;

–       Directing council projects;

–       Ensuring the implementation of development programmes financed by the council or carried out in conjunction with the council;

–       Taking measures concerning the municipal road network;

–       Inviting tenders, concluding leases and awarding contracts for council works , in accordance with the regulations in force;

–       Executing, according to the same rules ,deeds for the sale, exchange, sharing, acceptance of donations or legacies , for acquisition, transaction, where such deed have been authorized by the council;

–       Taking , in the absence of owners or holders of hunting permits notified beforehand, all measures necessary for the destruction of animals declared harmful, in accordance with the laws and regulations in force, and ultimately, requisitioning residents with the appropriate weapons and gongs for hunting such animals, to monitor and ensure implementation of such measures and to draw up a report thereon;

–       Ensuring environmental  protection and , accordingly, taking measures to prevent or eliminate pollution and nuisances, protecting public parks and helping to embellish the council;

–       Filling council vacancies and, in general, implementing the decision of the council.

(2)   The mayor shall be the authorizing officer for the council budget

 

Section 72:

(1)    The mayor may, under his supervision, delegate by order part of his duties to his deputies and, where the latter are absent or unavailable, to council members.

(2)    The delegation of duties referred to in the preceding subsection shall remain effective until revoked. However, the said delegation shall cease, without having been expressly revoked , in the event of the mayors death, suspension, dismissal or declared resignation

 

Section 73: where the mayor’s personal interest conflict with those of the council, the council shall designate another council member to represent the council, in particular, before the law courts or in any contractual transaction

 

Section 74:

(1)     The mayor shall recruit, suspend or dismiss workers governed by labour and collective agreements.

(2)     The mayor shall assign and manage staff placed under his authority

 

Section 75:

(1)   A model list of council jobs taking into account the size of the various councils shall be enforceable by order of the minister in charge of regional and local authorities

(2)   The Amount and method of remuneration of council staff as well as my allowance to which they may be entitled shall be determined by regulation.

 

Section 76: under the authority of the representative of the State, the mayor shall be responsible in his council for:

–       The publication and enforcement of laws, regulations and measures of a general character;

–       Implementing general security measures

 

Section 77: The mayor and deputy mayors shall be civil status registrars. In this capacity, they shall be bound to take an oath before the competent court

 

Section 78:

(1)   During official ceremonies and solemn occasions the mayor and deputy shall in the exercise of their duties, wear sashes in national colours, with a gold fringed tassel for the mayor and silver fringed tassels for deputy mayors

(2)   During the official ceremonies and occasions referred to in subsection(1) municipal  councilors shall wear insignia the characteristic of which shall be determined by statutory instruments;

(3)   Provision shall be made in the budget of the council concerned for the acquisition of the sashes and insignia referred to in subsections (1) and (2) above

 

Section 79: The council executive shall give its approval when required by the representative of the State or in accordance with the laws and regulations in force. It shall, in particular, be responsible for:

–       Drawing up the agenda for council sessions;

–       Implementing development activities and mass participation

–       Controlling the collection of council taxes, duties and levies ; and shall propose, where necessary, measures to improve the collection of such taxes , duties and levies;

–       Following up the execution of council project.

 

Section 80:

(1)    The Council Executive shall be assisted by a Secretary General.

(2)    The secretary general shall be the main coordinator of council administrative services. To this end, he shall have the delegation of signature for the smooth accomplishment of his duties.

(3)    The minister in charge of regional and local authorities shall, by order, appoint and dismiss secretaries general of councils.

(4)    The secretary general shall attend meetings of the council executive and shall provide secretarial service thereof.

 

Section 81:

(1)   The minister in charge of regional and local authorities shall, on the proposal of the representative of the State and after the approval of the mayor, set up special civil status registries by order within some council. Such registries shall be attached to the main civil status registry at the council.

(2)   In the case provided for in subsection (1) above, the duties of civil status registrar shall be exercised by person appointed by the minister in charge of regional and local authorities upon the recommendation of the representative of the State.

(3)    Copies of the orders setting up special civil status registrars and those appointing the civil status registrars shall be forwarded to the president and the state counsel of the competent court in whose area of jurisdiction the council  concerned is located.

(4)    The duty of civil status registrar in main registries shall be honorary. In special registries ,civil status registrars shall be entitled to an allowance the condition of payment and amount of which shall be fixed by order of the minister in charge of regional and local authorities

 

Section 82:

(1)   The mayor or deputy mayor shall legalize any signature signed in his presence by any of his known subject or one that is accompanied by two known witness. He shall, at the request of the signatory ,legalize any signature  that is similar to the mode left by the signatory in a special register kept in the council

(2)   Finger prints cannot be legalized. however , the mayor or deputy mayor can certify that they were made before them

(3)   The signatures given by councilors in the discharge of their duties shall be valid in all circumstance without having to be legalized so long as they have the council stamp affixed thereon.

 

Section 83:

(1)   The mayor or acting deputy mayor shall urgently ensure that any deceased person is dressed and buried decently without any discrimination bases on ethnic, racial, political, philosophical or religious grounds.

(2)   Where the mayor fails to carry out his duty, the representative of the state shall take the necessary measures to provide the services referred to in the preceding subsection

 

Section 84:

(1)   The mayor shall, by order;

–       take local measures concerning objects left under his care and authority by the laws in force;

–       ensure the implementation of laws and regulation to maintain order

(2)   He shall ensure the respect of measures to maintain law and order taken by him.

 

Section 85:

(1)   All instrument issued by the mayor or the council shall be immediately forwarded to the representative of the State who shall control them in accordance with the law on the orientation of decentralization

(2)   Such instrument shall become enforceable in accordance  with the provision of the law referred to in subsection (1) able and shall be registered on the date of issuance in a special register kept in the council

 

Section 86:

(1)   Under the control of the representative of the State, the mayor shall be responsible for the municipal policies and for the implementation of State instruments relating thereto.

(2)   The creation of a council police service shall be authorized by decision of the council shall define its duties, logistics and functioning.

(3)   The decision referred to in subsection (2) above shall be submitted  for prior approval by the minister in charge of regional and local authority

 

Section 87:

(1)   Subject to the provision of Section 92 below, the purpose of the council police shall be to ensure public order, safety, peace, security and sanitation

(2)   Its duties shall include:

a)      safe and convenient passage in public streets, wharfs, places and ways that is , the cleaning ,lighting, removal of obstructions, demolition or renovation of buildings falling in ruins, forbidding people from placing any objects on windows or any part of the building that may cause or produce harmful exhalation;

b)      the means of transportation of deceased person, interment and exhumation, the maintenance of order and decency in graveyards without any body being authorized to make distinctions or write special prescriptions stating the circumstance of the death;

c)      the inspection of apparatuses and /or instruments used in weighing or measuring foodstuffs  and the sanitation of edible foodstuffs expose for sale;

d)     prevention through convenient precaution and intervention through the provision of the required assistance in case of accidents or diseases such as fires, floods or nay other natural accidents, epidemic or contagious disease, epizooties , the implementation of emergency measures as concerns security, assistance and aid, and if need be call for the intervention of the representative of the state to whom an account of the measures taken shall be given;

e)      measures taken concerning the insane who may compromise public morality, the security of persons or the conservation of property;

f)        intervention to prevent or remedy some unfortunate events that may be cause by stray animals;

g)      The demolition of building without building permits

 

Section 88: The duties assigned to the mayor in case of the serious or imminent danger referred to in Section 87 above shall not obstruct the power of the representative of the State to take nay safety and security measures required by the circumstance within the administration area of the council.

 

Section 89:

(1)   The mayor shall exercise policies power on road traffic within his council area.

(2)   In return  for the payment of levies fixed by the council , he may grant parking permits or authorizations for the temporary use of public roads, rivers, river ports and quays and other public places under the jurisdiction of the Council on condition that usage does not hinder traffic on the public road or waterway.

(3)   The mayor shall grant temporary and revocable permits for the use of public roads in accordance with the law and regulations in the ground or on the public road of network for the supply of water, electricity or telephone service.

 

Section 90: The mayor may instruct beneficiaries of property or farmers or any other owner or user of property to build good fences round their wells and excavations that constitute a danger to public security as well as insalubrious lands that are dangerous to public health.

 

Section 91:

(1)   The powers vested in the mayor under Section 86 to 90 above shall not bar the power of the representative of the State to take all measures relating to public order, security, sanitation, safety and peace for all the councils of a district or for one or more of them in cases where council authorities fail to act.

(2)   The power referred to in the preceding subsection may be used by the representative  of the State in a council only after a warning unheeded to by the mayor where the council concerned  has a police service

 

Section 92:

(1)   Where there is no council police service, the mayor may set up a sanitation service which will be responsible for sanitary inspection in the council area.

(2)   The official in charge of the service provided for in subsection (1) above shall take oath before the competent court

 

Section 93: Concerning the council police, the council may express its wishes and opinion but shall not in any case give order to the mayor

 

  1. III.             SUSPENSION,TERMINATION OF DUTIES AND REPLACEMENT OF THE COUNCIL EXECUTIVE

 

Section 94:

(1)   in case of infringement of the law s and regulations in force or of serious misconduct, mayors and deputy mayors may be suspended by order of the minister in charge of regional and local authorities for a maximum period of three months after hearing them or requesting them to furnish written explanation on the acts for which they are accused. After such period they shall either be rehabilitated or dismissed.

(2)   The dismissal referred to in preceding subsection shall be  by decree of the President of the Republic

(3)   The suspension orders and dismissal decree shall give reason thereof

(4)   The suspended or dismissed mayors and deputy mayors shall maintain their status as councilors.

 

Section 95:

(1)    In case of embezzlement or an infringement leading to penalty together with the serious deficiency or serious misconduct in the discharge of their duties, the mayor and deputy mayors shall be dismissed by decree of the President of the Republic under the conditions provided for in Section 94 above.

(2)    After being heard, they may also be suspended by decision of the council during an extraordinary session convened at the initiative of the representative of the State or by 2/3 majority of the councilors. Such decision shall automatically suspend the mayor and deputy mayors as soon as it is adopted. It shall be enforceable by order of the minister in charge of regional and local authorities

 

Section 96:

(1)   Where the mayor fails or refuses to perform acts required of him by the laws and regulations in force, the minister in charge of regional and local authorities shall order the performance of the acts when informed by the representative of the State after formally notifying the mayor

(2)   Where a measure involves several councils, the Minister in Charge of regional and local authorities shall act in place of the mayors of the councils concerns when informed by the representative of the State.

 

Section 97:

(1)    The notification referred to in Section 96 above shall be forward to the mayor concerned through any means with written trace.

(2)    It shall indicate the time-limit granted to the mayor to submit his reply to the representative of the State

(3)    Where no reply is given  at the expiry of the time-limited  set out in subsection (2) above, such silence shall be deemed to be a refusal

 

Section 98:

(1)   The mayor or deputy mayor who, for some reason after his election, no longer fulfils the conditions required to be mayor or deputy mayor or who finds himself in one  of the cases of incompatibility referred to in Section 65 above, shall immediately stop performing  his duties.

(2)   Where the minister in charge of regional and local authorities is informed by the representative of the State, he shall order the mayor or deputy mayor to immediately hand over service to his replacement appointed in   accordance with the provisions of Section 103 below, without waiting for the installation of his successor. Where the mayor or deputy mayor refuses to resign, the minister in charge or regional and local authorities shall suspend him by order, for a period determine by the said minister. His duties shall be terminated by decree of the President of the Republic.

 

Section 99:

(1)   Where a mayor is appointed to a post that is incompatible with his status, he shall be bound to make a choice within a time-limit of 30 (thirty) days.  After this time-limit, the minister in charge of regional and local authorities informed by the representative of the State shall call on the mayor to relinquish one of the posts.

(2)   Where the mayor refuses or after a maximum  period of 15 (fifteen) days following the notification referred to in the preceding subsection , the mayor shall be declared to have resigned by order of the minister in charge of regional and local authorities.

 

Section 100:

1)            Resignations of mayors and deputy mayor’s shall be addressed to the minister in charge of regional and local authorities by registered mail, with acknowledgement of receipt. They shall become final with effect from the date of their acceptance by the minister in charge of regional   and local authorities or, where applicable, after a maximum period of one month from the date of dispatch of a new mail.

 

2)            Mayors and deputy mayors who have resigned shall, subject to a provision of Section 103 below, continue to discharge their duties until their successors have been installed.

 

3)            However, in case of complete renewal, the duties of mayors and deputy mayors shall, with effect from the installation of the new council and until the election of the mayor and deputy mayors, be discharge by the councilors according to the order of election.

 

Section 101: The criminal law provision in force shall be applicable to any mayor who resigns with the intent of hindering or suspending either the administration of justice, or the performance of any duty whatsoever

Section 102: Dismissal shall as of right entail ineligibility for the post of mayor or deputy mayor till the end of the term of office, with effect from the date of publication of the decree of dismissal

 

Section 103:

(1)   In case of dismissal, suspension, absence or any other hindrance and subject to the provision of Section 95 above, the mayor shall be temporarily replaced by a deputy following the order of election and, where there is no deputy, by a councilor chosen according to the order of the list.

(2)   In the latter case, the council shall, within a maximum period of 8 (eight) days, appoint one of its members to deputize.

 

Section 104:

(1)   Where a mayor is dismissed or suspendend, his replacement shall fully discharge his duties mayor is elected.

(2)   Where a mayor is absent or is unable to discharge his duties, his replacement shall be responsible for handling routine matters. The replacement shall, in particular, neither replace the mayor in the general management of council matters nor modify its decision or the budget.

 

Section 105:

(1)   In time of war, the mayor and the councilors considered individual may for purpose of public order or the egeneral interest be suspended by decree of the President of the Republic, until the end of the war. The members of the council, thus suspended shall not be replaced numerically during the normal duration of their term of office

(2)   However,  where such measure leads  to the reduction of the number of councilors by at least one quarter, a special body  shall be set up, in accordance with the provision of Section 53 above

 

Section 106:

(1)   The provision of Section 94 above shall, among others, apply in case of the following malpractices:

(a)    Acts provided  for and punishable under the law relating to the auditing of authorizing officers, managers and directors of public funds and of State enterprises

(b)   Use of council funds for personal or private purposes;

(c)    Forgery as provided for under criminal law;

(d)   Misappropriation of public funds and corruption

(e)    Speculation in the allocation or use of public lands and other movable and immovable property of the council and in the issuing of building land parceling or demolition permits

(2)   In the cases  referred to above, administrative sanction shall not bar legal proceedings to be instituted in accordance with the regulations in force

 

Section 107: Where the mayor, deputy mayors, the chairman or members of the special body commit one of the malpractices provided for by the law relating to auditing of authorizing officers, managers and directors of public funds, they shall be liable to sanction by the budget and finance disciplinary board

 

Section 108: The mayor, deputy mayors, chairman or members of the special body who illegally involved themselves in the handling of council funds shall be considered de facto accountants and may be prosecuted by the competent courts.

 

 

PART V

SPCIAL REGULATIONS

APPLICATION TO URBAN CENTRES

 

Section 109:

(1)   Some urban centers because of their specific nature may be raised to city council by decree of the President of the Republic.

(2)   A city council shall be a legal entity governed by public law. It shall have a legal personality and financial autonomy

(3)   A city council shall comprise at least 2 (two) councils;

(4)   The council which constitute  a city council shall be called subdivision councils

(5)   The name of the urban centre shall precede the words “….. City Council

(6)   The decree referred to in subsection (1) above shall determine the chief town as well as the area of jurisdiction of the city council concerned

 

CHAPTER I

CITY COUNCIL

 

  1. I.   DUTIES OF THE CITY COUNCIL

Section 110: The following powers shall be devolved upon the city council with effect from the date of its creation;

 

–       Creation, maintenance and management of city greens ,parks and garden;

–       Management of city lakes and rivers;

–       Monitoring and control of the management of industrial refuse;

–        cleaning of city roads and areas;

–       Collection, removal and treatment of house waste;

–       Creation, development, maintenance ,operation and management of urban sanitation, used and rain water facilities;

–       Preparation of urban environmental action plans ,especially as concerns the fight against nuisance and pollution ,protection of laws;

–       Creation, maintenance and management of public cemeteries;

–       Creation  and management of urban sport facilities ;

–       Urban development projects;

–       Setting community land reserves;

–       Setting up community land reserves;

–       Setting up and management of community cultural centers

–       Construction, equipment, management and maintenance of community facilities

–       Management and maintenance of markets , bus stations and slaughter houses;

–       Participation in the organization of community investment plans;

–       Signing with the State or the region of community development contracts and plans;

–       Urban planning, plans and master plans, and tenure plans, or town planning document in lien thereof. To this end, the city council shall make recommendations on the draft regional development plan before its approval;

–       Construction ,development ,maintenance , operation and management of primary and secondary community roads and equipment, including public lights road signs, rainwater drainage , safety facilities and bridges;

–       Creation and development of public  squares;

 

 

  1. II.  ORGANSIATION AND FUNCTIONING OF CITY COUNCILS

 

 

Section 111: The city council function, mutandis, in accordance with the regulation governing, as provided for by this law and the law in the orientation of decentralization

 

Section 112: The city council shall comprise:

–       the city council;

–       the Government Delegate to the City Council

 

 

 

Section 113:

(1)         The city council shall be made up of sub divisional council mayors and representative chosen within sub divisional councils, in accordance with the provisions of Section 121 below.

(2)          The city council discuss all matters which fall under its

 

Section 114:

(1)    The term of office of the city council shall expire at the same time as that of councilors of sub divisional councils.

(2)    Five members of the special body referred to in Section 53 and 54 above shall represent a city council in case of dissolution, resignation or suspension of all members thereof.

(3)    In the event of vacancy on a city council resulting from ,death resignation or other reasons, the sub divisional  council concerned shall replace the said councilor with a maximum period of 2(two) months

 

Section 115:

(1)   A government delegate appointed by decree of the president of a Republic shall fully exercise the duties and power of a mayor at the head of city council. He shall be assisted by person appointed by order of the President of the Republic.

(2)   He shall convene and chair city council meetings

(3)   The government delegate and his assistants shall constitute the city council executive

 

Section 116: In the discharge of his duties. The Government Delegate to the city council shall be responsible for:

–       preparing and implementing the decisions of the city board;

–       preparing and implementing the budget of the city council;

–       organizing and managing city cervices ;

–        managing the recourses and property of the city;

–       Overseeing the city at official ceremonies

–       Representing the city at official ceremonies

 

Section 117: The Government Delegate and Assistant Government Delegates will be entitled to remuneration, as well as entertainment and duty allowances. Propose amounts shall be fixed by order of the President of the Republic

 

Section 118: (1) During public ceremonies, the government delegate and assistant government delegates shall wear around the waist a sash in regional colour. With a gold fringed tassel for the Government delegate and xxx fringed tassels for the assistant Government Delegates

 

Section 119:

(1)   Decisions of the city council shall be taken under the same.

(2)   Copies of the said decisions shall, within 10(ten) days from the date of their coming into force, be sent by the government delegate to the city council to the mayors of the sub divisional councils concerned.

(3)   The mayor shall be bound to notify the decisions referred to in subsection (2) above to their sub divisional councils at their next meeting.

 

CHAPTER II

SUBDIVISION COUNCILS

 

Section 120: The provision of the law on the orientation of decentralization as well as those of this law shall applicable mutatis mutandis to subdivision councils

 

Section 121:

(1)   Mayors of sub divisional councils shall be ex officio members of the city council

(2)   In additional  to the mayor referred to in Subsection (1) above , the sub divisional council shall designate 5 (five) councilors to represent it on the city council

(3)   The designation referred  to in subsection (2) above shall be made during the first council meeting following the publication of council election results

 

Section 122:

(1)   The sub divisional council shall make recommendations wherever requested to do so by the city council or any other body, on matters it concern the said councils

(2)   The consultation referred to in subsection (1) above shall be compulsory for any operation or project of general interest to be executed in its entire council areas or a part thereof.

 

Section 123:

(1)   Sub divisional councils may meet at the request of 2/3 (two-thirds) of the councilors or, as an exceptional measure, the government delegates the city council, with a specific agenda. In this case, the government delegate ……. address the subdivision councilors at the meeting.

(2)   The meeting referred to in subsection (1) above shall be subject to prior approval of the representative of the State when it is initiated by the government delegate to the city council

 

Section 124: The setting up of a city council shall entail the transfer by sub divisional councils of power and resource to the said city council, in accordance with the provisions of this law

 

Section 125:

(1)    Save in the case of consultation provided for under Section 122 above the sub divisional council may not deliberate on a field of competence devoted upon a city council

(2)    In all cases of consultation, the decisions of the sub divisional council shall not contradict those of the city council

(3)    Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection 2 above , where the sub divisional council takes a decision repugnant to that of the city council, the decision of the sub divisional council shall automatically be null and void ,save in case of violation of the instrument in force by the city council

 

Section 126: The President of the Republic may, by decree, apply the provisions of this part to any council by virtue of its importance and level of development.

 

CAHPTER III

SPECIAL PROVISIONS

Section 127:

(1)    The general recurrent allocations to sub divisional councils by the provision of this law constitute a mandatory expenditure for the city council.

(2)    They shall be indexed to certain revenue pf the city council

(3)    The condition for making the allocation provided for under subsection (1) as well as those of the indexation referred to in subsection (2) above shall be laid down by regulation

 

Section 128:

(1)    The conditions of devotion of assets and liabilities of an urban centre comprising sub divisional councils shall be laid down by order of an urban centre comprising sub divisional councils shall be laid down by order of the minister in charge of regional and local authorities.

(2)    The order referred to in Subsection (1) above shall be published within a maximum period of 3(three) months following the setting up of the city council

 

Section 129: The provisions of this law relating to councils shall, mutatis mutandis, be applicable to city council and sub divisional councils.

 

Section 130: The creation of nay inter-council services by a city council shall be subject to the prior approval of the sub divisional councils concerned

 

PART VI

INTER-COUNCIL COOPERATION AND SOLIDARITY

 

CHAPTER I

DECENTRALISED COOPERATION

Section 131:

(1)   Decentralization cooperation shall be realized under an agreement whereby 2 (two) or more councils decide to merge their various resource with a view to achieving common objectives.

(2)   It may be effected between Cameroonian councils or between Cameroonian and foreign councils, under the conditions laid down by the laws and regulations in force

 

Section 132:

(1)    Councils may belong to international organization of twinned owns or nay other international organizations in towns.

(2)    The cooperation agreement, which shall be authorized before and by decision of he council, shall be forwarded by the representative of the State for prior approval by the minister in charge of regional and local authorities.

 

CHAPTER II

COUNCIL UNIONS

  1. I.  REGULATIONS GOVERNING COUNCIL UNIONS

Section 133:

(1)    Councils of the same division or region may, by al least a 2/3 (two-third) majority of the decision of each council, form a union with a view of realizing inter-counsel operation.

(2)     A council union shall be set up by an agreement signed by mayors of the councils concerned. The said  agreement shall lay down the conditions of functioning and management of the union, as provided for by this law

 

Section 134:

(1)   A council union shall be an inter-council public establishment endowed with legal personality as well as administrative and financial autonomy

(2)   It shall , mutatis metandis, be subject to the provisions of the law on the orientation of decentralization, as well as those of this law

 

 

  1. II.  ORGNAISATION AND FUNCTIONING OF COUNCIL UNIONS

 

Section 135:

(1)         The bodies of a council union shall comprise:

– a union board;

– a union chairman

(2)          The union board referred to under subsection (1) above shall comprise mayors assisted each by 2 (two) councilors designated within each unionized council

(3)         It shall be managed by a chairman elected from among members of the union board for a one –year renewable term of office.

(4)         The term of office of office of councilors servicing on the union board hall be governed by the legal provisions of the council to which they belong. In the event of vacancy or resignation, the members shall be replaced in accordance with the regulations applicable to the representatives of sub divisional councils on the city council

 

Section 136:

(1)   Minutes and decisions of the union board shall be notified by the chairman to mayors of unionized councils.

(2)   Mayors shall be bound to notify the minutes and decisions referred to under subsection (1) above to their council during the next session.

 

Section 137: The union board shall deliberate on issues within its jurisdiction, particularly:

–       The union budget

–       The administrative and management accounts of the union;

–       The acquisition, transfer and exchange of union property;

–       The union action programme;

–       Requests for interventions of unionized councils

–       Membership of new councils;

–       Management of a public enterprise or an inter- council public establishment

 

Section 138: The chairman shall represent the union in civil matters and before the law courts. To that end, he shall:

–       Be answerable to the union board;

–       Implement the recommendations and decisions of the union board;

–       Be the authorizing officer of the budget of the union;

–       Authorize revenue and expenditure  operations;

–       Prepare and present the reunion accounts;

–       Conclude contracts in accordance with the instruments in force;

–       Take out leases, contract loans and perform acts relating to the acquisition, sale, transaction, exchange, sharing or acceptance of gifts and legacies within the forms laid down by the regulations.

  1. III.  UNION BUDGET

Section 139: The union budget shall be prepared, adopted, executed and audited in accordance with the provisions of the agreement creating the union

 

Section 140: The union budget shall be prepared and executed in accordance with the conditions laid down by the financial regulations of regional and local authorities

 

  1. IV.  SPECIAL PROVISIONS

 

Section 141:

(1)         The admission of a council to an existing union shall be submitted for prior approval by the union board.

(2)         The decision of the board to admit a new council shall be notified by the chairman to mayors of unionized councils.

 

Section 142: A council may withdraw from the union, after approval by the board in accordance with the provisions of the agreement creating the union

 

Section 143:

(1)   The council union shall be dissolved

–       as of right upon expiry of its duration or on completion of the operation which it had as its objectives;

–       by resolution of the concerned made by at least a 2/3 (two-thirds) majority of the members of each council, in accordance with ordinary law

(2)    The dissolution instrument shall determine, subject to third party rights, the conditions under which the union shall be liquidated.

PART VII

SINGLE CHAPTER
FINANCIAL PROVISIONS

 

Section 144: The resources needed by a council to exercise its power shall be devolved upon it either by tax transfers or ceded revenue or both

 

Section 145:

(1)         The draft budget shall be prepared and presented to the council by the mayor

(2)         The budget and special revenue and expenditure authorizations shall be adopted by the council. They shall be divided into two sections: “Recurrent” and Investment”.

 

Section 146: A separate law shall lay down the financial regulations applicable to councils.

 

Section 147: Relevant State services shall control the management of council funds

 

PART VIII
MISCELLANEOUS, TRANSITIONAL

AND FINAL PROVISIONS

 Section 148:

(1)   Where the mayor, government delegate, chairman of a council union or any other councilor is sentenced for a crime, he shall automatically be union or any other councilors is sentenced for a crime, he shall automatically be dismissed.

(2)   Where he has been sentenced for an offence or where such a person’s conduct seriously undermines the interests of the council, city council or council union, on the basis of specific acts considered as such by the council and after being heard or summoned by the representative of the State to give written explanations on the charges against him, he may be dismissed by order of the minister in charge of regional and local authorities

(3)   As a precautionary measure, an in case of emergency, the representative of the State may notify the incriminated official or councilor, by using any means with written proof, the immediate cessation of duty, in such case, the order referred to under subsection (2) above shall be published within a maximum period f one month with effect from the date of notification.

 

Section 149: Dismissal shall automatically entail intelligibility for the office of mayor or councilor for a period of 10 (ten) Years

 

Section 150: The provisions of Section 148 above shall, among others, apply to the following:

(a)    acts provided for and punishable under the law to set up the Budgetary and financial Disciplinary Board:

(b)   the use of council, city council or council union funds for personal or private purpose;

(c)     forgery as provided for under criminal law;

(d)   Misappropriation of public funds and corruption;

(e)    Speculation in the allocation or use of public lands and other movable or immovable property of the council, city council or council union, and in the issuing of building, land parceling or demolition permits, as  the case may be

 

Section 151: In the absence of a separation instrument, the recruitment of any employee by the council, city council or council union shall be done in compliance with the condition of recruitment, remuneration and career profile applicable to equivalent State positions.

 

Section 152:

(1)    The councils set up pursuant to Law No 74/23 of 5 December 1974 to organized councils, and subsequent amendments thereto, shall cease to be urban or rural councils, with effect from the date of enactment of this law.

(2)    Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding subsection, councils bearing identical names by virtue of a change in status shall retain their former name, until the publication of a decree of the President of the Republic changing their name

 

Section 153: A council whose office is located in another council area shall have a period of 18 (eighteen) months with effect from the date of enactment of this law to transfer the said office to its own council area.

 

Section 154: city and urban councils governed by special regulations in existence on the date of enactment of this law shall continue to function until they comply with the provision of this law.

 

Section 155:

(1)   Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 156 below, council existing on the date of enactment of this law shall continue to function until compliance with the provisions of this law

(2)   Councils elected before the enactment of this law shall remain in place until expiry of their office

(3)   Their subsequent re-election shall be conducted in accordance with the regulations in force.

 

Section 156: The modalities of application of this shall be laid down by statutory instruments

 

Section 157: The provisions of Laws No 74/23 of 5 December 1974 to organize councils, and 87/15 of 15 July 1987 to set up city councils and subsequent amendments thereto, and are herby repealed.

Section 158: This law shall be registered, published according to the procedure of urgency and inserted in the official Gazette in English and French.

 

 Yaounde, 22 JULY. 2004

                                                                                                                                              PAUL BIYA

                                                                                                                                                     PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC

REPUBIC OFCAMEROON                                                                                                                                     PEACE – WORK – FATHERLAND

 

LAW No.    2004/019 OF 22 JUIL 2004

 

TO LAY DOWN RULES APPLICABLE TO REGIONS

 

The National Assembly deliberated and adopted,

The President of the Republic hereby enacts the

Law set out below:

PART I
GENERAL PROVISIONS

 

Section 1: The law lays down the rues applicable to regions, in accordance with the provisions of the law on the orientation of decentralization

 

Section 2:

(1)   The region shall be a regional authority comprising several divisions.

(2)   The creation ,change of annex and modification of boundaries of regions shall be governed by Article 61 of the Constitution

 

Section 3: The chief town of each province that becomes a region shall be the chief town of that region

 

Section 4:

(1) The boundaries or chief town of administrative units shall be modified where:

–       A council or part thereof is attached to a region;

–       The geographical boundaries of regions are modified;

–       New chief towns are established

(2) The attachment of a council are a part thereof to a region shall be subject to the approval of the council and regional councils concerned.

 

Section 5: The modifications of a region shall enter into force on the date of the holding of the first session of the regional council of the newly created entity unless otherwise provided for in the amendment decree. In this case the decree shall make provision for the dissolution of the said regional council(s).

 

Section 6:

(1)   The instruments modifying the boundaries of one more region shall set out conditions thereof, in particular, those on the devolution of property

(2)   The instruments referred to in preceding subsection shall also lay down conditions for granting the under- mentioned property either to a region or regions of attachment or to the State:

 

–       lands and buildings forming part of State property;

–       private property of the State

–       donations meant for the defunct region

 

Section 7: in accordance with the laws in force, a region may

–       carry out activities to supplement those of the State;

–       proposed to councils under its jurisdiction, all measures to foster the coordination of local development and investment actions

 

Section 8:

(1)         Where a regional council deliberates outside its statutory session or on a matter not falling under its jurisdiction, the representative of the state shall take appropriate measures to stop the meeting forthwith.

(2)         Accordingly regional councils shall not issue declarations and statements, give political views that undermine territorial integrity or national unity or entertain relations with one or more regional councils outside the cases provided by the laws in force

(3)         In keeping with subsection (2) above, the representative of the state shall institute legal proceedings against regional councilors guilty of such opinions, statements, declarations or relations

(4)         Where the participants at the meeting are sentenced, the court decision shall exclude them from the regional council and declare them ineligible for re-election for a period of 5 (live) years following the sentence.

 

PART II

 

MANAGEMENT AND US OF PRIVATE PROPERTY

OF THE STATE, PUBLIC PROPERTY

AND NATIONAL LANDS BY REGIONS

 

Section 9: The power devolved upon regions in matters of land tenure shall be exercise in strict compliance with provision of the land laws in force, in so far as those provisions are not contrary to this law

 

CHAPTER I

PRIVATE PROPERTY OF THE STATE

Section 10:

(1)    The State may transfer to regions all or part of its movable or immovable private property or enter into agreement with the said regions on the base of such property

(2)    The transfer by the State of movable and immovable property referred to in preceding subsection, may be effected , either at the request of regions or the initiative of the state to enable them to carry out their mission xxx service or provide public facilities

 

Section 11: In accordance with the provisions of Section 10 above, the State can either facilitate the freehold by regions to all or part of the state ‘s movable and immovable private property, or simply grant theses region user rights over xxx of its movable and immovable property

 

CHAPTER II

PUBLIC PROPERTY

 

Section 12:

1)      Projects or operations of local interest initiated on public coastlands and waterways by natural persons, regional and local authorities or other corporate bodies, shall require the authorization  of   the regional council decision, upon the recommendation of the local council where the project is xxxxxx

2)      The decision referred to in the preceding subsection shall be reward for approval by the representative of the state

Section 13: For projects or operations initiated by the State on public coastland water ways, either in the exercise of sovereignty, or  in the perspective of noting economic and social development or regional development purposes, the State shall take a decision after consultation with the regional state otherwise. In the latter case, the state shall communicate its decision to regional council, for information.

Section 14:

(1)   In zones falling under public coastlands and waterways for each special development plans have been approved by the State , management … shall be delegated by the layette to the regions concerned, for area thereof which have been devolved upon them in the abovementioned plans

(2)   The royalties accruing therefore shall be paid to the regions concerned

(3)   Management instruments issued by the president of the regional council shall be submitted for approval by the representative of the State and then forwarded to the regional council for information

Section 15: the artificial public property shall be managed exclusively by the State. However the State may transfer to regions in accordance with conditions reclassification which are laid down by an implementation decree of the law of management of ancient monuments

 

CHAPTER III

NATIONAL LAND

 

Section 16:

(1)   Projects or operations initiated by a region shall be located in accordance with the land laws and regulation in force

(2)   For the projects or operations, which it initiate on national lands, the State shall take a decision after consultation with the region concerned except where national defense or public policy requirements dictate otherwise.

(3)   The decision referred to in preceding subsection shall be awarded to the regional council concerned for information

Section 17:

(1)   For any project or operation within the jurisdiction of the state to be implemented in urban areas, the State shall take a decision after consultation with the region concerned

(2)   The decision referred t in the preceding subsection shall be rectified to the regional council

 

PART III

POWERS DEVOLVED UPON REGIONS

 

CHAPTER I

 

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

  1. I.                   ECONOMIC ACTION

Section 18: the following powers shall be devolved upon regions

–       promoting small and medium –sized enterprise

–       organizing trade fairs and exhibitions;

–       promoting handicrafts;

–       promoting framing, livestock and fishery activities

–       encouraging business operators to set up regional groups;

–       supporting income and job generating micro-projects

–       developing tourism

 

  1. II.                MANAGEMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES

 

Section 19: The following powers shall be devolved upon region:

–       managing, protecting and maintaining protection areas and natural  sites falling within the jurisdiction of the region;

–       preserving and protecting of nature;

–       managing water resources of the region;

–       creating regional woodland, forest and protected area according to a plan duly approved by the representative of the State;

–       providing firebreaks and setting early fire to check bush fires;

–       managing natural parks of the region according to a plan submitted for the approval of the representative of the State;

–       formulating ,implementing and monitoring regional plans or guidelines for environmental actions;

–       formulating specific regional plans for emerging intervention and risk prevention

  1. III.             PLANNING ,REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT, PUBLIC WORKS, TOWN PLANNING AND HOUSING

 

Section 20: The following powers shall be devolved upon regions:

–       formulating and implementing regional development plan;

–       signing with the State ,plan contracts for the achievement of development objectives ;

–       participating in the organization and management of public intercity transport;

–       coordinating development actions;

–       formulating in accordance with the national plan, regional guidelines for development;

–       participating in the preparation of urban planning documents and master plans of regional and local authorities ;

–       rehabilitating and maintaining divisional and regional roads;

–       supporting the action of councils in town planning and housing matters

 

CHAPTER II

HEALTH AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

 

HEALTH AND SACIAL ACTION

Section 21: The following powers shall be devolved upon regions;

–       creating in accordance with the health map, equipping ,managing and maintaining  health centers within the region;

–       supporting health facilities and social establishments;

–       implementing prevention and hygiene measures;

–       participating in maintaining and managing social advancement and /or rehabilitation centers;

–       organizing  and managing assistance to the needy;

–       participating in organizing and managing drug supply ,essential reagents and appliances in accordance with the national health policy

 

CHAPTER III

EDUCATIONAL, SPORTS AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

 

I. EDUCATION, LITERACY AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING

 

Section 22: The following powers shall be devolved upon regions:

Education:

–       participating in drawing up and implementing the regional portion of the national school location map;

–       creating, equipping and maintaining government high school and colleges in the region;

–       Recruiting and paying support staff of State schools and secondary schools;

–       Distributing and awarding school grants and scholarships;

–       Participating in the acquisition of school manuals and supplies;

–       Participating in the management and administration of government high schools and colleges through forums for dialogue and consultation;

–       Supporting the action of councils in the areas of primary and nursery education.

 

Literacy:

–       formulating and implementing regional plans for the elimination of illiteracy;

–       doing a yearly evaluation of the execution of literacy campaigns;

–       recruiting personnel in charge of literacy campaigns;

–       training of trainers;

–       designing and producing teaching aids

–       drawing up the literacy amp

–       providing school infrastructure and facilities

–       monitoring and evaluating illiteracy campaigns

 

Vocational Training:

–       Comprehensive census of the region’s trade and drawing up of a receptoire of existing vocational training course with an indication of the aptitude required and the training profile;

–       Participating in drawing up the regional portion of the school location map as concerns technical education and vocational training;

–       Formulating a forward-looking training plan;

–       Refurbishing and maintaining training establishments, canters and institutes in the region;

–       Recruiting and paying support staff;

–       Participating in the acquisition of teaching aids, in particular, supplies and working materials;

–       Participating in the management and administration of State training canters through dialogue and consultation forums;

–       Formulating a regional plan for the vocational integration of youth;

–       Assisting in the drawing up of school-enterprise partnership contracts.

 

II. YOUTH, SPORT AN DLEISURE

 

Section 24: The following powers shall be devolved upon region;

(a)   Culture

–       promoting and developing cultural activities;

–       contributing to the surveillance and protection of conservation sites, ancient monuments, and discovery of prehistoric or historic relies;

–       organizing cultural weeks ,traditional cultural events and literary and artistic contest;

–       creating and running regional bands, traditional song groups , ballets and drama groups;

–       creating and running regional socio-cultural canters and public libraries ;

–       collecting and translating works of oral ,traditional ,such as tales myths and legends with a view to facilitating their publication;

–       providing support to cultural associations

(b)   Developing of national languages

–       encouraging functional fluency in national languages and producing a regional language map;

–       Supporting publishing in national languages;

–       Developing print and broadcast media in national languages;

–       Building facilities and infrastructure.

 

PART IV
REGIONAL ORGANS

 

Section 25: regional shall have the following organs

–       the regional council

–       the president of the regional council

 

CHAPTER I

REGIONAL COUNCIL

 

  1. I.  COMPOSITION

Section 26:

(1)   The regional council shall be the deliberative organ of the region. It shall comprise regional councilors elected  for a five-year term

The regional council shall comprise:

–       Divisional delegate elected by indirect universal suffrage;

–       Representatives of traditional rulers elected by their peers. They shall be elected in accordance with conditions define by law

(2)   The regional council  shall reflect the various sociological areas of the regions

 

Section 27: members of Parliament of the region shall attend proceedings of the regional council in an advisory capacity

 

  1. II.  DUTIES

Section 28: The regional council shall settle regional matters by deliberation

 

Section 29: The regional council shall decide on matters provided for by the region on the orientation of decentralization as well as those provided for by this law

 

Section 30:

(1)   The regional council may delegate part of its duties to the regional exeutive, save for those mentioned in Section 32 and 33 below.  The attendant decision taken upon deliberating shall set out the purview and duration be duties so selected. At the expiry of the delegation, the regional council will be informs thereof.

(2)   It shall appoint ,from among its members ,delegates to external duties in compliance with the instruments governing the said bodies withstanding the terms of office of such members or delegate set out in the instruments , the regional council shall be empowered , when it deems it necessary ,to replace such person before the end of their terms

 

  1. III. FUNCTIONING

 

Section 31:

(1)     The regional council shall meet in ordinary session once every quarter when convened by its president. The duration of each session may  not need 8(eight) days save for the budget session, which may be held for 15 (fifteen) days

(2)     During the election of new regional councilors and during the initial establishment of regional councils, the first session shall be convened automatically on the second Tuesday following the proclamation of results. In that case, the meeting shall be convened by the representative of the State.

(3)      In the case of election of new regional councilors, in accordance with the provision of subsection (2) above, the power of the ongoing council shall expire at the opening of the session held as of right

 

Section 32: The regional council shall also meet in extraordinary session with a rectified agenda at the behest of:

–   Its president;

–   At least 2/3 (two-thirds) of its members for a duration of no more than 3 (three ) days; a councilor may not make more than one request for a session every year;

–   The representative of the State

 

Section 33:

(1)         The regional council shall comprise 4 9four) committees each headed by a committee member:

–       the committee on administrative and legal matters ,rules of procedure;

–       the committee on education, health ,population, social and cultural affairs ,youth and sports;

–       the committee on finance ,infrastructure development, planning and economic development;

–       the committee on thee environment, regional development , land, town planning and housing

(3)   Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding sub-section, the regional council may:

–       Set up or dissolve any other committee upon deliberation, at the request of its chairperson or 2/3 (two-third) of its members;

–       Invite any person , on account of his expertise in a specific item on the agenda to attend proceeding of a regional council or committee meetings;

–       Create or dissolve any ad hoc committee.

 

Section 34:

(1)   Regional councilors shall be entitled to allowances and the xxxx.of any expenses incurred in the discharge of their suits.

(2)    A regional councilors who is chairman or member of a special body  provided for under section 50 herein shall be entitled to a daily allowance,  travel allowance charge to the budget of the region, for the performance i.e. duties assigned to him by the special body

(3)    Persons invited in the advisory capacity and members ,excluding the appointed to Ad hoc committee shall be entitled to an allowance

 

Section 35:

(1)    The allowance and expenses referred to in Section 34 above shall be charge to an appropriation generated from total revenue collected as marked on the approved administrative account of the previous financial year.

(2)    The appropriation referred to in the preceding sub-section marked for the initial establishment of regional councils shall be charge d to common Decentralization Fund

(3)    The calculation of amounts, the condition for paying allowances to regional councilors and persons invited in an advisory capacity as xxxx. As the refund of expenses referred to in subsection (1) above shall be  xxx By regulation

 

Section 36:

(1)   The minister in charge of regional and local authorities shall set up joint comprising delegates appointed from each regional council for the purpose of drawing up draft rules of procedure.

(2)   The rules of procedure referred to in the preceding subsection shall be rendered enforceable by order of the minister in charge of regional and local authorities.

 

Section 38:

(1)   A regional councilor who is unable to attend a meeting may be a written proxy to another councilors

(2)   A regional councilors may hold only one proxy

(3)   The regional council may nullify the proxy of a councilor where it deems that the grounds of the giver of the proxy for absence are not fund

 

Section 40:

(1)   Notices of the meeting referred to in Section 3 (1) must reach regional councilors within 15 (fifteen) clear days before the meetings.

(2)   They shall include working documents related to each items on the agenda. As  and when necessary, the president of the regional council shall draw up a report on each of the items

 

Section 41:

(1)   The president shall inform the regional council through a special report presented in the month of January following the end of the financial year, via the situation of the region, devolved powers, activities and functioning of the various services and bodies of the region as well as appropriations.

(2)   The report referred to in the preceding subsection shall state the status of implementation of the decisions of the regional council and the financial situation of the region. It shall be discussed forwarded to the representative of the State for information and then published

Section 42:

(1)    The