Municipal Development Counselling (MUDEC) Group .:: MUDEC GROUP ::.
  • Our Mission

    • Reducing poverty in our municipalities through encouraging gender equality and increasing citizen (End User) participation in democratic and governance processes.

Gender Audit

 

Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

 

This Gender Audit was commissioned and sponsored by the Local

 

Government Training Center- Buea.

 

The Gender Audit team therefore wishes to express their appreciation to

 

the CEFAM Board of Directors for approving and financing the Gender Audit.

 

The team equally wishes to express their profound gratitude to the

 

management of CEFAM especially the Director, Mme Eloundou Marie-

 

Therese, for her active cooperation and for facilitating the whole process,

 

providing valuable information when interviewed.

 

Our sincere thanks go to the entire staff and student of CEFAM who

 

provided us with valuable information. Special thanks also to all the

 

respondents who were interviewed or who completed questionnaires during the

 

Audit.

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Acknowledgments

 

 

 

………………………………………………………2

 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

……………………………………………………….3

 

Executive Summary

 

 

 

…………………………………………………….4

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.

TERMS OF REFERENCE OF THE GENDER AUDIT………7

1.1) Introduction………………………………………………………….7

 

1.2) The Problem Statement……………………………………………8

 

1.3) Objective of the Gender Audit…………………………………….9

 

1.4) The scope of the Gender Audit…………………………………….9

 

1.5) Limitations of the Gender Audit…………………………………10

 

1.6) Expected products of the Gender Audit………………………….10

 

1.7) Methodology of the Gender Audit……………………………….11

 

1.8) Methods used……………………………………………………..11

 

1.9) Instruments used…………………………………………………12

 

1.10) Implementation arrangements……………………………………12

 

1.11) The Gender Audit Team…………………………………………12

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

2.

 

CEFAM – BACKGROUND

……………………………………14

2.1) Creation of CEFAM………………………………………………14

 

2.2) Purpose of CEFAM………………………………………………14

 

2.3) Policies of CEFAM………………………………………………14

 

2.4) Strategies of CEFAM…………………………………………….14

 

2.5) Activities of CEFAM…………………………………………….15

 

2.6) Organization and Management of CEFAM………………………17

 

2.7) Beneficiaries and Partners of CEFAM…………………………..19

 

2.8) Services for which CEFAM needs partnership…………………..32

 

2.9) Support/Supervisory Organizations of CEFAM…………………32

 

2.10) Future plans of CEFAM………………………………………….32

 

 

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

CHAPTER THREE

 

3.

GENDER GAPS IDENTIFIED………………………………………34

3.1)

Policies and Strategies of CEFAM.……………………………………34

3.2)

Organization and Management of CEFAM………………………34

3.3) CEFAM Staff…………………………………………………….35

 

3.4) Budgetary allocation……………………………………………..36

 

3.5) Local Government training………………………………………37

 

3.6) Beneficiaries……………………………………………………..38

 

3.7) The positioning of women by political parties…………………..38

 

3.8) The legal framework……………………………………………..38

 

3.9) Partners…………………………………………………………..38

 

3.10) Constraints/problems faced by CEFAM in bringing about Gender

 

equality in CEFAM and Councils………………………………..38

 

CHAPTER FOUR

 

4.

 

 

PROPOSALS FOR GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN

LOCAL GOVERNMENT TRAINING

 

 

 

……………………….39

4.1) Organisation and Management of CEFAM…………..………….39

 

4.2) CEFAM Management……………………………………………40

 

4.3) CEFAM Staff…………………………………………………….40

 

4.4) Budgetary allocation……………………………………………..40

 

4.5) Local Government Training………………………………………41

 

4.6) Beneficiaries……………………………………………………….42

 

4.7) Partners…………………………………………………………..43

 

4.8) Conclusion ………………………………………………………43

 

 

 

References…………………………………………………………………45

 

Annexes..…………………………………………………………………..46

 

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LIST OF TABLES

 

Plan of Work……………………………………………………………………12

 

Educational Qualification……………………………………………………….17

 

Management staff of gender…………………………………………………….17

 

Gender Representation in position held……………………………………….18

 

Family size of Council…………………………………………………………20

 

Council staff educational level by Gender…………………………………….21

 

Decision making in the Council……………………………………………….24

 

Roles of Councillors……………………………………………………………25

 

Gender Representation………………………………………………………..25

 

Differences between male and female Mayors………………………………..30

 

Participation guide…………………………………………………………….44

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

CEFAM Ex-Students by Gender………………………………………………16

 

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

 

Despite of some progress from much advocated gender and development

 

programmes in different aspects of life in recent years, women are still under

 

represented in senior government positions in the formal and private sectors and

 

in most cases are excluded from the decision making process in Cameroon.

 

Considering this situation, which needs to be addressed, a gender audit was put

 

in place.

 

However, the situation calls for a need to carry out a gender audit with

 

the aim of further identifying gender gaps/ imbalances in local governance

 

which will help build strategies to improve on the training and outreach

 

programmes of CEFAM.

 

The audit started in April and was programmed to end in June 2003.

 

During this period, the gender audit team had the work of carrying out

 

interviews with the management, staff and students of CEFAM for the first

 

phase. The 2

 

nd

phase looked at the other organs, stakeholders and beneficiaries

of CEFAM activities such as Mayors, Councillors, Council staff, Council

 

beneficiaries (by gender representation), partners, supervisory authorities and

 

Council Support Fund (FEICOM)

 

Several methods were used satisfactorily to acquire information to feed

 

the audit report. The sample size could not be reached because of budgetary

 

constraints. These notwithstanding, plausible results were arrived at. An overall

 

expected out put of this audit is the proposal for strategies for gender sensitive

 

curriculum/mainstreaming for local government training.

 

 

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0 TERMS OF REFERENCE OF THE GENDER AUDIT

 

1.1 INTRODUCTION

 

The Local Government Training Center known by its French acronym as

 

CEFAM, is the only state institution responsible for building the capacities of

 

councils in Cameroon. It is responsible for the training of elected councilors and

 

council staff. Since its inception in 1977, Gender and Development have not

 

been given a serious thought.

 

At a time when Cameroon is planning to decentralize and give regions

 

increased autonomy and authority, CEFAM should take a lead to ensure that

 

males and females of all ages equitably participate and benefit from Local

 

Government. For this to happen, CEFAM needs to improve on its gender

 

mainstreaming in order to assist councils to make policies and programmes

 

more gender sensitive and therefore make for better local governance.

 

There is greater awareness of the need for ethics, accountability, equal

 

participation of both sexes of all ages as well as transparency in public life

 

today. This realization has been supported by the emergence of a consensus that

 

good governance and sound public administration underpin sustainable human

 

development.

 

Sound governance is increasingly being perceived as indispensable to

 

development, effective management, peace, stability and security. It is for this

 

reason that organisations such as the United Nations Development Program

 

(UNDP) ASSIST African countries to develop capacities for various

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

dimensions of sound governance. The UNDP, for instance ,gives assistance for

 

activities related to:

 

 

 

Governing institutions,legislatures,judiciaries and electoral bodies;

 

 

 

 

Public and private sector management;

 

 

 

 

Civil society organisations

 

 

 

 

Decentralization and Local governance

 

 

 

 

Countries in special circumstances

Decentralization and the participation of Civil Society in public life and

 

capacity building are very important aspect of sound governance an area

 

CEFAM is actively involved in. However, it is today widely accepted that the

 

above mentioned elements cannot result in good governance if gender is not

 

taken into consideration and local development in particular. As far as

 

decentralization is concerned, the increased participation of civil society in

 

public life and local governance can only succeed with the emergence of an

 

egalitarian society where men and women are free to decide the pace and

 

direction of their development. An egalitarian society cannot emerge when the

 

capacities of women who constitute more than 51% of Cameroon’s population

 

are not developed nor enhanced especially in the aspect of local governance.

 

 

 

1.2 THE PROBLEM STATEMENT

 

Despite their economic importance in Cameroon, women are not recognised

 

as equal partners having the capacity for political and economic leadership;thus

 

they remain “invisible” in the policy arena. In many cases, customary or

 

codifies laws that govern inheritance, property rights, land tenure and use as

 

well as access to financial resources and educational /training facilities put

 

women at a disadvantage. In spite of some progress in recent years in

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

Cameroon, women are still under- represented in senior government positions

 

in the formal and private sectors and in most cases , are excluded from the

 

decision- making processes.

 

In the domain of local government, this situation is critical. A study

 

commissioned by the British Council Yaounde, carried out by the “Project

 

Parity” (Abdela,2000) indicates that in the previous mandate of elected

 

officials, only 2 out of 300 mayors are women; and only 12% of councillors

 

were women. From available information, it appears that there was only a very

 

slight increase in the number of women in council executive and deliberating

 

organs from the last council elections in June 2002. Even at the level of council

 

personnel, a casual observation of duty posts held by women in some council

 

shows that women are generally employed in support roles as secretaries and

 

clerks.

 

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE GENDER AUDIT

 

The objectives of the Gender Audit are as follows:

 

a) General Objectives

 

 

 

To identify gender gaps/imbalance/ inequalities in Local

governance and make recommendations for mainstreaming gender

 

in CEFAM training programmes.

 

 

 

b) Specific Objectives

 

 

 

To investigate gender issues in local government training;

 

 

 

 

To identify gender gaps in CEFAM and its outreach activities;

 

 

 

 

To determine what constraints/problems CEFAM faces in

mainstreaming gender;

 

 

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

 

 

To identify gender gaps in local council activities and

management;

 

 

 

 

 

To make recommendations for gender mainstreaming in local

government training;

 

 

 

 

 

To propose a methodology for the development of an appropriate

gender sensitive curriculum for mainstreaming gender into local

 

government

 

 

 

1.4 THE SCOPE OF THE GENDER AUDIT

 

Focus: An audit is an examination or review that assesses and reports

on the extent to which a condition, process or performance conforms

 

to standards and procedures (UNDP,2000). This gender audit will

 

review and seek to identify gender gaps in local governance and local

 

government training and make recommendations for the

 

mainstreaming of gender in CEFAM training programmes and

 

activities.

 

Time frame: The first place of this gender audit which entailed

carrying out the audit in CEFAM took place in April 2003. The 2

 

 

nd

 

 

phase, comprising field visits ran from May to July 2003. As a resultsharing

 

symposium was previewed for later in the year.

 

Geographic Coverage. The audit was carried out with CEFAM

management, staff and students. Later, questionnaires were

 

administered to Councils and Mayors as well as to some supervisory

 

authorities such as the Director of Local Government in MINATD.

 

These persons were interviewed through out the entire country.

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

Subject of the study. For the first phase CEFAM management, staff

and students would be the subject of study. For the second phase,

 

members of the CEFAM Board of Directors, CEFAM beneficiaries

 

(Councils) and partners as well as supervisory authorities will be

 

interviewed and /or questioned. From the Councils, the following

 

were interviewed and/or questioned via questionnaires:

 

 

 

 

Mayors (Male and Female)

 

 

 

 

Councillors (Male and Female)

 

 

 

 

Council Staff (Male and Female)

 

 

 

 

Council Beneficiaries(Male and Female)

Partners include International and local partners of CEFAM and Councils

 

 

1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE GENDER AUDIT

 

The main limiting factor of the Gender Audit was as follows:

 

The Response of Questionnaires: Some of the respondents who were

French speaking left many questions unanswered and some students

 

did not respond at all. For instance out of 45 questionnaires given out

 

to students only 34 were recorded. The team feels this may have a

 

slight effect on the information obtained. Due to budgetary and time

 

constraints it was not possible to carry out extensive audit of some

 

local council organizational systems.

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

1.6 EXPECTED PRODUCTS OF THE GENDER AUDIT

 

Expected outputs are as follows:

 

1) Identification of gender gaps/imbalances in local government

 

training and Council activities/management

 

2) Gender sensitization of CEFAM and Councils

 

3) Proposal of strategies for gender mainstreaming into local

 

government training and management of councils

 

4) Suggestion of strategies for an appropriate gender sensitive

 

curriculum for local government training

 

5) Suggestion of strategies for appropriate gender sensitive

 

manuals/toolkit for local government training;

 

6) Suggestion for the organisation of training of trainers on gender

 

and local government

 

1.7 METHODOLGY OF THE GENDER AUDIT

 

In order to get the information, the following questions were

 

looked into

 

a) Key questions:

 

How gender sensitive is CEFAM?

 

b) Implementing questions:

 

 

 

How gender sensitive is CEFAM in its policies an dobjectives?

 

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

 

 

How gender sensitive is CEFAM in its strategies of improving the

capacities of local government authorities in terms of recruitment of

 

trainees and outreach activities?

 

 

 

 

 

How gender sensitive is CEFAM in its activities?

 

 

 

 

What are the problems/constraints that militate against gender

mainstreaming in CEFAM?

 

 

 

1.8 Methods used:

 

 

 

The multiple stage clueter sampling method was used to select the

subject of study.

 

For the first phase, CEFAM management,staff and students were selected

 

as primary units. For the second phase:-

 

 

 

 

 

Interviews were carried out with Mayors, Council Staff, Councilors,

Partners, FEICOM, International Organisations

 

 

 

 

 

Questionnaires were filled by some members of the

community/councilors

 

 

 

 

 

Information was gathered through observation

Interviews: As earlier mentioned, CEFAM management staff were

 

interviewed.

 

 

 

 

 

Questionnaires were administered to staff and students.

 

 

 

 

A focus group discussion was held with the auxiliary/ kitchen staff.

 

 

 

 

Observation: Some issues reported on were observed

 

 

 

 

Use of key informant: Certain staff members in key positions valuable

information.

 

Literature Review: A quick review of the books in CEFAM library was made.

 

In addition, document from CEFAM on such issues as the organisation, the

 

staff and student lists, the Board of Directors lists were reviewed. The

 

 

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

documents of the planning summits of 1999 and 2001 as well as workshop /

 

seminar reports between 1985 – 2003 were reviewed.

 

1.10 INSTRUMENTS USED

 

Instruments used were as follows:

 

 

 

Interview guides

 

 

 

 

Questionnaires

 

 

 

 

Observation check lists

 

 

 

 

Focus group discussion guides

 

 

1.11 IMPLEMENTATION ARRANGEMENTS

 

 

 

Management arrangement: The management facilitated the audit process

by ensuring that the staff and students cooperated with the audit team.

 

 

 

 

 

Plan of work: The plan of work was shown in the table below.

No Activity Consultants Deadline

 

1 First phase of Gender Audit Gender Audit Team April – June

 

2003

 

2 Second Phase of gender

 

audit

 

The whole team June -July 2003

 

3 Data Analysis and

 

Reporting

 

The whole team July 2003

 

4 Debriefing of CEFAM

 

Management and handing

 

over

 

The whole team July 2003

 

 

 

1.12 THE GENDER AUDIT TEAM

 

Mr. Charlie Mbonteh:

 

 

 

MBA, Team Leader MUDEC Group, Gender

practitioner (Coordinator)

 

 

Ms Beatrice Eyong:

 

 

 

MSC in Agricultural Extension (University of Reading-

UK) Gender specialist, trainer and extentionist. Specialised in Gender Analysis

 

and Planning, production of media for extension, management of extension

 

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

staff and micro-finance policies. Worked with the United Nations Development

 

Programme (UNDP) Yaounde, SOWEDA and PAID-WA.

 

Ms Esther Binda:

 

 

 

M.A Women and Gender Studies (University of Makerere,

Uganda) Gender Analyst working with PAID-WA Buea, as a gender trainer.

 

 

Ms Gospel Nti:

 

 

 

Post Graduate Diploma, Gender Analyst (Nkong Hill Top

CIG-Buea) Gender Trainer/ Rural Animator.

 

 

Mr. Vincent Anu:

 

 

 

CEFAM Lecturer and Contact person

 

Research Assistants:

 

Mr. Eugene Atem (Coordinator and Development Practitioner EFOLOD,

 

Limbe)

 

Mr. Clifford Olaf (Administrative Assistant and Project Facilitator,

 

MUDEC Group)

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

2.0 CEFAM / COUNCILS BACKGROUND

 

2.1 CREATION OF CEFAM

 

CEFAM was established in December 1977. Prior to this , the institution

 

had existed as the Local Government Training Institute for West

 

Cameroon from 1969

 

2.2 PURPOSE OF CEFAM

 

CEFAM WAS CREATED TO BUILD THE CAPACITY OF

 

LOCAL COUNCILS

 

 

 

. Its main objectives are to

 

 

 

Train and retrain councilors and council staff

 

 

 

 

Organise seminars/refresher courses for councilors, council staff

and personnel of council supervisory authorities.

 

 

 

2.3 POLICIES OF CEFAM:

 

The policy of CEFAM is to enhance the capacities of councils in

 

Cameroon

 

2.4 STRATEGIES OF CEFAM:

 

Strategies used by CEFAM to carry out its policy of capacity

 

enhancements of councils are as follows:

 

·

 

 

Identification of problems in councils

 

 

·

 

 

Training needs analysis;

 

 

·

 

 

Pedagogic meetings

 

 

·

 

 

Organisation of demand driven seminars/refresher courses;

 

 

·

 

 

Use of partners

 

 

·

 

 

Training Courses;

 

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

·

 

 

Outreach activities

2.5 ACTIVITIES OF CEFAM:

 

CEFAM has the following 3 major activities whose main focus is on

 

local government training:

 

 

 

·

 

 

Training

 

 

·

 

 

Consultancy

 

 

·

 

 

Research on Local Government Training

 

 

2.5.1 Training:

 

In order to execute training courses, CEFAM carries out pedagogoc missions to

 

identify the need of the councils. CEFAM runs two types of courses: the long

 

and short courses.

 

2.5.1.1 Long Courses:

 

The long course run for two years on two levels of training namely:

 

Cycle 1 and Cycle 2. Cycle 1 students come in with G.C.E ‘A’ Levels or the

 

French equivalent while Cycle 2 students come in with G.C.E ‘O’ Levels.

 

Though both have similar content, Cycle 1 is of highly specialised. Generally,

 

the course content includes:

 

 

 

Accounting Systems;

 

 

 

 

Bilingual Training (French and English)

 

 

 

 

Computer skills;

 

 

 

 

Council Finance;

 

 

 

 

Drafting administrative acts;

 

 

 

 

Economic and financial analysis of projects;

 

 

 

 

Environment and development;

 

 

 

 

Good Governance;

 

 

 

 

Judicial Institutions;

 

 

 

 

Labour Disputes;

 

 

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Managerial Accounting;

 

 

 

 

Mobilization of Resources;

 

 

 

 

Personnel management;

 

 

 

 

Project Management;

 

 

 

 

Public Contracts

 

 

 

 

Sports;

 

 

 

 

Town Planning Administration;

 

 

 

 

Treasury Management;

 

 

Students

 

 

 

:Students are selected from councils within the Cameroon entire

country. They are recruited according to the following criteria:

 

 

 

 

Educational qualifications;

 

 

 

 

Medical fitness;

 

 

 

 

Authorization from Councils;

 

 

 

 

Sponsorship by councils;

 

 

 

 

Bilingualism: ability to speak French and English;

 

 

 

 

Pass in the entrance examination.

CEFAM has trained over 700 students since its creation in 1977. Of

 

these, 30% are females, while 70% are males

 

CEFAM EX- TRAINERS (GENDER)

 

 

 

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2.5.1.2 Short Courses:

 

Short courses are demand driven and hence organised following the

 

needs of the councils. The duration of these courses is between one to three

 

months. Participants come from councils within the entire national territory.

 

 

 

Selection Criteria: Candidates must have authorization and sponsorship

from their respective councils. These courses are usually adverised like

 

the long courses. Over 1000 participants have been trained. No gender –

 

disaggregated data was available for these course participants

 

ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT OF CEFAM

 

CEFAM is a state institute under the ministry of Territorial

 

Administration and Decentralization. It has a Board of Directors that takes

 

decisions and gives its approval on the policies and activities of CEFAM

 

 

 

 

 

Board of Directors (BOD): The BOD of CEFAM is made up of

15members. Out of these members, 2 (13.5%) are women. Members of

 

this BOD come from concerned ministries.

 

 

 

 

 

Management Staff: The management staff is made up of 5 people. Of

these 80% are male and 20% are female. 60 % of the management staff

 

are between 41-50 years of age,20% fall between 31-40 years while the

 

remaining 20% are above 50 years. For the educational background, 80%

 

of them have at least a first degree. The detailed educational

 

qualifications of management staff are represented in the table below.

 

 

 

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EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION PERCENTAGE

 

BA/ BSc 40

 

Post Graduate Diploma 20

 

BA /BSc + MA/MSc 40

 

Management Staff Percentage

 

Male 80

 

Female 20

 

Table percentage of management Staff by gender.

 

For their professional background, 40% are teachers, 20% economist and civil

 

administrators, 20 % controller of finance have been Secretary General in the

 

Council.

 

The following table gives the gender representation in positions held

 

Posts Director Assistant

 

Director

 

Head of

 

Pedagogic

 

service

 

Chief of

 

service

 

Administration

 

and finance

 

Controller

 

of Finance

 

Sex Female Male Male Male Male

 

Table: Gender representation in positions held

 

Longevity of Service: 80% of the management staff worked for atleast

15 years while 20% have worked for less than 15 years. The longest

 

serving management staff in CEFAM has worked for 24 years. 60% of

 

these staff have worked in CEFAM for less than 10 years.

 

It is worth noting that the Ministry of Territorial Administration and

 

Decentralization that appoints CEFAM management staff.

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

CEFAM Staff: The staff of CEFAM can be classified under the

following:

 

Staff on Secondment: There are 10 civil servants in secondment

who are mainly lecturers, the Director and Assistant, the Stores

 

Accountant and Accounts Clerk, of these 205 are female and 80%

 

are male.

 

Permanent Staff: These are mainly lecturers and support staff.

The total number of permanent staff is 36. Ou of these,10 are

 

women representing 27.7%. From the staff list it is observed that

 

female staff are mainly in support roles and low status positions

 

such as cooks, secretaries and cleaners. The male staff occupies

 

senior positions such as cashier and accounts clerk

 

Part Time Staff: According to the staff list, there were 15 part

time staff for 2002 second semester. Out of these, only 2 were

 

women (13.3%)

 

Staff Educational Background: The educational background of

CEFAM staff is varied. The staff on secondent have at least G.C.E

 

“A” level. For the teaching staff, the minimium educational

 

qualification is first degree. The support staff have at least first

 

school leaving certificate.

 

Staff Professional Background: Their professional background

is equally varied. The lectures’ professional background ranges

 

from teachers, civil engineers, jurist, accountants, translators,

 

development practitioners and town planning managers,

 

information and communication technologists.

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

Staff Recruitment: Vacancies are usually advertised over the

radio and through newspapers. Interested candidates are free to

 

apply. Criteria used to select the staff are as follows:

 

·

 

 

Academic qualifications (For lecturers it must be atleat first

degree. For support staff, atleast First school Leaving

 

Certificate).

 

 

 

·

 

 

Bilingualism (French and English) required.

 

 

·

 

 

For support staff. Cameroonian nationality is pre-requisite

while for lecturers they may be of any nationality.

 

Using these criteria, the best candidate is selected. Management staff, as earlier

 

mentioned is appointed by ministerial order.

 

 

 

2.6 BENEFICIARIES AND PARTNERS OF CEFAM

 

2.6.1 Beneficiaries:

 

The councils are the direct beneficiaries of CEFAM’s activities.

 

Councils interviewed were selected according to the following classifications.

 

 

 

Urban Councils

 

 

 

 

Rural Councils

 

 

 

 

Councils at provincial boundaries

 

 

 

 

Councils at International Boundaries

 

 

 

 

Councils headed by the party in power

 

 

 

 

Councils headed by the opposition parties

 

 

 

 

Council headed by female Mayors

 

 

 

 

Councils headed by Male Mayors

 

 

 

 

Councils headed by Government Delegates

 

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

The Council with the smallest size according to our sources (students’

 

questionnaires) have 3 staff in their employ while the biggest had over 800

 

workers. The council with the lowest number of councilors has 25 while those

 

with the highest number have 61 councilors.

 

Councils’ Representation bu Gender: 23.9% councillors are females

while 76.1% are males. Female representation within council staff all

 

over the nation is 32.2% while men represent66.8%. In Council

 

management women represent 22.9% and men represent 77.1%

 

The people who work in councils can be divided into council staff,

 

councilors, and mayors/ government delegates. A cross section of Councils

 

from all the 10 provinces in Cameroon was studied.

 

2.7.1.1Council Staff

 

 

 

Age structure: 28.26% of council staff, were between 18-35 years old,

39.13% were between 35-45 years and 28.26% were above 45 years old.

 

About 4.34% did not give details of their age.

 

 

 

 

 

Marital / family status: most of them are married people. 71.73% are

married, 28.27% are single and over 60% had family size between 0 – 5

 

persons. A full detail of family size can be seen in the table below.

 

Family Size Percentages

 

0 – 5 60.86

 

6 – 10 19.56

 

10 and above 23.91

 

No response 17.39%

 

Table: Family Size of Council staff

 

 

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

Could Family size be a constraint for participants to attend training in CEFAM,

 

especially for female council staff.

 

Educational / Professional background: Over 13.04% of council staff

interviewed had the FSCL or equivalent, 19.56% of had G.C.E ‘O’ level

 

or equivalent and 23.19% had ‘A’ level or equivalent while 10.86% had a

 

degree or equivalent as the highest educational qualification.

 

Generally, one can see that over 50% of council staff interviewed had at

 

least G.C.E ‘O’ Level, which is an entry qualification into CEFAM

 

Highest Educational Qualification by Provinces: Certain provinces

seem to have staff with low educational qualifications. The East and

 

North Provinces had staff with the lowest educational qualifications

 

Educational Level by Gender: Generally women’s educational level

was lower though at the G.C.E Advanced level or equivalent, the

 

percentage of women was higher than that of men (shown by the table)

 

Educational Level Female % Male% Remarks

 

FSLC 33.3% 66.7% These are of the

 

older generation

 

‘O’ Level 22.25% 77.25%

 

‘A’ L evel 72.75% 27.25 Fall between

 

18.35 which may

 

be due to

 

sensitization on

 

the education of

 

the girl child

 

Degree 0 100%

 

Table: Council Staff educational level by Gender

 

A total of 32.60% respondents gave no response and out of these 53.35% were

 

women.

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

From the foregone analysis,it seems that the entry qualification for

 

council workers (both men and women) to be trained in CEFAM is not the main

 

problem why local government women’s particpation in training is low.

 

Nevertheless, there less wer cases that need to be mentioned. A male council

 

staff working with the council for 7 years and having First School Leaving

 

Certificate is Chief of Finance. Another case was of a female staff who had

 

been working for 10 years with FSCL and who has never had training before

 

but is an administrative assistant. Such cases need to be improved upon for the

 

efficiency of the councils

 

 

 

Professional Background and Longevity of Service

 

 

The professional background of council staff is also varied. 34.78%

 

of Council staff had worked with their respective councils from 0-5 years

 

and 23.19% have worked for over 6 years. Some council staff work as chief

 

of finance, administrative assistants, provide assistance to the treasurer,

 

Secretary, senior contract office, municipal agent of MINEPIA, civil status

 

secretaries, library assistant, clerks, mails clerk.

 

Functions of Council Staff

 

Those interviewed gave the following as the functions of council staff

 

·

 

 

Assist Council staff

 

 

·

 

 

Carry out tasks assigned by the treasurer

 

 

·

 

 

Municipal treasurer and secretary

 

 

·

 

 

Civil status registry: Register births, marriages and death as well as

draw up these certificates.

 

 

 

·

 

 

Follow up hygiene and sanitation

 

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

·

 

 

Collection of council revenues

 

 

·

 

 

Personnel management Auditing

 

 

·

 

 

Producing Council magazines

 

 

·

 

 

Budgeting

 

 

 

 

Representation of the Professional Background of Council Staff by

gender

 

 

 

Some female council staff hold positions like the secretary general,

 

council treasurer and chief of service for hygiene and sanitation. The rest

 

were assistants to administrative staff, finance officers, accountants as well

 

as secretaries, market collectors, market mistress etc. Here one can see that

 

men hold most of the top positions in councils.

 

Training of Council Staff: About 78.26% of respondents admitted

having received some training. About 10% were trained between 1980 –

 

90 but have not received any training since then. Over 35% had training

 

between 19991 – 2000 and 7% were trained between 2001 – 2003

 

Experts in human development say that 20% of what one learns

 

becomes obsolete in 5 years time. This means that those trained between

 

1980 – 97 need serious retraining.

 

Those who received training were trained on:

 

·

 

 

Treasury and Financial management

 

 

·

 

 

Cycle I training in CEFAM

 

 

·

 

 

Civil status matters

 

 

·

 

 

Council administration / management

 

 

·

 

 

General administration

 

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

·

 

 

Secretariat duties

 

 

·

 

 

Communication skills

 

 

·

 

 

Computer applications

 

 

·

 

 

Revenue analysis

Others, making 21.74% reported that they have never received training for the

 

posts they occupy in the council. Out of those who have never received training,

 

66.66% were women. It is worth noting that, council workers are trained in

 

CEFAM if the mayor or government delegate approves their candidature and

 

gives written authorization. About 80% of those who have never been trained

 

said they have not been given the opportunity and that it is the mayor to decide.

 

None of the respondents indicated had any training on gender and development

 

 

 

 

 

Decision making in councils

 

 

The majority of respondents reported that decisions are taken after

 

the council commissions have deliberated and if necessary vote during

 

council sessions. Many were of the opinion that the mayor or government

 

delegates take the final decision, some even said in their councils mayors

 

take decisions alone. In fact some accused the council executives of using a

 

top – down approach. Only one respondent said decisions were taken

 

participatorily. Full details can be seen in the table below.

 

Who takes decisions % of

 

respondents

 

The mayor and executives and commission heads 72.29%

 

Mayor or government delegate 13%

 

No response 15.21

 

Not my concern 4.34%

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

Table: indicating who takes decision in the councils

 

From the table above it is evident that women’s interests are not given the

 

consideration they deserve, as few women are council executives or heads of

 

commissions.

 

2.7.1.2 COUNCILLORS

 

Age structure:

 

 

 

About 14.3% of councillors fall between 18 – 35 age range, 54 .

4 % fall between 36 – 45 years and 25.6 % were above 45 years. A total of

 

5.6% of councilors interviewed never gave any information on their age range.

 

This shows that the various age groups are represented in the councils, majority

 

of whom fall within the productive and independent age bracket.

 

 

Marital and Family status: Most of the councilors are married. About

88.57% are married, 5.77 are single and 2.85% is a widow, 2.85% did not

 

respond. Most of them are family people. 60% have family sizes ranging

 

between 0-5, 31.43% have between 6- 10 and 5.77% have family sizes of

 

above 11 people 2.85% did not respond.

 

Educational and professional Background: 40% of the councillors

interviewed have FSCL or equivalent, 22.85 had G.C.E ‘O’ Level or

 

equivalent 28.57% had G.C.E ‘A’ Level or equivalent; and 8.57% have a

 

first degree. 2.85% did not respond. Here again, as we earlier saw with

 

the council staff entry qualification is not a major constraint to participate

 

in CEFAM training.

 

Becoming a councilor: when asked why they decided to become a

councilor, 42.8% respondent said it was because they wanted to

 

participate in the development of their areas 31.43% said they wanted to

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

participate in the management of the council and meet the aspirations of

 

the people . The rest gave the following reasons:

 

·

 

 

To help party politics

 

 

·

 

 

Solve problems

 

 

·

 

 

Solve the marginalise problems

 

 

·

 

 

Interest in teamwork

Becoming a councilor requires you to

 

 

 

·

 

 

Be participating in politics

 

 

·

 

 

Live with all your rights

 

 

·

 

 

Have leadership qualities

 

 

·

 

 

Participate in the development of your area

 

 

·

 

 

Be open

 

 

·

 

 

Committed to the people. 88.57% said they become councilors

through election. Others said it was because they were members of a

 

group and their longevity in politics.

 

 

 

The role of the councilor: When asked what their role was, 21.88% said

it was to vote the council budget,31.25% opined that it was to be a

 

mediator between the population and the council while 15.63% said it

 

was to ensure the development of the area. Others gave reasons such as

 

Roles as understood by councilors Percentage %

 

Help the council to be productive 2.85%

 

Draft policy for the area 2.85%

 

Advice the mayor 2.85%

 

Act as facilitator 8.57%

 

Defend the right of your electorate 2.85%

 

Be at the disposal of the people 2.85%

 

Resolve disputes in your area 2.85%

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

Table: Roles of Councilors

 

From the above,it shows that some councilors do not fully understand their

 

roles in the council. 2.85% did not respond.

 

 

 

Training of Councilors: 4o % of Councilors reported having received

training in the following areas:

 

 

 

·

 

 

Budget and Management (14.28% of them)

 

 

·

 

 

Leadership skills (2.85% of them)

 

 

·

 

 

Rights of Council properties (2.85% of them)

 

 

·

 

 

Role of mayor and secretary general (2.85% of them)

 

 

·

 

 

Council Management (8.57% of them)

 

 

·

 

 

Roles of Councilors (14.28% of them)

 

 

·

 

 

Protection of water catchment (2.85% of them)

 

 

·

 

 

Capacity Building (2.85% of them)

 

 

·

 

 

Project organization (2.85% of them)

 

 

·

 

 

Deliberation of council budget (2.85% of them)

Again here, none of them received any training in Gender and

 

Development. On the other hand, 54.28% reported having receiving no training.

 

Reasons given were as follows:

 

-No seminars Organised (11.42% of them)

 

-Lack of such opportunities (11.42% of them)

 

-About to attend a seminar (5.71% of them)

 

-No academic institution meant for training (8.57% of them)

 

 

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

 

 

The role women play in council activities: Councillors indicated that for

the last 12 months, their councils have been in the following activities:

 

 

 

·

 

 

Construction of Schools

 

 

·

 

 

Construction of roads and bridges

 

 

·

 

 

Construction of public toilets

 

 

·

 

 

Road Maintenance

 

 

·

 

 

Construction of grand stands

 

 

·

 

 

Awarded scholarship to students

 

 

·

 

 

Water projects

In all these activities, women played an active role. All respondents agreed that

 

women played the following roles:

 

 

 

·

 

 

Participated in the social aspects

 

 

·

 

 

Provided manual labour and finances

 

 

·

 

 

Provided services as contractors (small)

 

 

·

 

 

Participated in mini agricultural show

 

 

·

 

 

Sensitisation of womens groups and children

 

 

2.7.1.3 MAYORS

 

Age structure:

 

 

 

73.33% of mayors are 45 years,20% are between 35-45 years

and 6.66% are between 30-35 years. It took as if age is an important criterion

 

for one to be selected as a mayor.

 

 

The educational /professional background: Most of the mayors

interviewed were professional teachers. The majority of the mayors have

 

been in service for less than five years.

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

Gender Representation of Mayors: 66.66% Mayors contacted were

males while 33.33% were families ,but generally out of 337 mayors,

 

women (3%) head only 9 councils.

 

Training of council staff as reported by mayor: 86.66% of mayors

admitted carrying out training for its staff while 13.33% indicated that

 

they do not carryout training for their staff.

 

Selection Criteria for training staff: 53.33% of mayors interviewed

identified intellectual/ educational qualifications as important criteria for

 

selection, 40% said it depended on service needs and availability, 13.33

 

said experience and longevity with the criteria, while 13.33% gave no

 

response and 6.66% said they have never had any training before.

 

Needs identification: When asked how needs are identified in their

localities 46.66% that needs are identified through the

 

communities13.33% said it was through Common Initiative Groups

 

(CIGs), 6.66% pointed out that it was based on councilors personal

 

experiences and 33.33% gave no response.

 

The councils do not seem to take specific actions to target particular

 

groups for council projects though some respondents admitted they have

 

done consultative meetings.

 

Sources of council funding: 40% pointed to FEICOM/CAC as the main

funding agencies, 40% said the council licenses,20% gave tolls as a

 

source of funding.

 

Respondent said the following sources of funding are available to councils

 

·

 

 

FEICOM/CAC

 

 

·

 

 

Council Licenses

 

 

·

 

 

Tolls

 

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

·

 

 

Subsidies

 

 

·

 

 

Sand exploitation

 

 

·

 

 

POBB/APE

 

 

·

 

 

Corporations

 

 

·

 

 

Other council activities

 

 

 

 

2.7.2 PARTNERS

 

 

CEFAM works with many partners who can be classified under

 

international and local partners

 

·

 

 

International partners include GTZ, SNV, The British Council,

French Corporation, The commonwealth Secretariat, DED, UNDP,

 

U N- Habitat (amongst others)

 

 

 

·

 

 

Local partners: These include strategies, MUDEC, REDEF, GM

Consultants, DMC etc.

 

 

 

2.7.2.1 International Partners

 

Out of the above mentioned international partners the audit team

 

contacted the following:

 

 

 

SNV, Yaounde but could not interview someone though they work with

councils

 

 

 

 

 

Pro-democracy, could not conduct interview because a new coordinator

is yet to be recruited.

 

How ever, we succeeded to interview the following:

 

 

 

 

 

GTZ –ADEC programme based in Yaounde

 

 

 

 

PACDDU- a European Union programme in Yaounde

 

 

 

 

Friedrich Erbert foundation

 

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

 

 

HELVETAS- in Bamenda

All of the people contacted were married and had at least a first

 

degree or equivalent and were senior officials in these organisations. 80% of

 

them were male and 20% % of female but 75% of these men seem to see a

 

gender imbalances in local governance of our country. 80% of these

 

organisations are based in Yaounde and 20% in Bamenda. 20% of them work

 

with all councils, 40% work with more than 50 councils ,20% work with more

 

than 5 councils and 20% work with 5 councils within the Republic. All of them

 

have worked with councils for at least 2 years. One has even had 10 years

 

experience with FEICOM.

 

 

 

Type of partnership with councils

 

100% of them provide technical assistance to councils and sometimes

 

use CEFAM as resource persons. 80% of them also provided other kinds of

 

assistance.

 

Area of partnership with councils

 

The areas of partnership include:

 

·

 

 

Capacity Building

 

 

·

 

 

Training of executives

 

 

·

 

 

Resource Mobilization

 

 

·

 

 

Financial support for elected council officials to attend international

conferences

 

 

 

·

 

 

Carried out monographic studies

 

 

·

 

 

Project Identification. Feasibility studies and management

 

 

·

 

 

Water supply projects

 

 

·

 

 

Finance micro projects

 

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

·

 

 

Assist village development and cultural associations

 

 

·

 

 

Refurnishing of council offices

 

 

·

 

 

Computerizing council information

 

 

·

 

 

Civil Society reinforcement

 

 

Gender Representation of the councils they work with: 60% of the

respondents said that 91 % of the councils they work with are headed by

 

men while 9% are headed by women. Those who work with 5 councils

 

said all the councils they work with are headed by men.

 

Experiences working with male and female headed councils: 60% of

those interviewed noticed differences between male and female mayors.

 

The table below highlights the differences they noticed.

 

Male Mayors Female Mayors

 

·

 

 

Men fear to loose their jobs;

 

 

·

 

 

Men want to protect their men

so they do not openly criticize

 

other men

 

 

 

·

 

 

Women are open to change

 

 

·

 

 

Women can criticise

intelligently while smiling;

 

 

 

·

 

 

Women are more concrete and

practical

 

 

 

·

 

 

Women are not interested in

politicking but want results;

 

 

 

·

 

 

Women bring more impact;

 

 

·

 

 

Women use knowledge more

efficiently than a man because a

 

prefers to drink but women want

 

to increase income;

 

 

 

·

 

 

Women can perform better than

men if they want to work

 

Table: Perception on performance of male and female mayors

 

With such wonderful attributions to female mayors, the audit team wanted to

 

know why the female participation is still low.

 

 

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

Causes of the low female participation in local government: When

asked why female participation was low, respondents gave many reasons

 

that can be classified as follows:

 

 

Educational Level:

20% of the respondents pointed to low educational

status as a major constraints. 20% agreed that the educational issue has

 

evolved ,with many educated women who want to fill the vacancies created

 

by absentee mayors (sometimes even residing out of the country).

 

 

 

The Women Factor

: Some respondents (women inclusive) mentioned that

women do not cooperate and that some women try to practice the “pull Her

 

Down” attitude. Some said women are not interested in politics and one of

 

the regions cited was the North. However, some respondents argued that

 

women are very interested, but the leadership of political parties does not

 

take gender equality seriously.

 

-Political Factor: Over 60% of respondents opined that the post of the mayor

 

has been highly politicized instead of being the people’s representative.

 

Mayors represent political parties and not the people. Being a Mayor is

 

viewed as a political career and not development oriented. Others said the

 

way political parties constitute their list is not gender sensitive. Some opined

 

that in the unclear rule of the game of politics and democracy; political

 

parties give low positioning to women in electoral lists. Political parties

 

seem to be a major constraint of women becoming mayors.

 

 

 

The Legal Framework:

About 50% of respondents opined that the legal

framework was not conducive. The electoral law stipulates that a political

 

party must support candidates. Even the language of the law is not gender

 

sensitive. A mayor is referred to as a “he”. This is in itself has a

 

psychological effect on the electorate. Another problem highlighted by

 

 

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

respondents was the fact that the population does not vote councilors but a

 

list and mayors are not elected by the population.

 

 

Socio-cultural Factors:

Respondents cited the following socio- cultural

factors: Male dominate, negative customs, triple roles of women and women

 

are viewed as mothers who can not take take good decisions.

 

All the international organisations were interested in assisting

 

councils who are willing with capacity building so as to promote gender

 

equality in local governance.

 

 

 

2.8 SERVICES FOR WHICH CEFAM NEEDS PARTNERSHIP

 

As earlier stated, CEFAM uses partners to carry out its activities. Such

 

activities include:

 

·

 

 

Training

 

 

·

 

 

Outreach activities

 

 

·

 

 

Curriculum development

 

 

·

 

 

Training of trainers in Local Government Training

 

 

·

 

 

Academic Exchange

 

 

·

 

 

Infrastructure and training equipment

 

 

·

 

 

Research

 

 

2.9 SUPPORT/ SUPERVISORY ORGANISATIONS OF CEFAM

 

CEFAM is supervised by the ministry of Territorial Administration

 

and Decentralization. CEFAM beneficiaries (council) are supervised by Senior

 

Divisional Officers (S.D.Os) who are supported by the provincial service

 

councils.

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

CEFAM is also supported by the Special Support Council Fund known by its

 

French acronym as FEICOM.

 

2.10 FUTURES PLANS OF CEFAM

 

CEFAM has the following plans:

 

1. Improvement of the level of training in CEFAM: according to

 

management, plans are on the way to upgrade Cycle 1 and 2. Cycle 1

 

trainees will graduating with a a Bachelor Degree while Cycle 2 with

 

Higher Diploma. There will also be Cycle 3 whose candidates will

 

graduate with a Diploma

 

2. Develop viable and results oriented partnerships. CEFAM intends to

 

develop partnership for curriculum development and gender

 

mainstreaming.

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

CHAPTER THREE

 

3.0 GENDER GAPS IDENTIFIED

 

After going through the whole process, the audit team found out that

 

the problems and the gender gaps linked with low female participation in local

 

government training and consequently local governance are not originating

 

from CEFAM only. They are deep rooted in the fabrics of the society. The

 

gender gaps identified therefore go beyond CEFAM. Gender gaps were

 

identified in the following.

 

3.1 POLICIES AND STRATEGIES:

 

The policies and strategies of CEFAM are gender neutral with no quota for

 

women to ensure equal gender representation within the staff and student body.

 

In fact most of those questioned on this issue said the management of CEFAM

 

can do a lot to ameliorate the situation.

 

3.2 ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT OF CEFAM:

 

The Board of Directors (BOD): From the BOD, it is evident that there

is an unequal gender representation. Women make up only 13.5% of the

 

total number of Board members. Again here one see that the men will

 

dominate the decision making processes and gender considerations will

 

not be given the attention they deserve. Moreover, a higher numerical

 

value of men on the Board of Directors can lead to marginalization of

 

women on the Board of Directors. BOD members do not seem to be

 

gender sensitive.

 

a) CEFAM Management:

 

Gender Representation: 20% of management staff are made up of

women while 80% are men. It may be argued that the Director is a

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

woman but no one can deny that the higher numerical value of men in

 

management may have an effect on the decision-making process

 

Gender Awareness: Management does not seem to be gender aware. For

instance, there is no gender component in the CEFAM Curriculum and

 

no gender disaggregated data for trainees could be found. No

 

management staff has ever had any training on gender and development

 

Gender blindness: State appointment of management staff is gender

blind.

 

3.3 CEFAM Staff:

 

Gender Representation: There are fewer women than men on the entire

staff. See table below.

 

Staff % of Male % of Female

 

Seconded staff 80 20

 

Permanent support staff 72.3 27.7

 

Part time staff 86.7 13.3

 

Table: Gender Representation in CEFAM

 

Gender location within the organisational structure: From the staff

list,it is evident that most women on the support staff are located down

 

the organizational structure. Some women’s activities seem just to be an

 

extension of their reproductive roles, for instance being cooks and

 

cleaners.

 

The recruitment procedure is not gender sensitive:The means used for

publicity for jobs favour men. For instance it is generally accepted that

 

few women listen to radio or read newspapers as a result of their triple

 

(reproductive,productive and community management) roles. When

 

asked why the ratio of the female to male staff is low, the respondents

 

gave the following reasons:

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

 

 

 

Few women are found in the specialities required by CEFAM

 

 

 

 

Women hardly present themselves for jobs advertised

 

 

 

 

Women are negligent

 

 

 

 

Women fear embarrassment

 

3.4) BUDGETARY ALLOCATION:

 

There is no budgetary allocation for activities leading to gender

 

awareness/equality

 

3.5) LOCAL GOVERNMENT TRAINING

 

Recruitment of trainees: The ratio of female to male is 3:7, reflecting that fewer

 

women gain entrance into CEFAM. According to respondents;the reasons for

 

such a ratio are as follows:

 

 

 

Fewer women work in councils, as Mayors prefer male council workers.

If mayors prefer male workers then they would prefer to sponsor male

 

workers in CEFAM. Results from the field confirm that some of the

 

mayors prefer male workers. However, some mayors believe that

 

working with women in council matters is preferable because women

 

understand community better.

 

 

 

 

 

The duration of training is too long for female married trainees. So

women find it difficult to stay away from home for 2 years. This again

 

needs t o be verified.

 

 

 

 

 

Low qualification: Women have lower qualifications

 

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

 

 

Women”s constant requests for permission to take care of sick relations.

This is a gender issue as men feel that women are solely responsible for

 

taking care of sick relations

 

 

 

 

 

The immobility of council jobs negatively affects women in councils.

Women are usually those who have to move to join their husbands in

 

their jobs stations when they are transferred. But in the council if the

 

woman moves to join the husband, she loses her job. Could it be why

 

mayors fear to recruit and train women?

 

 

 

CURRICULUM:

 

The study showed the following:

 

-No course on gender in CEFAM curriculum

 

-79.4% of students have never done any course on gender

 

-Over 50% of staff interviewed had never received training

 

in gender

 

-66.6 % of respondents acknowledged having no gender

 

orientation in their courses and lectures integrated .

 

-90% of lectures interviewed had no gender component

 

integrated within their courses

 

3.5.1)

LECTURING AND LECTURES:

The language used in lectures,notes and sometimes textbooks is

 

biased in favour of the male. For instance, the mayor (he) is

 

automatically considered a male while a cook (she) is considered a

 

female.

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

3.5.2)

LIBRARY: A rapid survey of the library showed that out of about

4,000 books only 5 (0.07125%) were on women’s issues. Most of the

 

books (98%) in the library were obsolete.

 

3.6 BENEFICIARIES

 

Councils

 

a)

Gender Representation: At the level of councils, there are fewer

women involved in the management of councils. In fact women represent

 

only 22.99%. Women make up only 23.99% of elected councilors.

 

Abdela reported in 2000 that women made up only 0.6% of elected

 

mayors during previous mandate. The present mandate’s increase of 3%

 

is still insignificant. Female council staff represents only 33.2 of the

 

council staff in the Republic

 

b)

Council Activities: There is no specific action by councils to ensure

equal gender representation and participation in local government and

 

training.

 

c)

Positions held in the councils: From our sources, most women were

found in the lower sections of the councils organisation chart while

 

managing the councils remains the preserve of men.

 

d)

The decision-making processes in the councils:Female and male

officials of the councils are not usually consulted before decisions are

 

taken. Those who are involved involved in taking strategic decisions in

 

the councils are mostly men. Hence special attention may not be given to

 

women’s practical and strategic gender needs.

 

e)

Training of Council staff: 54028% of council staff reported having

received no training and the majority of them were women. Even those

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

who received training amongst the staff and elected officials of the

 

councils ,very few had training in gender and development

 

f)

Budgetary allocation: Most councils have no budgetary allocations for

activities leading to gender awareness/ equality.

 

3.7 THE POSITIONING OF WOMEN BY POLITICAL

 

PARTIES

 

Political parties give low positioning to women in electoral

 

lists.

 

3.8 THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK

 

The language of the law is not gender sensitive. A mayor is

 

referred to as a “he”

 

3.9 PARTNERS

 

 

 

It was observed that few female headed organisations were local

partners of CEFAM

 

 

 

 

 

Women had smaller contracts while men got the bigger contracts

from CEFAM

 

 

 

3.10 CONSTRAINTS/PROBLEMS FACED BY CEFAM TO

 

BRING ABOUT GENDER EQUALITY IN CEFAM AND

 

COUNCILS

 

When asked what constraints/problems were militating against gender

 

mainstreaming in CEFAM, respondents gave the following answers:

 

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1. Lack of gender awareness

 

2. Cultural factors, myth and beliefs about women from councils and

 

the country at large

 

3. Womens triple roles

 

4. Most mayors prefer male labour;

 

5. Male domination and hostilities;

 

6. Level of education

 

7. Family problem

 

8. Female council workers cannot move to accompany the family on

 

transfer (unlike the civil service)

 

9. Gender representation steeming from councils

 

10.Some people (women inclusive) do not know CEFAM

 

11.The socialization process, as women believe they should go for

 

menial jobs

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

CHAPTER FOUR

 

4.0

 

 

PROPOSALS FOR GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN THE

LOCAL GOVERNMENT CENTER (CEFAM)

 

 

 

The audit team wishes to appreciate the following activities carried

 

out by CEFAM towards gender equality:

 

1. Award of prizes for best female student;

 

2. Permission for female student to take part in womens activities such as

 

the International Women’s Day.

 

3. Giving preference to female students in case of a tie during

 

deliberations;

 

4. Providing more security to female students by allowing them live on the

 

upper floors of the hostel.

 

4.1

 

 

ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT OF CEFAM

 

 

The Board of Directors: As earlier see women represent only 13.5% of the

 

BOD. This percentage is very low. The audit team proposes that MINARD who

 

chairs the BOD should request concerned ministries to forward the names of

 

two possible representatives indicating that one should be a woman. Out of

 

these names,MINATD could select the names respecting at least a 30% quota

 

for female representatives. There is need for increased female representation so

 

that women can defend their interest and thereby reduce the marginalisation of

 

women in the decisions taken by the BOD.

 

 

 

There should be a planned programme for gender sensitization of

members of the Board of Directors so that the members can appreciate

 

the need for equitable gender participation in local governance, facilitate

 

the approval of budgetary allocations for gender and development

 

 

 

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activities within CEFAM and enable CEFAM policies and strategies

 

facilitate the participation of both sexes in local governance.

 

CEFAM MANAGEMENT

 

 

 

Since management staff are appointed by MINATD, we propose that

there should be an equitable quota allocated to women.

 

 

 

 

 

There should also be a planned programme for gender sensitization of

CEFAM management staff so that management can appreciate the need

 

for equitable gender participation in local governance. This will render

 

CEFAM policies and strategies gender sensitive, thus facilitating the

 

participation of both sexes in local governance. It will equally enable

 

management develop a database based on gender-disaggregated data and

 

assist councils to improve on equitable gender participation in local

 

governance. Management should also give a gender orientation in local

 

governance. Management should also give a gender orientation to

 

CEFAM curriculum; integrate a gender component in CEFAM

 

curriculum and courses as well as recruit female trainees and staff.

 

 

 

CEFAM STAFF

 

 

 

At MINATD, the audit team was reliable informed that it is the

responsibility of the Director of CEFAM to request for staff indicating

 

the type and sex of staff needed. So management should lay emphasis on

 

the need for recruiting and even appointing female staff to management

 

positions.

 

 

 

 

 

Management can use informal means to get the attention of women for

jobs in CEFAM. There are several female professional associations,

 

which could be used to inform women about vacancies in CEFAM.

 

 

 

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Informal meetings could serve as avenues through which information on

 

job vacancies could reach women.

 

 

 

Management should determine to set aside a quota of at least 30% for

female staff.

 

 

 

BUDGETARY ALLOCATION

 

The Board of Directors need to be sensitised on the importance of

 

gender and development. Management should develop activities such as

 

workshops / seminars on gender issues in local governance. These activities

 

will require the Board of Directors to allocate resources towards equitable

 

gender representation and participation in CEFAM and Councils

 

4.5 LOCAL GOVERNMENT TRAINING

 

 

 

Students Recruitment: Some respondents in CEFAM said mayors prefer

male workers and that negatively affects the number of female council

 

workers to be sent for training in CEFAM. Nevertheless, the audit team

 

met with mayors who prefer to work with women so we suggest that

 

CEFAM should start a sensitisation programme for the councils on

 

gender and local government. This will make mayors see the needed to

 

send more female staff for training in CEFAM

 

 

 

 

 

Respondents also pointed to the fact that women have to care for sick

relations. But this is a problem that can be solved by sensitizing our

 

communities on the need for other family members to take care of sick

 

partners. Successful females like the Director of CEFAM whom over

 

60% of CEFAM staff acknowledge as having enhanced the development

 

process of CEFAM and other female politicians could be used as role

 

 

 

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models to encourage other women. They have huge experiences that

 

could be valuable to other women.

 

 

 

CURRICULUM: A gender orientation should be given to the curriculum.

The courses should generally have a gender orientation. Besides, there

 

should be a course on gender and local governance. The Director, while

 

responding on this issue, said the curriculum for the next intake of

 

CEFAM students will be given gender orientation and a core course on

 

gender and local governance will be introduced.

 

 

 

 

 

Staff should attend seminars on gender and development, and gender and

local governance. Trainers and trainers manuals on gender and local

 

governance should be developed with partner organisations

 

 

 

 

 

LECTURING AND LECTURES: The language used in lectures, notes

sometimes text books should be gender sensitive. The language should

 

portray that the mayor, for instance can either be a male or female.

 

 

 

 

 

THE LIBRARY: Considering that CEFAM is involved in

Research,training and consultancy, the library will need to be updated in

 

general to include more books on gender and development as well as

 

others women’s issue. The team was informed that the government has

 

already allocated funds for the updating of the Library. Our suggestion is

 

that those involved in the procurement of these books should be gender

 

sensitive.

 

 

 

4.6 BENEFICIARIES (COUNCILS):

 

The following recommendations will be helpful for councils to

 

send more staff and elected officials for training. This will enable more

 

women to participate in local government.

 

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Gender representation in the Councils: To increase the gender representation

 

in the Councils, the audit team proposes a certain number of

 

recommendations:

 

 

 

Sensitization of the major political parties on the need to have more

women in local government and in strategic places.Sensitization

 

could be done through print media like flyers, information sheet and

 

other media to draw

 

 

 

 

 

Organisation of gender and development training, especially as it

concerns local governance, for the major political parties. This could

 

have a strong starting point by training the councillors from the

 

different political parties.

 

 

 

 

 

There should be a clear policy on positive discrimination for women

. For instance if any council sends more than one trainee for training,

 

at least one should be a woman. Some institutions we contacted insist

 

that for any training, women should be at least 25% of the total

 

trainees.

 

 

 

 

 

The law can insists that a political party should take gender concerns

into consideration when constituting its electoral lists. There should

 

be a quota for women. We recommend that it should be at least 30%.

 

During this audit, a few respondents disliked the idea of setting a

 

quota for women. They quoted the example of France. Although we

 

agree that the standards should not be lowered to facilitate womens

 

access to positions of councillors /Mayors, after serious sensitisation,

 

a quota should be set for women among the people that indicate

 

interest. MINATF should take a leading role in this Note should be

 

taken that SDF and CPDM have a quota policy although this was

 

largely ignored especially in SDF lists during the last elections

 

 

 

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Capacity Building: There is a need to build and constantly reinforce the

capacity of CEFAM and the Councils to mainstream gender and

 

development into their activities.

 

 

 

 

 

Positions held in the Councils: As experienced by the international

organisations interviewed, women can be good catalyst for development

 

if given the opportunity. As the capacity of women in the councils

 

improve, mayors and executives should give women a higher position in

 

Councils.

 

 

 

 

 

Training of Council staff and elected officials: Over 50% of council

people have never had training before and none of them indicated having

 

been trained in gender and development. So there is need for training on

 

gender and local governance to be organised in the councils

 

 

 

 

 

Gender equality should be promoted at grassroots levels in community

organisations.

 

 

 

 

 

Budgetary allocations for Gender and Local Government Training:

Mayors / Government delegates and their councillors should make

 

budgetary allocations for the above mentioned training.

 

 

 

4.7 PARTNERS

 

CEFAM management should encourage partnership with

 

organizations headed by women. Women should be given the opportunities of

 

securing bigger contracts. Eyong (1997) opinioned that when income of women

 

increases the nutritional and health status of the family improves. In addition to

 

this, the social status and self –confidence of women increase when their

 

income increases.

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

4.8 CONCLUSION

 

The Gender Audit revealed that CEFAM Programmes and local

 

government in our country falls below the norms required for promoting on

 

gender equality. Nevertheless, the team acknowledges that the causes of these

 

gender gaps go beyond CEFAM. MINATD, Councils,political parties,

 

international organizations and the society at large each have a role to play to

 

improve on the participation of women in local government and local

 

governance. That is why we propose the following participation guide.

 

PARTICIPATION GUIDE

 

Activities/

 

Recommendations

 

Role of CEFAM Role of MINATD Others partners

 

Development of

 

curriculum on

 

gender and

 

development

 

course

 

Financing Board

 

Validation

 

Official Support Resource Persons

 

Curriculum for

 

outreach training

 

on Gender and

 

Local Governance

 

Part Financing

 

Resource persons

 

Official Support Resource Persons

 

part financing

 

Training of Local

 

Partner Trainers

 

in Gender and

 

Local Governance

 

Resource persons Official Support

 

Supervision

 

Financing

 

Supervision

 

Participation

 

Multiplication of

 

Training

 

Supervision Official Support Financing

 

Resource Persons

 

Dissemination of

 

results

 

Resource persons Official Support Financing

 

Resource Persons

 

References

 

Eyong B.C, (August 1997). Agricultural Extension and Rural Development

 

Department, University of Reading, England.

 

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OESP Handbook Series (1997) Result-Oriented Monitoring and Evaluation,

 

United National Development Programme

 

Workshop Report (June 2002) Orientation Workshop for Councils of the Elak

 

Rural Council.

 

Manuel de l’audit de Genre Participatif de la SNV (2003)

 

National Programme On Government for Cameroon : Diagnosis and Proposal

 

(August 1999)

 

ANNEXES

 

List of Councils contacted

 

List of Organisations contacted

 

Questionnaire : CEFAM Management

 

CEFAM Staff

 

CEFAM Students

 

Mayors / Local Partners

 

Councilors

 

Council Staff

 

Interview Guide : Senior Divisional Officers

 

FEICOM

 

MINATD

 

International Partners

 

Focus group discussion

 

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Lists of Councils contacted

 

No. Province Names of Councils

 

1. Adamawa -Ngaoundere Urban Council

 

2. Centre -Mbangassina Rural Council

 

-SA’A Rural Council

 

-Yaounde IV Urban Council

 

3. East -Gari – Gombe Rural Council

 

-Batare –oya Rural Council

 

4. Littoral -Mbanga Rural Council

 

-Douala IV Urban Council

 

5. North -Garoua Rural Council

 

-Garoua Urban Council

 

-Pitoa- Rural Council

 

6. North West -Njinikom Rural Council

 

-Batibo Rural Council

 

-Elak Rural Council

 

-Fundong Rural Council

 

-Bali Rural Council

 

7. South West -Tombel Rural Council

 

-Muyuka Rural Council

 

-Limbe Urban Council

 

-Idenau Rural Council

 

-Buea Rural Council

 

-Eyumojock Rural Council

 

-Mbonge Rural Council

 

8. West -Foumban Urban Council

 

-Bafang Urban Council

 

-Mbouda Rural Council

 

-Bafoussam Urban Council

 

-Babadjou Rural Council

 

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LIST OF ORGANISATIONS CONTACTED

 

 

 

SNV

 

 

 

 

HELVETAS

 

 

 

 

PACDDU

 

 

 

 

GTZ

 

 

 

 

FRIEDRICH EBERT

 

 

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INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR CEFAM MANAGEMENT

 

Name…………………………………….Division of Origin………………………………….

 

Sex Male Age 20 – 30 Marital Status Maried

 

Female 31 – 40 Single

 

41 – 50 Divorced

 

51 and above Widow

 

Separated

 

Position in CEFAM:…………………………………………………………………………

 

Professional Background……………………………………………………………………

 

Educational Background…………………………………………………………………….

 

Longevity of Services:……………………………………………………………………….

 

1.When was CEFAM created?………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

2.Why was CEFAM created? (Purpose,Objectives)………………………………………………………….

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

3.What are the policies of CEFAM?……………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

4.What are the activities of CEFAM?………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

5.What are the strategies used to carryout your activities?………………………………………………….

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

6.How are the trainees recruited?…………………………………………………………………………………..

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

7.How many men and women have been trained since its creation?

 

Men……………… Women………………….

 

Why this ratio?……………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

8.Wahat is the staff strength of CEFAM?…………………………………………………………………….

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

9.Wahat are the recruitment criteria for staff?………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

10.How many males and females? Male……………………. Female………………………

 

Why the ratio?………………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

11.What is the educational background of the staff?……………………………………………………..

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

12.What is the professional background of the staff?……………………………………….

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

13.What are the different levels of training in CEFAM?………………………………………………….

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

14.What is the course content of each level?………………………………………………………………….

 

15. After training does CEFAM have any different links with trainees in the councils?

 

– Yes If yes how?

 

– No If No why

 

16. Are there any activities geared towards gender equality within CEFAM?

 

Yes No

 

-If Yes what are they?………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

-If No why not?………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

17.Are there any activities geared towards gender equality within Councils?

 

Yes No

 

-If Yes…………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

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18. Is there any budgetary allocation for gender equality Yes No

 

If Yes why?………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

If No why not? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

19.Are there problems / constraints you face in bringing about gender equality in CEFAM

 

Yes No

 

If Yes, what are they?………………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

…….…………………………..………………………………………………………………

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

20.Are these problems / constraints you face in bringing about gender equality within the

 

councils? Yes No

 

If Yes, what are they?……………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

21.What do you think could be done to help you overcome the above mentioned problem /

 

constraint (suggestions)

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

22.What are the services for which you need partners?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

23.Who are these partners?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

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CEFAM GENDER AUDIT

 

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CEFAM STAFF.

 

Sir or Madam

 

I am a member of the MUDEC Group commisioned by the CEFAM management

 

to carry out a Gender Audit of its policies , programmes and activities. I will be very grateful

 

if you can spare some time and answer these questions.

 

Name…………………………………….Division of Origin………………………………….

 

Sex Male Age 20 – 30 Marital Status Married

 

Female 31 – 40 Single

 

41 – 50 Divorced

 

51 and above Widow

 

Separated

 

Position in CEFAM:…………………………………………………………………………

 

Professional Background……………………………………………………………………

 

Educational Background…………………………………………………………………….

 

Longevity of Services:……………………………………………………………………….

 

1.What course do you lecture?……………………………………………………………….

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

2.What does the word gender mean to you

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

3.What is the ratio of men to women in the student population of CEFAM

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

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4.Is this ratio satisfactory?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

5.What is the level of academic performance for male and female students?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

6.Does your course have any gender orientation?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

7.Does your course have any gender component?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

8.How many women and men make up the CEFAM staff?

 

Women………………………. Men………………………………….

 

9.Are you satisfied with the situation?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

10.If yes, why?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

If no – what can be done?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

11.Are there specific duties for women and men in CEFAM?

 

Women………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

Men………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

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14.What jobs do you think women should perform in CEFAM

 

………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

15.How do you relate to female Director?

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

16.What do you think about female leadership

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

17.Which leadership do you prefer , Male or Female

 

Female Male

 

18.Why?

 

………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

Thank You

 

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CEFAM GENDER AUDIT

 

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CEFAM STAFF.

 

Sir or Madam

 

I am a member of the MUDEC Group commisioned by the CEFAM managment

 

to carry out a Gender Audit of its policies , programmes and activities. I will be very grateful

 

if you can spare some time and answer these questions.

 

Name…………………………………….Division of Origin………………………………….

 

Sex Male Age 20 – 30 Marital Status Maried

 

Female 31 – 40 Single

 

41 – 50 Divorced

 

51 and above Widow

 

Separated

 

Name of Council:…………………………………………………………………………

 

Are you working with the Council Yes No

 

If yes,for how long?……….…………………………………………………………………….

 

Professional Background?…………………………………………………………………….

 

Cycle 1 2

 

1.Why did you want to be trained in CEFAM?………………………………………………

 

2.How were you selected for training by CEFAM?…………………………………………………………..

 

…….……………………………………………….……………………………………………

 

3.How were you selected for training by your Council?…………………………………………………….

 

…….……………………………………………….……………………………………………

 

4.How many students are in your class?……………………….Male……………..Female…………

 

5.How many lecturers do you have ?………………………….Male………………Female…………

 

6.What are the courses in your curriculum?…………………………………………………………………..

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

7.Is there any course given in gender and development? Yes No

 

8.What courses are handled by male lecturers…………………………………………………

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

9.Female lecturers………………………………………………………………………………

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

10.Have you ever received any training in Gender and Development? Yes No

 

If Yes, When…………………………. And Where……………………………………….

 

11.How many staff are employed by the Council?

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

12.How many are men …………………………and women………………………..?

 

13.How many staff make up the management of your Council?……………………………………

 

14.How many are men………………………… and Female……………………………….?

 

15How many Councillors are in your Council?…………………………………………………..

 

16.How many are men………………………….and Female……………………………….?

 

17.What are the roles for the Councillors?

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

18.. Are there any specific roles assigned to

 

Men? Yes No

 

19.If Yes, what are they?

 

20.If no, why not?

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

21.Are there any specific roles assigned to

 

– Women? Yes No

 

22.If Yes what are they?

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

23.Are there any activities carried out by your council to ensure that men and women

 

participate equally in community activities? Yes No

 

If Yes, what are they?

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

If No,why not?

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

24.how would the knowledge gained in CEFAM meet the needs of the men in your Council

 

area?

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

25.How would the knowledge gained in CEFAM meet the needs of women in your Council

 

area?

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

Thank you

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

INTERVIEW GUIDE – MAYOR

 

Name of Council………………………………………………………………….

 

Age Range 25 – 30 30-35 35-45 45 and above

 

No of years in service…………………………………………………………….

 

Sex

 

1.What are the functions of a Mayor……………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

2.

How many Councillors are there in your Council?…………………………………..

3.What are the functions of the Councilors?…………………………………………….

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

4.What are the roles of the Councilors…………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

5.Do both Male and Female Councillors play the same roles or do their roles

 

differ?

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

6.What are the key management positions within your Councilors (staff)?

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

7.No of Men Women

 

8.Do you follow particular criteria for selecting management staff?

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

9.Does your Council carry out training activities for its staff

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

10.

What is the participation rate ?Men Women

11.What is the selection criteria for training of staff?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

12.What public facilities does your Council provide to the community? Who

 

benefit to men or women?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

13.What community services do your council under take?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

14. A)- What roles do men play?…………………………………………………………………

 

B)-What roles do women play?……………………………………………………………..

 

15. Are Council statistics of community needs collected on basis of gender?……

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

16.What percentage of men and women are beneficiaries of such services?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

17. How do you identify community needs? On basis of particular groups?

 

Which groups of men? Of women?

 

……………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………

 

18.Do you take any specific action to target particular groups in the community

 

for council services/projects/ Men how? , Women how?

 

……………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………

 

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19.Do you have any forum for consultative meetings in the community? – What

 

percentage of men participate,of women?

 

……………………………………………………………………………………

 

-What role do they play?…………………………………………………………

 

20.What are the sources of Council Revenue?

 

……………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………

 

21.How does the community benefit from Council?

 

……………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………

 

22. Do you have any budgetary allocation for gender –specific activities (i.e

 

that ensure the equality between men and women?)

 

……………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

FOR LOCAL PARTNERS OF MAYORS

 

1.What are the different services for which you require partners/ (Area of

 

Partnership)?…………………………………………………………………………………..

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

2.For how long have you worked with such partners?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

3.Who are some of your partners?………………………………………………………………

 

4.What criteria do you follow in selecting your partners?……………………………..

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

Questionnaire for Council Councillors

 

Sex of Respondent

 

Age

 

Educational / Professional Background…………………………………………..

 

Marital Status……………………………………………………………………..

 

Family Size……………………………………………………………………….

 

Province of Origin

 

1.Name of Council

 

2.No of Councillors Male Female

 

3.Executive (Mayor/ Management), No of Male Female

 

4.Mayor Male Female

 

5.What are the functions of the Council?…………………………………………………..

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

6.Why did your become a councilor?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

7.How were you selected?…………………………………………………………………………

 

8.What does it take to become a Councilor?……………………………………………….

 

9.What is the role of a Councillor?………………………………………………………………

 

MUDEC: enhancing development through responsive governance

 

MF

 

18 – 35

 

36 – 45

 

45 and above

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

10.What is your role?…………………………………………………………………………………

 

11.Have you been trained as a councilor…………………………………………

 

 

 

If yes, on what?………………………………………………………………………….

 

 

 

 

If no…………………………………………………………………..

12.What benefits do you have as a Councilor?…………………………………………

 

13.What services/activities/projects your council has executed in the last 12

 

months?………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

14.What role did women play in bringing about this?

 

15.How did it benefit them?…………………………………………………………………..

 

16.How are decisions taken in your Council?…………………………………………..

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

17.If this Council was led by a member of the opposite sex, what would be the

 

situation?………………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

18.Are you satisfied with the present leadership…………………………………

 

 

 

If Yes,why?……………………………………………………………………………………..

 

 

 

 

If No, what can be done

 

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

Questionnaire

 

For Council Staff

 

Sex of Respondents

 

Age group

 

Educational / Professional Background…………………………………………..

 

Marital Status……………………………………………………………………..

 

Family Size……………………………………………………………………….

 

Province of Origin……………………………….Province……………………..

 

Name of Council…………………………………Province……………………..

 

1. How long have you been a staff in this Council……………………………….

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

2.What is your opinion within the Council………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

3.What are your functions?………………………………………………………………………..

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

4.Are you satisfied with your criteria?………………………………………………………..

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

5.Have you been trained for this position?…………………………………………………..

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

6.If Yes on what…………………………………………………………………

 

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MF

 

18 – 35

 

36 – 45

 

45 and above

 

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When…………………………………………………………………..

 

Where………………………………………………………………….

 

7.If No , why not?………………………………………………………………………………………

 

8.Is the room for advancement?

 

9.How are the decision taken within the Council (Process)?……………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

10. Are female and male staffs consulted in the process above?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

11.What do you think are the specific needs for men and women in your

 

coouncil (office)?……………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

12.Are the needs and interest of male and female staff taken into consideration

 

by management?………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

13.If Yes. How?……………………………………………………………………………………….

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

14. If No, why not?……………………………………………………………………………….

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

15. Has this Council ever benefited from FEICOM?…………………………….

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

16. How

 

………………………………………………………………………………………

…………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

 

Interview Guide for Senior Divisional Officer

 

Introduction:

 

Name Sex

 

Marital Status

 

Educational Level

 

Demographic Information………………………………………………………

 

Location………………………….Division………………….Province…………

 

1.How long have you been supervisiong the Council within your area ?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

2.What constituteds your supervisory activities?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

3.How many councils in your area are headed by women?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

4.Why is the situation like this?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

5.What activities are being carried out by your office to ensure that gender

 

equality in the Councils under your jurisdiction?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

6.Are there are problems that mitigate against gender equality in Local

 

government?If Yes, what are they?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

7.What can be done to solve the problem mentioned above?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

MUDEC: enhancing development through responsive governance

 

Married

 

Single

 

Divorced

 

Separated

 

MF

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

8.Do you think it is necessary for actions to be taken to ensure gender equality

 

in local government?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

If Yes, why?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

9.What suggestions can be made to CEFAM as regards to gender equality in

 

Local government training?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

THANKS

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

FEICOM H/Q

 

Demographic data………………………………………………………………

 

Personal data……………………………………………………………………

 

Introduction:

 

Technical

 

Financial

 

Others

 

1. When was FEICOM created?…………………………………………………………………..

 

2.Why was FEICOM created?…………………………………………………………………….

 

3.FEICOM is said to provide assistance to Councils, what type of assistance do

 

you give to Councils……………………………………………………………

 

4.What are the activities of FEICOM?……………………………………………………….

 

5.How is FEICOM organised?……………………………………………………………………

 

6.What councils do you assist……………………………………………………

 

No Urban No Headed by Male

 

No Rural No Headed by Female

 

7.What are the activities funded by FEICOM?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

Interview Guide for International Partners

 

Introduction:

 

Demographic Data

 

Personal Data

 

1.What councils do you worl with

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

2.How long have you been working with Councils……………………………

 

3.What type of partnership do you have with these Councils…………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

Technical

 

Financial

 

Others

 

4.What are the areas of partnership?…………………………………………………………

 

5.How many of these Councils are headed by women and men………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

6.Is there any difference between Councils headed by women and men?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

If Yes……………………………………………………………….

 

7.What do you think is responsible for the low No of women in Local

 

government?

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

8. What can be done to solve this problem………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

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Gender Audit of Local Governance in Cameroon

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

9.What role can your organisation play in ensuring gender equality in local

 

government

 

…………………………………………………………………………………

………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

10. What can CEFAM do to ensure gender equality in local government

 

training ?…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

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