Municipal Development Counselling (MUDEC) Group .:: MUDEC GROUP ::.
  • Our Mission

    • Reducing poverty in our municipalities through encouraging gender equality and increasing citizen (End User) participation in democratic and governance processes.

Manual onRoles & Responsibilities for Locally Elected Officials in Cameroon

Manual on Roles and Responsibilities for Councils and Partners
MUDEC: Enhancing Development through Responsive Governance. 1
Table of Content
Acknowledgement …………………………………………………………………………………….. 2
Brief on MUDEC ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
Major Innovations in the Council Law ……………………………………………………….. 4
Councils in the Decentralization Process …………………………………………………….. 6
Classification of Councils ……………………………………………………………………………. 7
Council Organs and Functions ……………………………………………………………………… 8
Councilor as a Local Leader …………………………………………………………………………. 8
Supervisory Authorities ……………………………………………………………………………….. 12
A Poem to all Councilors …………………………………………………………………………….. 15
Council Organizational Chart (Sample) ………………………………………………………….. 16
Council Development Planning ………………………………………………………………….. 17
Managing Council Contracts ……………………………………………………………………… 18
Project Cycle Management ………………………………………………………………………… 21
Project Identification and Project Planning………………………………………………………
Project Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation …………………………………………
Introduction to the Council Budget ……………………………………………………………. 23
Principles, Process, Preparation and Sources of Revenue …………………………………..
Stages in Budgeting …………………………………………………………………………………….
General Policies and Key Points ……………………………………………………………………
Human Resource Management in Council ………………………………………………….. 27
Good Local Governance ……………………………………………………………………………. 30
Participation ……………………………………………………………………………………………….
Gender in Local Leadership ………………………………………………………………………….
Holding Productive Meetings ………………………………………………………………………..
Managing Conflicts in Local Councils ……………………………………………………………
The Council and Technical Services………………………………………………36
The Main Technical Services the Council Works with………………………………..
The Role of Parliamentarians in Local Governance……………………………..38
The Council and the Non Public Sector…………………………………………40
Civil Society and other Non Public Actors…………………………………………..
Building Partnership between the Council and Non Public actors……………………
Manual on Roles and Responsibilities for Councils and Partners
MUDEC: Enhancing Development through Responsive Governance. 2
Acknowledgement
The Municipal Development Counselling (MUDEC) Group was privileged to be
included in the realisation of the project to develop the product “Roles and
Responsibilities (RR) of Councils and Partners.” Product development included tool
development and testing, implementation/monitoring and evaluation.
MUDEC Group has since trained several Councils and their partners on Roles and
Responsibilities (RR) in the South West and North West Regions of Cameroon.
We remain very thankful to the following for the participation of MUDEC Group
through the whole process:
• The Management of Helvetas Cameroon (Bamenda)
• The Management of SNV-Highlands (Bamenda)
• The Management of CEFAM (Buea)
We remain very thankful indeed.
This document has been produced based on RR training reports for several councils in
the North West /South West Regions. The 2004 Law on Decentralization as applicable
to Councils was the working document for the trainings.
Manual on Roles and Responsibilities for Councils and Partners
MUDEC: Enhancing Development through Responsive Governance. 3
Brief on MUDEC
The Management Control Team of the Municipal Development Counselling (MUDEC)
Group is happy to officially introduce our organization to you.
We are a Local Capacity Builder (Local Support Organization) based in Buea,
and we have effective presence in the South West/North West Regions of Cameroon.
Our area of focus is in participatory governance processes where our strategic partners
include the Local Government Training Center (CEFAM), the National Community
Driven Program (PNDP), RUMPI Project, to mention a few.
Together we have developed tools in the following areas: –
 Roles & Responsibilities (RR) for Councils and Partners.
 Partnership & Participation (PP) for Councils and Village Communities
 Local Economic Development (LED)
 Human Resource Development (HRD), based on Gender & Human Resource
Audits of Councils.
 Resource Mobilization (RM) especially in the domain of market studies &
tourism development
 Coalitions, Alliances, Networks (CAN) of local development stakeholders.
MUDEC Group has facilitated Village Development Plans (VDP) and Communal
Development Plans (CDP) in the South West Region.
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MUDEC: Enhancing Development through Responsive Governance. 4
MAJOR INNOVATIONS IN THE COUNCIL LAW No.2004/018 of July 2004
 Institutes a single nomenclature: the Council, thus eliminating the other
appellations (urban and rural council).
 Devolves State powers to Councils with respect to economic, social, health,
educational, cultural and sports development
 Institutes 4 annual Council sessions instead of the current 2
 Amends oversight powers with respect to the suspension , dissolution and
substitution of Council organs
 Restores Council unions and defines a legal framework for decentralized
cooperation
 Institutes the City Council as the sole special regime applicable to certain urban
centers; thus eliminating special regime City Councils.
 Clarifies power sharing between the City Council and the sub-divisional Council
Some Implications for Councils
On Promotion of Local Development
 Attribution of roles for Regions and Councils in the following domains: local
economy, social, health, culture, sports, education.
 Local Development Planning
On Democracy
 Progressive devolution of powers to local levels – Regions and Councils
 Residence clause for Mayors and their Deputies
 Attempt to reduce right of oversight by administrative authorities
On Good Governance
 Provision for collaboration with civil society
 Legal cover for local and international partnership development
 Provision of recourse to arbitration by aggrieved partners.
 Increased number of Council sessions (4)
 Provision for citizen participation e.g. in monitoring Council budget and
execution
On Council Management
 Provision for collegial executive (Mayor and Deputies fix agenda for Council
sessions)
 Greater respect to the person of the Mayor and Deputies
 Secretary General clearly identified as Coordinator of Council services
 Mayor and Deputies to receive remuneration and compensation for damages
received in the course of executing their duties
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 Councils empowered to create corporations and take up shares in public and semi
public and private companies, for the purpose of providing public services
 Deliberating organ can consult and remunerate resource persons.
 Councils can create unions and engage in various forms of cooperation, locally,
nationally and internationally.
Supervisory Authority over Councils.
Who wields supervisory powers over councils?
Article 10 law no 2004/017 of 22 July 2004, that the state shall ensure
supervisory powers over regional and local authorities.
 Supervisory power is held by the STATE
 Authorized by the PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC
 Represented by the MINISTER in Charge of Regions and Local Authorities
 Through the GOVERNOR at the REGIONAL level
 And the SDO at the COUNCIL level
What are the powers held?
 Over administrative issues such as appointment and dismissal,
functioning of Council organs, sanctioning and approval, co signing of
deliberations
Instruments/Deliberations that must receive prior approval are:
 The budget /additional budget.
 Loans
 International cooperation agreement
 Land
 Participation in enterprises
 Contracts above allowed ceiling
 Recruitment of some categories of personnel
 Local Development Plans
• Oversight powers. All deliberations of the Council must be forwarded
within 15 days of it decision for approval by the Supervisory Authority,
who can nullify the act for grossly illegal. Time limit for approval is 30
days.
Manual on Roles and Responsibilities for Councils and Partners
MUDEC: Enhancing Development through Responsive Governance. 6
The council in the decentralisation process (Legal Environment).
Objective:
To reinforce the Councilor’s knowledge on the legal framework of local councils.
 Definition of a council
 Types of councils
 Council organs/functions
 Councillors (roles, rights, obligations, don’ts)
 Roles of Mayor and Deputies
 Roles of the Secretary General
 Roles of the Municipal Treasurer/Sub Treasurer
 Roles of the Stores Accountant
 Roles of the SDO (first supervisory authority)
 Roles of the Governor
 Roles of MINATD/MLRA
 Roles of the PM & the President of the Republic/
 Council Organisational Chart
 Local leadership roles of Councillors
What is decentralisation?
Decentralization is the devolution or surrender or sharing by the State of
some or part of its powers and appropriate resources to regional and local
authorities.
What is a Council?
A Council is a basic decentralized local authority having the status of a corporate body
under public law.
• It has a legal personality and financial autonomy.
• It promotes economic development, health and social development, and
educational, sport and cultural development, of the population within the
Municipality.
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Classification of Councils
No Type Headed by Mode of ascension
to power
1 Councils Mayor & Deputies Election
2 Sub Divisional
Councils
Mayor & Deputies Election
3 City Councils Government Delegate
& Assistants
Appointment
NUMBER OF MUNICIPAL COUNCILORS
Population Councilors Deputies
Less than 50,000 25 2
50,000-100,000 31 2
100,001-200,000 35 4
200,001-300,000 41 4
Above 300,000 61 6
COUNCIL ORGANS AND FUNCTIONS
Deliberative: All elected Councillors for 5 years.
Executive: Mayor and Deputies elected by all Councillors (the Secretary General is
not an executive member).
Council Committee: Elected Councillors grouped under Finance/ Natural Resource
Management, Infrastructure and Development, Social…with Chairpersons.
FUNCTIONING OF ORGANS.
Aspect Deliberative Executive Committees
ROLE
Hold discussions on
Council matters and
take decisions in case
of equal votes, the
President’s point is
considered in public
voting and the eldest
candidate qualifies for
Ensure the day to
day running of the
council.
Deliberate on
matters conferred
to them by the
executive.
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MUDEC: Enhancing Development through Responsive Governance. 8
secret ballot.
MEETING
Four (4) Ordinary
sessions per year,
budgetary and
administrative
account, maximum of
8 days per session.
Extra ordinary
sessions possible.
As often as possible
CONVOCATION
Mayor for ordinary
sessions.
-Supervisory
Authority for Extra.
2/3 of its members,
the Mayor or
Supervisory
Authority.
The Councillor as a local leader is:
• A Policy and Decision Maker
• An Enabler
• A Communicator
• An Overseer
• A Negotiator and Facilitator
• A Power Broker
• A Financier
• An Institutional Builder
The roles of a councillor include:
• The election of the Mayor and Deputies;
• Voting the Council budget;
• Approving the administrative accounts of the Mayor/Government Delegate and
the management accounts of the Municipal revenue collector;
• Granting special revenue and expenditure authorizations;
• Contracting loans and accepting gifts and legacies;
• Authorizing Council intervention in the economic and social spheres, in
particular by directly operating or taking a financial stake in private or public
bodies;
• Approving town plans;
• Adopting names for streets and public squares and places;
• Authorizing the purchase of real estate;
• Authorizing the holding or abolition of fairs, and changes in fair sites;
• Authorizing the cession or exchange of Council properties.
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Councillors have the right to:
• Be convened to Municipal Council Sessions.
• Be informed of the agenda or issues to be discussed.
• Vote.
• Request extraordinary sessions.
• Request closed door sessions.
• Be re-elected.
• Delegate his/her vote (vote by proxy)
• Accept or reject municipal decisions taken.
• A copy of the minutes of the previous proceedings.
• Belong to a constituted committee.
• Resign.
• Take leave of absence to attend sessions.
• Be reimbursed travelling expenses.
• Be sent on mission.
• Sitting allowances during sessions.
The Mayor is responsible for:
• Taking measures designed to safeguard public morals and decency;
• Taking all measures designed to embellish the built up areas of the Council;
• Making appointments to Council posts. However, the Supervisory Authority
appoints Secretaries General of Councils;
• Recruiting, administering and dismissing Council staff, under the control of the
Supervisory Authority;
• Taking measures to ensure order on Council roads;
• Issuing permits for temporary occupation of streets and public squares and for
temporary deposit of materials on the roads, rivers, harbours, river side and other
public Council places, taking into consideration the need for these places to be
used by the public;
• Issuing building and alignment permits and authorizations relating to the public
highway, in particular for piping under roads;
• Ordering the demolition of any building erected contrary to town planning
regulations or falling into ruin, when two months have passed without response to
notice;
• Representing the Council for public purposes;
• Chairing the municipal Council and, therefore, responsible for order, and in this
capacity may have any person disturbing public order expelled from the chamber
or arrested;
• Solemnizing marriages, and recording and certifying births and deaths: She/He
issues certificates of marriage, birth and death;
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• Preparing the Council budget and presenting it before the Councillors;
• Authorizing expenditure;
• Administering Council revenue;
• Directing Council work;
• Taking necessary measures for Council roads;
• Drawing up annually a schedule of municipal road works, in collaboration with
the local public works representative; the said schedule has to be submitted to the
Supervisory Authority for approval when passed by the municipal Council;
• Placing contracts, signing leases and letting work on tender in accordance with
the legal procedure; etc.
The Government Delegate performs all of the above roles but is also specifically
assigned the role of organizing and managing the city services; a function that is not
assigned to Mayors!
Deputies:
o They shall Civil Status Registrars
o Shall along with the Mayor draw up the agenda for council’s sessions.
o Implement development activities and mass participation activities in particular.
o Control the collection of council taxes, duties and levies and propose methods to
improve such collections.
o Follow up the execution of council contracts.
o Mayor may delegate duties and powers to deputies but take full responsibilities of
the outcome.
o Supervisory authority insists on written duties (municipal order) to Deputies.
However, financial power cannot be delegated.
Municipal Treasurer:
 Shall draw up the Council Management Accounts
 Shall recover Council revenue and settle Council expenditure
 Shall be the Council Accountant
 Shall keep and manage Council valves and funds
 Shall open accounts in the name of the Council
The Secretary General:
 Shall assist the Council Executive
 Shall be the main coordinator of Council administrative services
 Shall attend meetings of the Council executive and provide secretarial services
therefore
 Shall have delegation of signature to accomplish his/her duties
 Shall act as Secretary at sessions with the assistance of Councilors and other
Council support staff
 Shall draw up minutes of Council proceedings
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The Stores Accountant:
 Shall record incoming and outgoing Council property
 Shall keep an inventory of Council property
 Shall certify services rendered the Council (visa of Delivery Note etc)
 Shall ensure the safekeeping and handling of Council property
 Shall draw up a stores management account
Supervisory Authorities:
President of the Republic:
 Directs and ensures the implementation process of decentralization
 Ensures national unity, integrity and proportionate development
 Appoints and terminate Government Delegates and Assistant Government Delegates
at City Councils
 Set up Councils, determining their names, area of jurisdiction and chief towns
 May effect change of name, chief town or boundaries of a Council
 Can temporarily group a number of Councils together
 May dissolve the Council if its activities grossly undermine and threaten national
unity, peace and the security of the State
 Can suspend the activities of the Council, for the purpose of maintaining law and
order, and appoint an ad hoc body to take decisions on behalf of such a Council
 Can dismiss the Mayor and his Deputies from office
 May raise some urban centers because of their specific nature, to City Councils.
The Minister In charge Of Regional and Local Authorities (MINATD)
 Under the authority of the Head of State he exercises supervisory authority over
regions and Councils
 He oversees the effective implementation of the decentralization process
 Appoints and dismiss the Council Secretary General
 Can propose the temporary grouping together of a number of Councils
 Records nullity and nullifies deliberations taken by the Municipal Council
 Can automatically take the place of the Government Delegates and Mayors if they
refuse to put into effect laws, resolutions or court rulings
 Shall retire irregular Councilors who fail to attend three successive sessions
 Shall appoint a special body and a chairman and his Vice within 8 days following
the dissolution of or acceptance of resignation of all Councilors of a Council
 Shall determines modalities for the allocation of sessions allowances and the
reimbursement of expenses incurred in the discharge of duties assigned Mayors,
Deputy Mayors, Councilors, Chairmen and members of the special body
 Shall enforce a model list of Council jobs, taking into account the size of the various
Councils
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 Shall set special civil status registries within some Councils, appoint their Registrars
and fix the conditions of payment and amounts to be paid to the Registrar as
allowance
 Shall approve a priori the council decision to create a council police service
 May suspend Mayors and Deputy Mayors for serious misconduct and in case of
infringement of laws and regulation in force
 Shall lay down conditions of devolution of assets and liabilities of an urban center
comprising Sub Divisional Councils
 Shall approve before hand cooperation agreements among councils
 Can dismiss a Mayor, Government Delegate, Chairman of a council union or any
other councillor who is sentenced for crime or whose conduct seriously undermines
the interest of the council, city council or council union
The Governor (Delegate of State):
 Shall represent the President of the Republic, the Government and each Minister in
his administrative unit
 Shall safeguard national interest, ensure administrative control, respect of rules and
regulation in force
 Shall supervise and coordinate, under the authority of the government, the running
of the State civilian administrative service in the region
 Shall be the only authority empowered to speak on behalf of the State before board
of regional authorities
 Shall receive statutory and individual decision taken by the President of the regional
council
 Shall give prior approval for:-
-Initial and annex budget, below-the-line accounts, and special expenditure
authorization
-Loans and loans guarantee
-International cooperation agreements
-Land matters
-Securities and shares
-Agreements on the execution and control of public contracts
-Awarding public service contracts beyond the term of service the board
-Recruitment of certain personnel
-Regional development plans and regional land development plans.
The Senior Divisional Officer:
 Shall exercise supervisory authority of the State over Councils
 Shall represent the President of the Republic, the Government and each Minister in
their administrative units
 Shall have authority over deconcentrated government services in their
administrative units
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 Shall approve deliberations of the Council seeking authorization of the regional
Council for local projects initiated on public coastland and water ways
 Shall approve management instruments issued by the Mayor before being forwarded
to the Council for information
 Can request the Mayor to convene an extra ordinary session of the Council
 Shall authorize the Council on request to consult, in session civil servants or state
employees or any other person on account of their expertise.
 Shall number and sign the register of the Council proceedings
 Shall receive copies of resignations from Councilors
 Shall approve beforehand the decision of the Council to institute the position of
special Deputy Mayor
 Shall convene the first session of the Council following the proclamation of result of
the Council elections
 Shall receive the list of the proclamation of results of candidates elected to the posts
of Mayor and Deputies
 Shall supervise the publication and enforcement of laws, regulations and measures
of a general character as well as the implementation of general security measures,
by the Mayor.
 Shall propose to the MRLA the creation of special civil status registries
 Can take the place of the Mayor
 Visas resolutions of Councils and Council decisions
 Shall inform the MRLA in case of Mayor’s or Deputy recalcitrance to relinquish
one of his posts incase of incompatibility
 Approves the delegation of powers from Mayors to Deputies and Secretary General
 Shall approve in advance meetings of Sub-Divisional Council initiated by the
Government Delegate to the City Council
 Shall notify an incriminated official or Councilor of the immediate cessation of
his/her duty
 Shall be the sole authority empowered to speak on behalf of the state before
Councils of their administrative units
 Shall approve Council development plans prior to adoption.
The Divisional Officer (DO)
The Divisional Officers are not part of the Supervisory Authority of the Council, but
Council authorities have to work closely with them, since they represent the State in:
o Maintenance of law and order in the Council area or subdivision.
o Coordinating activities of various government services.
o Attending Council sessions, if delegated by the SDO.
o Assist in the collection of Council taxes.
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MUDEC: Enhancing Development through Responsive Governance. 14
A Poem Dedicated To All Councillors
Follow the roles; follow the roles, all councilors
Must follow the roles, all the time
…………
to avoid conflicts, to avoid quarreling, to avoid
cheating, to avoid infighting, to avoid inequality, to
avoid mismanagement………….
Councilors follow your roles always!!
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MUDEC: Enhancing Development through Responsive Governance. 15
COUNCIL ORGANIZATIONAL CHART (SAMPLE)
The above scenario applies if the Health Officer is employed by the Council. However,
if the health officer is seconded from his/her ministry to the council, then the officer
occupies the same level as the Secretary General, Municipal Treasurer, and Stores
Accountant.

Elected Municipal Councilors
Mayor Deputy Mayors
Stores Accountant
Secretary General Municipal Treasurer
Technical Service Administrative Service
Finance Service
Health Office
Workshop
Garage
Others
Finance Office
Accounts Clerk
Revenue Collector
Others

Mail Office
Civil Status Office
Others

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COMMUNAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (CDP).
Objectives:
The reader should know:
• The Communal Development Plan (CDP) process.
• The role of Council Committees in the CDP.
• The importance of having a CDP.
Definition:
Development planning is a midterm or long term process (3-5years) starting with
a collection of baseline data (monographic study) to come up a strategic plan with
prioritised activities to be implemented within the municipality.
Importance:
 To meet the needs of the community members.
 To promote community ownership
 To build a sense of community
 To know what to do to develop
 Priority setting for implementing projects and activities.
 Guide for identification of human resource development and institutional
development needs.
 To get a general overview of funds needed.
 To enable the council to forward projects for funding.
 To better manage scarce council resources.
 To stimulate forward thinking
 To promote team work
Steps:
 Collection of baseline data (monographic studies)
 Situational analysis
 Problem analysis
 Drafting of Strategic Plan
 Drafting of Annual Operational Plans
 Elaboration of a Monitoring system
 Yearly Evaluation.
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MANAGING COUNCIL CONTRACTS
A) Public Contracts in Cameroon are regulated by:
 Decree No 95/101 of 9/6/95 bearing on the regulation of public contracts;
 Decree No 2000/155 of 30/6/2000 to modify some provisions of the 1995
Decree;
 Decree No 2002/030 of 28/01/2002 bearing on the organization and
functioning of tender boards.
 Council contracts are public contracts.
B) Definition Of Public Contracts
A public contract is a written contract signed in accordance with statutory
provisions and by which a contractor, supplier or service provider agrees with the
State, Local Council, a Public Corporation or establishment either to carry out
works or provide goods or services on behalf or under their supervision for a
payment.
• One party to the contract must be Public (a State entity, a moral person of
public law)
C) Types Of (Public) Council Contracts
i) Local Purchase Order
ii) Jobbing Order
iii) Contracts
i) Local Purchase Order (Bon de Commande)
This is the smallest contract placed for amounts less than 5 Million Francs. The
Contracting Officer takes the action alone on a one to one dialogue with the
supplier.
ii) Jobbing Order
Jobbing Orders are used for public orders of amounts above 5 Million francs
but less than 30 Million francs. The Contracting Officer places an open call for
tender through competition between contractors of the Administration, by
publishing a notice in an authorized publication
iii) Contracts
All public orders above 30 Million francs are called contracts. The procedure for
contracts is the same as for Jobbing Orders except that the Tenders Board or
Contract Award Commission must have an INDEPENDENT OBSERVER in its
sessions
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 The Contracting Officer or Project Owner for Councils is the Mayor or
Government Delegate.
D) Procedure For Contract Awards
 Open call for tender (Contracts by invitation to tender)
 Negotiation (Mutual agreement) exceptionally with at least 3 candidates to be
consulted. (Negotiated Contracts)
E) Types Of Tenders Boards
A public tender board is the technical support body, appointed for the purpose of
assisting a project owner or contracting officer in awarding public contracts
whose value exceeds 5 Million francs.
 Ministerial
 Provincial
 Divisional
 Specialized
Councils fall under specialized tender board
F) Composition Of A Council Tenders Board
-A chairman appointed by the Prime Minister upon proposal by the Mayor or
Government Delegate;
-Two representatives of the Mayor appointed by the Mayor
-The territorially competent finance controller or one working for the Council
-The territorially competent representative of the Minister in charge of Planning
& Regional Development (Divisional Delegate of MINEPAT)
-One Secretary designated by the Mayor
G) Tender Documents
-The Tender Notice
-The Specialized Regulations of the limitation to Tender
 Administrative Documents or Qualifying documents
 The Draft of Administrative Clauses or Draft Contract
 Technical Documents (Technical Specifications)
 Financial Documents
-Miscellaneous Provisions
H) Execution Of Public (Council) Contracts
Execution of Council contracts focuses on 3 main aspects
1. Constituent Document
2. The major stakeholders
3. Execution per se
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1. Constituent Documents include:
– The Special Administrative Clause
– The Special Technical Clause
– The General Administrative Clause
2. The Major Stakeholders in the execution of Council Contracts include: –
– The Mayor or Governmental Delegate (Contracting Officer or Project Owner)
– The Service Head (Administrative Manager of the Contract) .He is in charge of
the day to day follow-up of the proper execution of the project; The Secretary
General can assume this role
– The Contract Engineer- He is in charge of the technical follow up of the
execution of the contract and ensures that the contractor respects all the
technical aspects of the contract. This role is played by the Council Technical
Service (Workshop Supervisor) or the territorially competent state technical
service.
– The Control Commission- This is a private engineer (an external expert) who
has the same mission as the Contract Engineer
– The Payment Group
 The Stores Accountant
 The Finance Controller
 The Service of Economic Affairs
 The Municipal Revenue Collector or Municipal Treasurer
3. Execution Per Se
Execution per se involves a series of actions including:
– Actions to be undertaken just after the signature of the contract
– Actions to be undertaken before the commencement of the contract
– Actions to be undertaken during the execution of works
– Actions in view of amendments or (Additional Clauses)
– Actions undertaken before provisional reception (commissioning into service)
of the project
– Actions to be undertaken immediately after provisional reception
– Actions following the final acceptance
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PROJECT CYCLE MANAGEMENT
What is the project cycle?
A project is a set of activities aimed at resolving a given problem within a specified time
frame. Post implementation measures are necessary to ensure the sustainability of the
project. The steps of the project are:
Identification
Monitoring & Planning
Evaluation
Implementation
Why implement projects?
Local Councils have as primary mission to bring about the development in the
locality. One of the most effective ways of doing this is through the
implementation of development projects.
Project Identification
It is a result of a participatory problem and needs identification process involving
all potentials stakeholders and leads to feasibility assessment that includes
technical, environmental, social and financial issues.
Project Planning
It is the process of detailed planning of activities based on the feasibility study .It takes
into account available human, material and financial resources. It might be necessary for
the council to get external support for the preparation of tender and contract documents,
contract negotiations, etc.
Possible Tools
Participatory planning tools
Outputs
Feasibility study (by a consultant)
Possible Tools
• Council operational plan
• Council Budget
• Feasibility study
• Survey instruments
• Standard drawing etc
Output
• Planning documents
• Tender documents
• Contract documents
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Project Implementation
It is the process of execution of the planned project. It might be necessary to hire
a contractor for this service, mainly for infrastructure projects. In this case the
contractor is supervised during the whole duration of the works by either a consultant,
who acts on behalf of the council as contracting authority, or by Council staff directly,
depending on the capacity and knowhow available at the Council level.
Monitoring and Evaluation of Projects (M&E)
This is a yardstick to measure systematically the progress of the project
Monitoring means continuous observation, collection, interpretation and analysis of
information on planned activities to ensure progress is made, task fulfilled and problems
resolved. Monitoring is made during implementation and after completion of the
project
Evaluation is the periodic check on achievements of expected results of activities or
project in order to plan corrective or complementary measures.
Monitoring and Evaluation have to be an integral part of planning, and should be
included in every stage of the action plan.
Monitoring and Evaluation enable the Council to:
• Modify or readjust activities
• Ensure sustainability
• Measure the degree of change brought about by the project
• Inform donors so that they monitor the use of their funds
• Identify what information to disseminate and to whom
• Assess achieved results at the end of a project
Possible Tools
• Monitoring during execution:
Quality control plan and check
lists
• Monitoring after completion:
Monitoring form
• Evaluation: evaluation forms
Results
• Monitoring and evaluation reports
,plans of action
• Corrective and preventive
maintenance
• Performance improvement in
management and planning
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INTRODUCTION TO THE COUNCIL BUDGET.
Objectives
The reader should:
• Know what the council budget is
• Know parts of the council budget
• Discuss the underlying principles of council budget
• Discuss the processes involved in the council budget
• Simulate voting as an informed exercise and obligation of a councillor.
Definition
The act by which the revenue and expenditure of council is annually estimated
and authorized.
Parts of a council budget
Two main parts: Revenue and Expenditure. These parts are subdivided into
Titles, Heads, Subheads and paragraphs having specific number codes.
Principles (Characteristics) of the Council Budget:
• Periodic (Principle of annuality);
• Balance (Principle of Balance Budget);
• One document (Principle of Singleness);
• Legality (Has a legal framework);
• Separateness (Principle of separate function of Municipal Treasurer and Vote
Holder);
• Specialization of credits (No credit transfer)
Sources of Council funds/Resource Mobilisation
Fiscal
• Additional Council Tax (CAC)
• Tax on “role” (patent/license/land/livestock)
• Direct Council Taxes (DCT),-water, electricity, household refuse.
Non fiscal
• Income from exploitation of Council services (fines, discounts etc).
• Income from exploitation of natural resources
• Indirect Council taxes (market, Motor Park, park fee, transit etc).
Budget Process (preparation/execution)
 Administrative account of the previous year.
 Budget of the previous year
 Outstanding revenue/expenditure and brought forward
 Budget heads and codes
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 Potential but sure sources of revenue and expenditure.
Process
o Planning and programming (this is the initial process that prepares projects
giving the Mayor a base to the budget)
o Elaboration and adoption (by 15th November)
o Execution (January to December)
o Consolidation.
Budget voting execution
 Justification and rationale behind budget proposal
 25% investment quota
 Provision for staff salaries and other recurrent expenditure
 Trend (what has been the past situation?)
 How it ties with the development goals of the Council
 What is happening within the economy and the environment (price increase of
essential inputs such as electricity)
 A golden principle that Councillors should have is to be informed.
Importance of Administrative Accounts. (AA)
 It serves as a reference document for drawing up the Council budget.
 Shows the level of execution of Council projects.
 Show revenue heads that need improved collection.
 Show the level of execution of the Council budget.
Actors in the budget execution exercise.
 Taxation service
 The Mayor (Secretary General)
 Stores Accountant
 Municipal Treasurer
Impact of 4 Councils Sessions
 670100- Session allowances will double
 612110- Entertainment fees will double.
 670101- Secretarial and Entertainment allowances during Council sessions will
increase.
 670103- Lump sum payments to Council committee members will increase.
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Review of Budget execution/Process
When Who How What
July Council
services
Council
related
services
Council
committees
Municipal
Treasurer
Data collection
proposals
Analysis
August Secretary
General
Assembles data
collected makes
estimates of
Revenue and
expenditure
Mayor Instructs
Balances part one and part two
of the draft
Supervises
Defines long and short terms
objectives
September Council
committees
Arbitrate Make remarks on capital
expenditure and on budgetary
proposals
By October
15
Municipal
Council
Votes Votes part by part by accepting
or modifying allotments on
expenditures and revenues
By November
15
Governor Approves Effect a legal and formal control
on budget document
January to
December
Execution
(Revenue and
Expenditure)
Mayor Ensures the
administrative part
in the execution
Engages, certifies, liquidates,
authorises payment and
collection orders
By December
to January
Consolidation
(end of year)
Municipal
Treasurer
Ensures the
accounting part
Accepts, verifies the regularity
of all administrative acts and
supporting documents, records
revenues and expenditures
incurred
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In the preparation and voting of the budget, provisions of the law should be strictly
respected else it may lead to a rejection by the Supervisory Authority.
On Revenue Matters:
• Consider the human and financial resources for any investment project;
• Ensure that there is sufficient allotment for compulsory expenditure;
• Judiciously set your investment priorities to benefit the majority of the
population;
• Allocate enough credit for staff training;
• Watch out for operation and maintenance of Council equipment and
infrastructure
On Expenditure Matters:
• Refer to the minimum provisions of the law when fixing rates and royalties of
services rendered;
• Increase only viable tax that has consistency in collection;
• Ensure that there is the possibility to generate funds to ensure the
reimbursement of any loans contracted;
• Emphasize on the sources of revenue that are less costly to collect;
• Collect and keep data on all external funding sources and their funding
conditionality.
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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN COUNCILS
Managing people represents one of the biggest challenges of any manager. As Local
Councils are being called upon to provide more services (quantitatively/qualitatively),
management will need to review its current operations including Human Resource.
In a recent Human Resource and Gender audit of Councils, MUDEC Group
observed that the quality of staff is too low with the average education at First School
Leaving Certificate and the Ordinary Level of the General Certificate of Education.
Several Councils are overstaffed with relatives of previous Mayors.
Few management staff are graduates from the Local Government Training Centre
(CEFAM). Some have not been back to school for refresher courses for over 5 years.
Most female workers in the Councils are concentrated in secretariat and
housekeeping functions.
The HRM of Councils will require Mayors and SG, to have hands-on know how
relating to Employment, Contracts, Terms of Reference or Job Descriptions, Staff
Performance Appraisal, Motivation and Promotions to mention a few.
What is Human Resource Management (HRM)?
HRM is the process of planning, organising, recruiting, capacity building, directing,
delegating and evaluating human resources in order to accomplish the set of objectives
Who is in charge of HRM?
The 2004 Law, article 74 (1): “The Mayor shall recruit, suspend or dismiss workers
governed by labour laws and collective agreements.”
What is human resource planning?
Work planning is the order in which a number of work-related activities have to be
performed to fulfil the objectives of the Council.
Staff recruitment
Recruitment is the process of obtaining a sufficiently large pool of suitable applicants
from which to select the best .This process should follow the steps as stipulated by the
labour code.
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Some basic planning tools for HRM
• Activity plan: to plan the work (monthly, half yearly or annually)
• Implementation and responsibility chart: to show the work to be done and the
persons responsible for carrying it out.
• Daily and weekly work plan: to show the activities to be done
• Things to do/checklist: to list activities to be done on a daily basis
The conditions necessary for staff productivity:
• Work planning must precede action and be maintained during implementation
• Work planning must be based on specific activities to be carried out.
• Work planning must be a sustained effort within a vision of his future.
• Work planning must be realistic and take into account the time factor.
Delegation and Team Building
Delegation and team building involve the shifting of responsibility and authority to
subordinates to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of Council service delivery.
The Benefit of delegation is:
• To have things done through other subordinates,
• Improvement, effectiveness and efficiency,
• To develop the subordinates,
• To enable the senior staff to do higher level activities and to develop management
skills.
Team building is necessary:
• Mayors realize most of their results through a workforce
• Motivated work teams create wholesome competition, creativity, innovations and
performance.
• Team maintenance is a means of ensuring long term goals
• Efficient Councils are characterised by effective and collaborative teams
Staff Motivation and Evaluation
Motivation is designed to encourage council workers to act and achieve desired results
and give the best of them. Evaluation is carried out periodically to assess the
performance of the staff.
Staff motivation
The characteristics of a motivating work environment are:
• The job should offer varieties and opportunity for new skills
• It should have some degree of discretion
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• It needs a variety of knowledge and skills
• Clear guidelines and follow up supervision should be insured.
• The performance of the employee should be known to them through evaluation
Evaluation
Evaluation should not only penalise workers, but also serve to:
• Improve on work output and relationships in the Council
• Better identify the needs in staff training
• Justify decisions of transfer, promotion and advancement,
• Facilitate carrier planning,
• Provide elements of judgement to the mayor
The assessment criteria include such items as: punctuality, professional knowledge,
intelligence, efficiency, output, initiative etc.
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LOCAL GOOD GOVERNANCE
Objectives
The reader should become aware of several current issues of the present day political
and development debate through the following topics:
 Participation and Gender (difference between gender and sex, importance of
gender consideration in planning and hoe to encourage participation in Council
Development Planning)
 Good Governance in Cameroon
 The importance of communication and holding productive meetings
Participation in Community Leadership
Participation is a matter of people having access to information on policy-making
processes as well as to the full range of their society’s decision-making processes.
In local governance this entails:
• Citizen participation in decision-making and implementation;
• Involving stakeholders in governance processes;
• Integrating gender in municipal and community programmes;
• Delegation in leadership.
Principles of Good Local Governance
 Involving the public in budgeting and projects through public sessions.
 Improving service delivery by reducing delays, giving information etc.
 Respect of legislation in the award of contracts by respecting the current
legislation e.g. public invitation to tender and decision by commission.
 Empowering the community especially disadvantaged groups.
 Use of committees to assist executives in the running of affairs.
PARTICIPATION
What is participation?
Participation means getting involved (taking part).
Why should people participate?
To belong, for ownership, for sharing responsibilities.
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Types of participation
-Inter active participation
-Passive participation
-Participation by information giving
-Participation by consultation
-Functional participation
-Participation for material incentives
Who should participate?
The Municipal Environment (The Stakeholders)
Village communities
– VTC
– VCDA
– VWMC G T S :-
– VRMC – MINATD
– Women Groups – MINAGRI
– CEFAM
– FEICOM
– MINFI
– MINEPAT
THE
COUNCIL
BUSINESSES:-
– Banks
– Insurance
– Companies
CIVIL SOCIETY
ORGANISATIONS:
– NGO
– CIG
– CHURCHES
– ASSOCIATION
INTERNATIONAL
PARTNERS:-
– WORLD BANK
– EUROPEAN UNION
– HELVETAS
– SNV
– GTZ etc
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Elements of Participation
Tools encouraging participation:
 Workshops
 Committees
 Public hearings
 Participatory planning
 Public meetings
 Open house
Common
Interest Joint decision
making in all

Cooperation on
equal terms

ELEMENTS OF
PARTICIPATION

Agreement
between initiators
and participants

Learning through
joint activities
Joint
responsibility
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GENDER IN LOCAL LEADERSHIP
In good local governance it is expected that leadership should be participatory as
well as consensus seeking. This entails, among others, reaching out to effectively
involve the disadvantaged and vulnerable groups such as women, youths and the
disabled in decision-making and implementation within the community. These
considerations are said to be gender-oriented.
It is necessary here to understand the meaning of gender and its related issues.
Gender refers to the socially constructed roles of men and women in a given
culture and location.
Sex refers to the biological difference between women and men. They are generally
permanent and universal.
Gender equality refers to the changing norms and values, attitudes and perceptions in
order to obtain equal status, rights and responsibility between women and men.
Gender equity refers to fairness in women and men’s access and control to socioeconomic resources as well as political power.
Therefore
It is important for community leaders to be aware of the need for gender
balancing in carrying out activities. This is because:
 Women make up about 51% of the population and therefore are the majority
actors for most activities;
 Women are generally disfavoured in terms of access to and control over resources
and power.
HOLDING PRODUCTIVE MEETINGS
As the Chairperson
 Plan the meeting in advance (consult documents, secretary and others);
 Draw up and circulate agenda indicating what is for information, discussion or
decision;
 Ensure proper arrangements (room, furniture, equipment, refreshments);
 Make provision for people with disabilities;
 Summarize main points and decisions (use visuals where possible);
 Encourage reluctant people to talk;
 Steer the meeting to arrive at results;
 Ensure minutes are circulated to participants after the meeting.
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As Participants
o Learn about the issue to be discussed. Get the agenda. Read previous
minutes. Talk to people;
o Get to the meeting early;
o Listen to other people during the meeting;
o Think before you open your mouth;
o Speak clearly and to the point;
o Be reasonable. Yours is not the only valid point of view;
o Be a helper: you may be able to clarify a point that is not clear to save
everyone’s time, do it.
You may be able to elaborate on an idea that needs to be
expanded upon so that everyone understands. Do it.
MANAGING CONFLICTS IN LOCAL COUNCILS
Within any given community disagreements are bound to occur. Such disagreements
may result in more or less serious conflicts, which may hinder the development of the
community.
Definition:
o Conflict is a form of competitive behaviour between people or groups.
It occurs when two or more people have different ideas about an issue.
o Its effects are either physical or psychological.
Causes of Conflict
Values are different and expressed differently. This difference is the point of conflict.
Ideas are very personal and jealously defended, sometimes to the detriment of an initial
objective.
Power Those who have some power are always thirsty for a little more.
Those who do not have are seeking to have a taste of it.
The way people perceive and use power can either provoke conflicts or solve
them.
Interests – People have different interests and when they are frustrated, it can provoke
conflicts.
Needs – People have different needs and would go into conflicts when these needs are
not met.
The Structure/Working Conditions – The structure and working conditions can be a
source of conflict in an organisation or
Council area. The following aspects can cause conflicts if they are not well
managed:
• Communication;
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• Planning;
• The persons involved;
• Our stereotypes and prejudices;
• Our likes and dislikes;
• Our cultures;
• Our perceptions;
• Organization.
Ways To Manage/Prevent Conflicts:
Some Tips
• Good formal and informal communication
• Regular meetings
• Regular reporting
• Participatory consultations
• Proactive attitudes
Good Internal Organization
• Precise roles, objectives, resources, evaluation methods etc.
• Clearly defined vision
• Clearly defined working methods
• Clearly defined job descriptions
• Clear organization chart
Good Planning
– Allocate enough time and be flexible for constant adjustments
– Do long and short – term planning
– Carryout /organize specific planning method
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THE COUNCIL AND TECHNICAL SERVICES
Why is it important to collaborate with the local administrative and technical
services?
• To avoid duplication of projects
• To benefit from the expertise of government technical staff
• To be able to monitor the implementation of government sponsored projects
in the municipality
Why is it difficult?
It is sometimes difficult to collaborate with the local administrative and technical
services, because of:
• The distance between Councils and some services
• The demands by government staff to be paid for services done
• The ignorance of roles
• The difficult communication between the government departments and the
Councils
• Unclear legislation in some cases
How to facilitate the collaboration
Good relations between Councils and the technical services can be maintained
through
• Consultative meetings
• Their involvement in the planning of projects and activities
• Constant communication (e.g. letters, phone)
• Trust building (e.g. social events)
• Proper mastery of relevant legislation on municipal management
• Showing transparent and dignified conduct in management
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The main Technical services the Council works with
The Role of Parliamentarians in Local Governance
Urban Affairs
Complements the action of the ministry of
Town Planning and Housing in 18 major urban
centers. Its role includes:
• Urban data service
• Social integration service
• Operational brigade service
• Urban transport service
Town Planning and Housing
Its departments include:
• Town planning
• Land
• Architecture and Housing
• Surveys
The Delegation of Tourism
• Promotes tourism
• Grades hotels
• Controls hotels ,travel agencies etc
• Assists tourists and build infrastructures
Industry and Commerce
• Registers business(in
collaboration with Court of
First Instance/OHADA Law)
• Keep statistics
• Does price control
• Inspects weighing instruments
Employment, Training, Labour and Social Insurance
Through the Provincial and Divisional Delegations of Labour assists councils in:
• Recruitment, advancement, evaluation and reclassification of staff
• Protection of workers
• Settlement of disputes between the staff and the council
• Organization of union elections
Agriculture
• Supports farmers technically
• Informs and collaborates with
council
• Registers cooperatives and
common initiative groups
Economy and Finance
• Approves the management and
administrative accounts
• Appoints and controls the municipal
treasurers
Livestock, Fisheries and Industry
• Assists farmers and inspect livestock
• Assists councils to assess and collect taxes
Public Health
The MPH appoints its staff on secondment to the service of hygiene and sanitation in councils.
At the level of the municipality, the council relates with the district health service for health matters
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THE ROLE OF PARLIAMENTARIANS IN LOCAL GOVERNANCE
Who are parliamentarians?
The members of the National Assembly are Parliamentarians responsible for the
legislation.
They are citizens elected by the population to represent the interest of the entire
nation.
The 1996 constitution states that 180 (one hundred and eighty) Parliamentarians
shall be elected by direct and secret universal suffrage for a five year term of office.
Each year they meet in three ordinary sessions lasting 30 (thirty) days each and
may hold one extra-ordinary session lasting 15 (fifteen) days
The plenary sessions are open to public except on the request of the President of
the Republic or an absolute majority of members to hold in close door. Committees hold
in close doors.
The Role of Parliamentarian in Local Governance
The activities of Parliamentarians are very important because they touch on the
lives of all citizens. The following tasks are assigned to the legislative power according
to article 26 of Law No 96-06 0f 18 January 1996 amending the Constitution of June
1972
They debate and pass bills into law tabled either by Members of Parliament or the
President of the Republic on the following issues:
a) The fundamental rights, guarantees and obligations of citizens
• Safeguard individual freedom and security
• The rules governing public reforms
• Labour legislation, trade unions legislation, rules governing social security and
insurance
• The duties and obligation of the citizen in respect of national defence
requirements.
b) The status of persons and property ownership system
• Nationality, status of persons, matrimonial system, succession and gifts
• Rules governing civil and commercial obligations
• Movable and immovable property ownership system
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c) The political, administrative and judicial organization
• Rules governing election of the president and elections into the national assembly
,the senate, regional and local bodies and referendums
• Rules governing associations and political parties
• The organisation, functioning, powers and resources regional and local
authorities.
• General rules governing the organization of national defence
• Judicial organisation and creation of various courts
• The definition of felonies and misdemeanours and the institution of penalties of
all kinds, criminal procedure, civil procedure, measures of execution and amnesty
d) Financial and patrimonial matters
• Rules governing the issue of currency
• The budget
• The creation of duties and the determination of their basis of assessment, rates
and methods of collection.
• Land tenure, state land and mining
• Natural resources
e) Programming the objectives of economic and social actions
f) The system of education
Some Good practices for Parliamentarians
• Promote participatory planning and implementation of projects financed with
parliamentary grants annually.
• Work closely with their Mayors and Councillors on issues of governance
• Find out the problems of the population and reflect them in laws they vote
• Inform their constituencies on decisions deliberated in parliament
• Operate a regular consultative bureau in the constituency
• Spearhead development in their constituency
• Sensitise the population on their rights and obligations
• Ensure that their constituency is enjoying peace
• Monitor public investment, performance of civil service, executive, judiciary and
non-public sector
• Be spokesperson of their constituency
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THE COUNCIL AND THE NON PUBLIC SECTOR
What is the non public sector?
The non-public sector is made up of businesses (for profit) as well as the non-profit
sectors of activities within the municipality. It includes the civil society, which is a third
branch of society, separate from both the government and the commercial sector.
The Civil Society
It is the sphere between the family, the State and the market, which is bound by civil
rules and in which people associate voluntarily to advance common interests. It includes
the NGO’s, the Mosques and Churches, the Village Traditional Councils, the Village
Development and Cultural Associations (VDCA), the Cooperatives and CIGS, the self
help groups, the civic and charitable associations and the individual families.
The roles of the civil society are
• To mobilize the population for the different productive activities,
• To source funding for development projects,
• To provide employment,
• To carry out social projects (care or orphans, micro-credit etc)
• To serve as agents of civic education, increasing the public’s understanding of
issues at stake,
• To promote culture
The other non-public actors
They are mainly business companies, banks, traders, craftsmen, informal economic
activities etc.
The roles of the private sector in municipal development can be
• To invest in order to make profit
• To provide employment,
• To be a partner for infrastructure development in the municipality.
• To manage projects for the Council as joint venture or on lease.
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BUILDING PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN COUNCILS AND NON-PUBLIC
ACTORS
Definition of partnership
Partnership is any binding relationship between and among more than one institution
for a legal common purpose, in which each party contributes and benefits are shared.
Partnership presents legally enforceable rights on to each of the parties.
Objectives of partnerships
• To build the capacity of Councils,
• To facilitate access to development,
• To empower communities,
• To fund development needs
Inter-community partnership and dialogue
Local leaders have to promote partnership between communities in order to build a
sustainable society, in many domains: building of roads, water supplies, market,
health, security etc.
Inter-community partnership can be built through
• Leadership forums,
• Inter-community meetings and discussions
• Sports and cultural festivals
• Exchange visits etc.
Guidelines and principles of partnerships
• Tender procedures must be transparent
• Performance of the partnership must be monitored according
to the defined standard of performance
• Skills developed during the execution of the contract should be
transferred to individuals when applicable,
• Displacement of current local council employees should be
minimized
• The engagement in a partnership arrangement does not relieve
the local council of the responsibility to render proper services,
• A complaint handling procedure to cater for the needs of users
should be introduced